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Professor A. K, HUNTINGTON, Assoc.R.SM. 
Prksidkn r 


Kt ;>-f7. 1 

No. 1 

t^W IK !)c^ 









(Right of Publication and Translation is reserved) 



Copyright] [Entered at Stationers Hall 

Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson &• Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh 



Professor A. K. Huntington, Assoc.R.S.M., London. 

Past-- Presiden ts. 

Sir W. H. Whitio, K.C.B., LL.D., D.Enf;., Sc.D., F.R.S., London. 


Sir Gerard A. Muntz, Bart., Birmingham. 

Professor W. Gowland, F.R.S., Assoc.R.S.M., London. 

Vice = Presiden ts. 


Professor H. C. H. Carpenter, M.A., Ph.D. 

Summers Hunter 

W. H. Johnson, B.Sc 

Engineer-Vice- Admiral Sir H. J. Oram, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Professor T. Turner, M.Sc. {Hon. Treasurer) 

Members of Council. 

L. Archbutt 

Professor A. Barr, D.Sc 

T. A. Bayliss . 

G. T. Beilby, LL.D., F.R.S 

A. Oleghorn 

Olive Cookson . 

R. Kaye Gray . 

Georgk Hughes 

R. S. Button, D.Sc. . 

W. Murray Morrison 

Arnold Philip, B.Sc, Assoc.R.S.M. 

W. Rosenhain, B.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

A. E. S baton 

Sir W. E. Smith, C.B. 

Leonard Sumner, M.Sc 

Cecil H. Wilson . ■ 









King's Norton. 














Hon. Auditor. 

G. G. Poppleton, C.A., Birmingham. 


G. Shaw Scott, M.Sc. 

Telegraphic Address — " Instomet, Vic. London." 

The Institute of Metals, 

Caxton House, Westminster, S.W. 

Telephone— Victoria, 2320. 
June, 1913. 



Annual General Meeting 

The late Sir William White 

Annual Report of the Council . 

Report of the Honorary Treasurer 

Vote of Thanks to Treasurer 

Election of Officers 

Vote of Thanks to Council 

Election of Members 

Election of Auditor 

Vote of thanks to Retiring President 

Concluding Business 

" Presidential Address." By Professor A. K. Huntington 

" Metal Filament Lamps." By Alexander Siemens . 

Discussion on Mr. Siemens' paper 

Communications on Mr. Siemens' paper 

" Contributions to the History of Corrosion — Part II. The Corrosion of 

Distilling Condenser Tubes." By Arnold Philip 
Discussion on Mr. Philip's paper 
Communications on Mr. Philip's paper 
" The Corrosion of Aluminium." By G. H. Bailey 
Discussion on Dr. Bailey's paper 
Communications on Dr. Bailey's paper 

" The Microstructure of German Silver." By O. F. Hudson 
Discussion on Mr. Hudson's paper 
Communications on Mr. Hudson's paper 
" The Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling upon the Constitution of Binary 

Alloys." By G. H. Gulliver 
Discussion on Mr. Gulliver's paper 
Communications on Mr. Gulliver's paper 
" Practical Heat Treatment of Admiralty Gun- Metal." By H. S. Primrose 

and J. S. G. Primrose 
Discussion on Messrs. Primrose's paper 
Communications on Messrs. Primrose's paper 
Fourth Annual Dinner .... 
Birmingham Local Section 

" Annealing Muffles." (Resume.) By C. H. Wall 
Obituary ...... 



















Tin: Properties op Metals and Alloys ..... 207 
I. Common metals .... 
Boronized coppei' 

Coating aluminium with other metals 
Copper and its oxide . 
Electro-metallurgy of aluminium 
liead-coating process . 
Notes on copper 
Production of metallic coatings 
Shock tests of copper . 
Silicon in the cast state 
Corrosion of sherardized iron . 

II. Rare metals .... 

A possible new platinum metal 
Platinum .... 

Vanadium .... 

III. Alloys ..... 
Alloys for motor-bus construction 
Alloys of bismuth and antimony with selenium 
Alloys of copper, zinc, and nickel 
Alloys of nickel, manganese, and copper 
Alloys of platinum and aluminium 
Alloys of silver and zinc 
Aluminium-zinc alloys . 
Aluminium-vanadium alloys 
Carbides of manganese and nickel 
Chemical method for the study of alloys 
Copper-zinc alloys 

Copper-zinc, silver-zinc, and silver-cadmium equilib 
Effect of heating brass in hydrogen . 
Etching at high temperatures 
Molecular weights of solid and liquid metals 
Monel metal .... 
New alloys .... 

Spongy metals 
Undercooled solid solutions 
Quaternary alloys of iron, nickel, manganese 

IV. Physical properties 

Annealing of cold-worked metals and alloys 
Brown gold .... 
Changes in electrical resistance of a metal o 
Cold working .... 
Colloidal gold .... 

and copper 




ind other phe 


Conductivity and the dispersoid theory 

Conductivity of alloys ..... 

Crystallization of bismuth and antimony 

Disintegration of heated platinum 

Effect of temperature on internal friction of metals 

Electrical conductivity of cojDper-arsenic alloys 

Electrical resistance of stretched and twisted wires 

Electrolytic potential of tantalum 

Electrolytic silver 

Foam-structure of metals 

Hall effect in antimony 

Hardening without deformation 

Heusler alloys . 

Hysteresis of magnetic substances 

Latent heat of evaporation of metals 

Long-focus microscope — Study of oxidation 

shown by metals under the influence of 
Mechanical hardening 
Melting points of metals 
Passivity of uranium . 
Plastic deformation and annealing 
Solubility of sulphur dioxide in fused copper 
Specific heat of alloys . 
Specific heats at high temperatures 
Strain-disease in metals 
Structure of electrolytic copper . 
Structure of electrolytic deposits 
Surface tension of amalgams . 
Thin films of platinum . 
Twin crystals and hardness . 
Zinc and cadmium volatilization — Influence of temperat 


I. Electric furnaces 

Granular chromium resistances 
Vacuum electric furnace 

II. Electric smelting . 

Electric smelting of copper and nickel 
Electric smelting of nickel 
Electric zinc smelting . 

Analysis, Testing, and Pyrometry 
I. Analysis .... 
Assay of impure mattes 
Detection of nickel in alloys . 
Separation of arsenic from tungsten 
Variation in assaying gold ores 
Volumetric estimation of zinc 

ure and 










II. Testing .... 
Notched-bar impact tests 

III. Pyrometry .... 

Calibration of optical pyrometers 
Fixed points for high temperature measurements 
Temperature measurement 
Tungsten-molybdenum thermocouple 

Furnaces and Foundry Methods . 

Briquetting metal turnings and borings 
Influence of casting temperature 
Lead filter for zinc furnaces . 
Pyrometers for foundry use 
Test-bars for non-ferrous alloys 

Statistics ..... 

Aluminium in India 
Production of manganese 
Canadian mineral production for 1912 
Colorado mineral production for 1911 
Electro-metallurgy in 1912 
German zinc industry . 
Gold production in the United States 
Metal trades of Germany in 1912 
Mineral production of New South Wales 
Mineral production of Servia . 
Minerals and metals in Austria-Hungary 
Platinum and allied metals in the United States 
Production of metals in the United States 
Kussiau copper in 1912 
Transvaal gold production 
Zinc production at Broken Hill 

Bibliography ..... 






, 252 

. 252 

. 254 


Memorandum of Association ...... 259 

1. Name of the Association ...... 259 

2. Registered Office of the Association .... 259 

3. Objects of the Association ...... 259 

4. Income and Property of the Association .... 262 

5. Condition on which License is granted to the Association . 263 

6. Liability of Members ...... 263 

7. Contribution of Members in the event of the Winding-up of the 

Association ..,.,,. 263 



8, Disposal of property retuaining after Winding-up or Dissolution 

of the Association 

9. Accounts 

Articles of Association 
I. Constitution . 
II. Election of Members . 

III. Council and Mode of Election 

IV. Duties of Officers 
V. General Meetings 

VI. Subscriptions . 
VII. Audit . 
VIII. Journal . 
IX. Coaimunications 
X. Property of the Association 
XI. Consulting Officers 
XII. Indemnity 

List of Membees 

topogeaphical index to members 

General Index 







Frontispiece. Professor A. K. Huntington, Assoc.R.S.M. 


Plates I. to II., illustrating Professor Huntington's Presidential 

Address 40 

„ III. to IV., illustrating Mr. Hudson's paper .... 112 

„ V. ,, VIII., illustrating Messrs. Primrose's paper , . . 172 





The Annual General Meeting of the Institute of Metals was 
held at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Storey's Gate, 
Westminster, S.W., on Tuesday and Wednesday, March 11 and 
12, 1913, Professor T. Turner, M.Sc, occupying the chair on 
Tuesday, March 11, prior to the declaration of the result of 
the ballot for officers for the year 1913. Afterwards, and on 
Wednesday, March 12, the chair was occupied by Professor 
A. K. Huntington, Assoc.R.S.M., President. 

Mr. G. A. Boeddicker (Vice-President), in opening the 
meeting, said that unfortunately the retiring President, Pro- 
fessor Gowland, was unable to be present at the meeting owing 
to illness. At that moment he was in the South of France 
for the benefit of his health, and he was glad to say that the 
last news received of him was favourable. In his absence a 
Chairman was required, and he proposed that Professor Turner, 
their Honorary Treasurer, should temporarily take the Chair. 

The resolution was duly seconded, and carried unanimously. 

The Late Sir William White. 

Professor T. Turner, M.Sc, having taken the chair, said 
that although his duties were, in the main, of a very formal 
character, it was fitting that a few words should be said at 
the openmg of the meeting in reference to the circumstances 


2 Anmtal General Meeting 

in which the Institute found itself owing to the loss of its 
first President, the late Sir William White, who passed away 
so suddenly a few weeks ago. All the members felt a sense 
of personal loss, because Sir William had occupied the chair 
on man}^ occasions, and had taken a very keen interest in the 
inception and the progress of the Institute. As a designer 
of ships, and as Past-President of those important Institutions, 
the Civil Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, and Naval Archi- 
tects, the late Sir William White was known throughout the 
whole civilized world, while to the members of the Institute 
he was known as a friend and guide. Only those who served 
on the Council in the early days were aware how much they 
were indebted to the experience, the skill, and the tact of 
Sir William for the smooth, pleasant, and successful way in 
which the Institute was started ; and they now felt they had 
experienced a loss the depth of which could not be expressed, 
and which was quite irreparable. All that it was possible to do 
was to say in a few words how much they sympathized with 
Lady White and her family in their bereavement, and hoAv 
much the Institute felt the loss that had been sustained. He 
moved, therefore, that a letter be sent on behalf of the Insti- 
tute of Metals in accordance with the words he had just said. 

Sir Gerard Muntz, Bart. (Past-President), in seconding 
the motion, said he felt that no words he could utter could 
adequately express his sentiments in regard to the matter. 
The late Sir William White was, as Professor Turner had 
stated, the first President of the Institute. Not only was he 
its first President, but he was practically its guide in its 
foundation, and the members were thoroughly conversant 
with how much he did for the Institute right up to the 
last. Some of the members were favoured by coming into 
closer personal contact with the late Sir William than others 
had been, and he could only say in that regard that he felt 
the loss of Sir William, not only as a fellow Past-President 
of the Institute, but as a personal friend and counsellor 
during his term of office as President. Even if Sir William 
White had lived, he (Sir Gerard) could not have expressed 
sufficiently to him his gratitude for the assistance that was 

Report of Council 3 

rendered to him when he took up the important office of 
President, and he could not adequately express that gratitude 
now. It was very largely to the late Sir William White that, 
in his opinion, the Institute] owed the success to which it had 

The resolution was carried in silence, all the members up- 


The Secretaky (Mr. G. Shaw Scott, M.Sc.) read the 
Minutes of the General Meeting held in London on September 
25 and 26, 1912. 

Annual Report of the Council. 

The Secretary read the following Report of the Council 
upon the work of the Institute during the year 1912 : — 

In presenting to the members their Annual Report, the Council of 
the Institute of Metals have pleasure in stating that the year 
1912 marked a period of material development in the activities 
of the Institute, and a slight growth in the membership. 

The Roll of the Institute. 

The number of Members on the roll of the Institute on December 
31, 1912, was as follows: — 

Fellow 1 

Honorary Members ...... 4 

Ordinary Members 578 

Student Members 23 

Total 60(5 

The following table shows the development that has taken place 
since the foundation of the Institute in 1908 : — 

Dec. 31, 

Dec. 31, 

Dec. 31, 

Dec. 31, 

Dec. 31, 
j 191-2. 


Honorary Members .... 
Ordinary Members .... 
Student Members .... 













! 1 


1 578 





' (iO(i 

4 Annual General Meetinj^ 

The Council have conferred on Professor H. Le Chatelier the 
Honorary Membership of the Institute. 

The Council regret to have to record the deaths, during 1912, 
of the following three members : Mr. J. C. Bull ; Engineer Kear- 
Admiral J. T. Corner, C.B., and Mr. J. Dodd. 

The Council are sorry to have to record that, owing to ill-health, 
the President, Professor W, Gowland, F.R.S., Assoc.R.S.M., has been 
obliged to relinquish the presidential duties before the completion of 
his term of office, and desire to express not only their sympathy with 
Professor Gowland in his illness, but their appreciation of his valuable 
work for the Institute. In the absence of the President, Professor 
A. K. Huntington, Assoc.R.S.M., as President-Designate, was ap- 
pointed Acting-President by the Council. 

General Meetings. 

During the year 1912 three General Meetings were held. The 
Annual General Meeting took place in London on January 16 
and 17. In the absence of the newly elected President (Professor 
W. Gowland, F.R.S.), through illness, Professor A. K. Huntington, 
A.R.S.M., occupied the chair. The Secretary, in the absence of 
the President, read the latter's Inaugural Address, which was entitled 
" Copper and its Alloys in Early Times." On January 17 the following 
Papers were read and discussed : — 

1. "Contributions to the History of Corrosion." By Arnold Philip, B.Sc, 

A.R.S.M. (Portsmouth). 

2. "Further Experiments on the Inversion at 470° C. in Copper-Zinc Alloys." 

By Professor H. C. H. Carpenter, M.A., Ph.D. (Manchester). 

3. "The Behaviour of Certain Alloys when Heated in Vacuo." By Professor 

T. Turner, M.Sg. (Birmingham). 

4. " A Study of the Properties of Alloys at High Temperatures." By G. D. 

Bengough, M.A., D.Sc. (Liverpool). 

5. " A Note on the Nomenclature of Alloys." By Walter Rosenhain, B.A., 

D.Sc. (Teddington). 

6. "The Influence of Tin and Lead on the Microstructure of Brass." By 

F. Johnson, M.Sc (Birmingham). 

7. "The Influence of Oxygen on Copper containing Arsenic or Antimony." 

By II. H. Greaves, B.Sc. (Cardiff). 

8. " A Metallographic Hygroscope." By Professor Dr. Carl A. F. Benedicks 

and Ragnar Arpi (Stockholm). 

The occasion of the next General Meeting of the year was the May 
Lecture, which was delivered on May 10, 1912, by Sir J. Alfred 
Ewing, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., on the subject of "The Inner 

Report of Council 5 

Structure of Simple Metals," a full report of which will be found 
in the Journal, vol. viii. 

The Autumn Meeting was held in London on September 25 and 26. 
Admirable arrangements were made by the London Reception 
Committee, of which Professor W. Gowland, F.R.S., was Chairman, 
and the meeting was a great success in every way. The following 
papers were read and discussed : — 

1. " The Structural Resolution of the Pure Copper-Zinc ^ Constituent into 

a+y." By Professor H. C. H. CARPENTER, M.A., Ph.D. (Manchester). 

2. " The Effect of Other Metals on the Structure of the ^ Constituent in 

Copper Zinc-AUoj's." By Professor H. C. H. Carpenter, M.A., Ph.D. 

3. " The Annealing of Coinage Alloys." By T. Kirke Rose, D.Sc. (London), 

4. "The Effect of Temperatures Higher than Atmospheric on Tensile Tests 

of Copper and its Alloys, and a Comparison with Wrought Iron and 
Steel." By Professor A. K. Huntington, A.R.S.M. (London), 
0. " Intercrystalline Cohesion in Metals." (With an Appendix on the forma- 
tion of Twinned Crystals in Silver.) By Walter ROSENHAIN, B.A., 
D.Sc, and Donald Ewen, M.Sc. (Teddington). 

6. "The Solidification of Metals from the Liquid State." By G. T. Beilby, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

7. "The Influence of Impurities in 'Tough-Pitch' Copper, with Chief 

Reference to Antimony." By F. Johnson, M.Sc. (Birmingham). 

8. "The Influence of Oxygen on the Properties of Metals and Alloys." By 

E. F. Law, A.R.S.M. (London). 

9. "Oxygen in Brass." By Professor T. Turner, M.Sc. (Birmingham). 

10. '-The Joining of Metals." By A. E. Tucker, F.I.C. (Birmingham). 

11. "Autogenous Welding by means of Oxygen and Acetylene of Copper and its 

Principal Alloys, and of Aluminium." By Professor Dr. F. Carnevali 

In the evening of September 25, a Reception was given at the 
Royal United Service Institution, Whitehall, by the London Re- 
ception Committee. 

In the afternoon of September 25, one party of members visited 
the works of Messrs. Fraser & Chalmers at Erith, whilst another 
party visited the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington. On 
the following afternoon one party visited the Brooklands Motor 
Track and Aviation Ground, another party going to the Royal 
Arsenal at Woolwich. 

The Council desire to record their indebtedness to the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers for the courtesy shown in allowing the Annual 
Genei-al Meeting and the May Lecture to be held in their building, 
and also to the Council of the Institution of Electi-ical Engineers for 

6 Annual General Meeting 

a similar courtesy on the occasion of the Autumn Meeting of the 
Institute in September. 

Corrosion Committee. 

Considerable progress has been made in the investigation of the 
causes of corrosion of tubes of the four types of alloy selected by the 
Committee, namely 70 : 30 brass, Admiralty mixture, lead-bearing 
brass, and Muntz metal. Twelve tubes of each alloy have been tested 
in the special condenser plant for nine months, i.e. from April to Decem- 
ber 1912. Three tubes of each composition have been withdrawn for 
detailed examination ; this, however, has not yet been completed. A 
preliminary examination has shown that a small amount of corrosion, 
such as that usually met with in tubes that have failed in practice, has 
occurred in some of these tubes, but has not penetrated to any con- 
siderable depth. All the tubes have been found to be covered with 
a scale of composition similar to that typical of those used in the 
mercantile marine. Investigation on these tubes is still proceeding. 

The plant itself was closed down temporarily on December 31, 
1912, pending the supply of further funds for working expenses, 
which amount to about =£100 per annum. It is highly desirable that 
the experiments with this plant should be continued at the earliest 
opportunity, and this will be done as soon as the necessary funds are 

An extensive scheme of laboratory experiments has been devised 
with the object of elucidating the nature of reactions which take place 
during the processes of corrosion and scale formation. It has been 
found necessary to continue a number of the experiments for periods of 
several months, as the collection of data is necessarily slow. Hitherto 
it has not been possible to devise any satisfactory " acceleration " 
test, so work in this direction has been abandoned for the present. 

A considerable number of badly corroded tubes have been sent in 
for examination by various shipping firms and manufacturers, and 
afforded useful information. The Investigator is now desirous of 
obtaining a number of tubes that have endured exceptionally long 
service in marine or land condensers. 

Committee Meetings. 

The five Standing Committees, known respectively as the Abstracts 
Sub-Committee, the Corrosion Committee, the Finance and General 
Purposes Committee, the Library and Museum Committee, and the 
Publication Committee, have met regularly during the past year, and 

Report of Council 7 

several Occasional Committees have been appointed by the Council 
for the consideration of special matters. 

The Beilby Research Prize. 

The Special Committee appointed by the Council to discuss with 
Dr. Beilby the proposed research, as originally suggested in his May 
Lecture, 1911, has had meetings during the year, and Dr. Beilby was 
invited to read a Paper elaborating his suggestion at the London 
Meeting of the Institute in September 1912. This Paper was 
entitled " The Solidification of Metals from the Liquid State," and 
was regarded by the Committee as the basis of a research into 
this subject. The Committee appointed Dr. Cecil H. Desch their 
Investigator, his remit being as outlined in Dr. Beilby's Paper, and 
his Report is expected to be made at the next Autumn Meeting of 
the Institute. Dr. Beilby has kindly placed at the disposal of the 
Council a sum of £100 to be awarded as an Honorai'ium in connection 
with the Research. 

Nomenclature Committee. 

As a result of a suggestion contained in Dr. Rosenhain's Paper " A 
Kote on the Nomenclature of Alloys," read at the Annual General 
Meeting in January 1912, the Council appointed a Nomenclature 
Committee to consider the re-naming of certain of the non-ferrous 

It was thought desirable by the Council that the Committee should 
number among its members ofiicially appointed representatives of 
other Institutions, and this has been arranged, the constitution of the 
Committee being as follows : — 

Institute of Metals. — Dr. W. Rosenhain, B.A, [Cliairman) ; G. A. 
Boeddicker, Esq. ; Dr. Cecil H. Desch ; Engineer Rear- Admiral G. G. 
Goodwin, C.B,, R.N. ; G. Hughes, Esq.; Sir Gerard Muntz, Bart.; 
A. E. Seaton, Esq. ; and Professor T. Turner, M.Sc. 

Institution of Electrical Engineers. — W. Murray Morrison, Esq. 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers. — George Hughes, Esq. 

Institution of Naval Architects. — Sir W. E. Smith, C.B. 

Institution of Engineers and SliiphuihJers in Scotlajid. — Alexander 
Cleghorn, Esq. 

North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shiphuilders. — The 
Hon. Sir C. A. Parsons, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Society of Chemical Industry. — Professor W. R. Hodgkinson, Ph.D., 

8 Annual General Meeting 

Birmingham Local Section. 

The second session of the Section was very successful, both as 
regards meetings and finance. 

At the close of the session the membership of the Section was as 
follows : — 

Associates 21 

Members 51 


The membership during the previous session was 45, there being 
no associates. 

During the last session six meetings were held, some excellent 
papers being read as the following list shows : — 


Oct. 10. Discussion on " The Annealing of Non-P'errous Metals." 

Nov. 14. Paper on "The Gases in Brass Strip Ingots. Notes on the reasons for 
using dressed moulds, and a description of the apparatus 
employed in the investigation." By J. Caetland, M.Sc. 

Dec. 12. Paper on "The Uses of Electricity in Brass and Copper Kolling Mills." 
By Messrs. MiLNS and ANDERSON. 

Feb. 6. Exhibits and Notes on Specimens, illustrating the Influence of 
Certain Impurities on the Forging Qualities of Copper at a 
Red Heat ; also Notes on the Effect of Zinc on the Micro- 
structure of White Metal. By L. Archbutt, F.I.C. 

Mar. 12. Paper on " The Mechanical Properties of Alloys at High Tempera- 
tures." By F. C. A. H. Lantsberry, M.Sc. 

April 16. Paper on " Cold Rolling Mills." By W. H. A. Robertson. 

All the Papers were illustrated by lantern slides. 
The average attendance at these meetings was 33 ; 25 Members 
and Associates, and 8 visitors. 


Two volumes of the Journal were published in 1912 — Volume VII. 
being issued in June and Volume VIII. in December. These con- 
tained 814 pages of letterpress, plates, and numerous illustrations in 
the text. The Council are pleased to note that the value of the 
Journal is being appreciated more and more each year, as the sales 
of the Journal, both to members and non-members, have been greatly 
increased during the past year, 179 volumes having been sold during 
the financial year ending June 30, 1912. The Transactions, or Pro- 
ceedings, of the following Societies are regularly received in exchange 
for the Journal of the Institute : — 

Report of Council 

American Electro-Chemical Society. 

American Institute of Mining Engineers. 

Bureau of Standards, Washington (Department of Commerce and Labour). 

Chemical Industry, Society of. 

Chemical Society. 

Concrete Institute. 

Faraday Society. 

Imperial Institute. 

Institute of Marine Engineers. 

Institution of Automobile Engineers. 

,, „ Civil Engineers. 

„ „ Electrical Engineers. 

,, ,, Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. 

„ „ Mechanical Engineers. 

,, ,, Mining and Metallurgy. 

,, ,, NavaJ Architects. 

Iron and Steel Institute. 
Junior Institution of Engineers. 
Konigliches Materialpriifungsamt, Berlin. 
North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders. 
Royal Society of Arts. 
Staffordshire Iron and Steel Institute. 
West of Scotland Iron and Steel Institute. 

Library and Museum. 
(rt) Museuvi. 

During 1911 there was established at the offices of the Institute 
a Museum of Metals tending to show how non-feri'ous metals may 
fail in use, &c. A large numbei' of specimens have been received 
from members during the past year, and the Council hope that 
additional donations will be made to the Museum by members. 

The following presentations to the Museum have been received 
during the past year, and are gratefully acknowledged : — 


Presented by- 

Two Brass cups showing cracks developed through ! Midland Railway Co. 
internal strain. (L. Archbutt, Esq.) 

The following case of specimens :— i Messrs. The Broughton 

Eleven specimens of corroded and pitted condenser ! Copper Company, 

tubes, showing dezincification, &c. ' Limited 

Nine specimens of copper tubes and rods, illus- \ (F. Tomlinson, Esq.) 

trating "Gassed Copper." 
Two specimens of copper rod (overheated). 
Copper rod (severe oxidation). 
Copper rod (perfectly annealed). 
Brass roll from paper-making machine (corroded). 


Annual General Meeting 


Presented by — 

Specimen of yellow me::al bolt (corroded), and a 

Corroded cojjper pipe. 

Also micro-photographs illustrating "gassed " and 

"overheated" copper and normal tough copper 

Two brass bedstead tubes showing age cracks. 

Messrs. Hoskins and 

Sewell, Limited 


Corroded lead plug. 

Midland Railwav Co. 

(L. Archbutt, Esq.) 

Corroded condenser tube. 

Sir Gerard A. Muntz, 


Two portions of copper tubes from a vinegar plant. 

Muntz Metal Co., Ltd. 

Portion of a copper singe plate. 

(R. M. Sheppard, Esq.) 

(/>) Library. 
During the past year many valuable contributions have been 
added to the Librarj', which was commenced two years ago. The 
Council are much indebted to Sir H. A. Wiggin, Bart., for his gift 
of =£10 10s. for the purchase of bookcases. The Council gratefully 
acknowledge the following presentations to the Library : — 


Presented by — 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Proceed- 
ings of the, Vol. XXX. No. 11. Nov. 1911 ; Vol. xxx. 
No. 12, Dec. 1911 ; Vol. xxxi. No. 1, Jan. 1912. 

" Assaying and Metallurgical Analysis." By Rliead and 

Basse & Selve. Jubilee Volume published by the 
firm on the fiftieth anniversary of their existence. 

British Foundrymen's Association, Proceedings of the, 

Concrete Institute, Transactions and Notes of the. 
Vol. i. (Parts 1, 2, and 3) ; Vol. ii. (Parts 1 and 2); 
Vol. iii. ; Vol. iv. (Parts 1 and 2); List of Mem- 
bers, &c. 

"Geographical Survey of Victoria." Report of Pro- 
gress by R. Brough Smyth, 1874, 1875. 

Institution of Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the. 
Vol. xlvii. No. 208, July 1911 ; List of Members, 
1910 and 1911. 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Proceedings of 
the, 1899 (Parts 1, 2, 3, 4) ; 1900 (Parts 1, 2, 3, 4) ; 
1901 (Parts 4 and 5); 1902 (Parts 1, 2, 3, 4); 1903 
(Parts 1, 2, and 4); 1904 (Parts I and 2); 1905 
(Parts 1 and 4) ; 190(; (Parts 3 and 4) ; 1907 (Parts 
1, 2, 3, 4) ; 1908 (Parts 1, 2, 3, 4). 

E. S. Reid, Esq. 

Longmans, Green & Co. 

Herr Wilhelm Ashoff. 

British Foundrymen's 

Concrete Institute. 

The Honourable the 
Minister of Mines, 
Melbourne, Victoria. 

E. S. Reid, Esq. 

The Institution of 

Report of Council 



Presented by — 

"Metals in Antiquity." By Professor W. Gowland, 

The Author. 


" Metalen en AUiages." By Dr. A. Vosmaer. 

The Author. 

"Notes on the Materials of Motor Car Construction." 

Daimler Co., Ltd. 

By A. E. Berriman. 

"Taschenbuch flir Eisenhlittenleute. 

Wilh. Ernst & Sohn. 

"Warship Engineering, 1911." Bv C. De Grave Sells, 

The Author. 


"Warship Engineering, 1912." By C. De Grave Sells, 

The Author. 


The above books are available for the use of members in the Library 
attached to the Institute's Offices. 

Delegates to Conferences. 

In connection with the International Congress of Mining and 
Metallurgy, Applied Mechanics, and Practical Geology, 1915, 
Professor W. Gowland, F.R.S., Sir Gerard A. Muntz, Bart., 
Dr. W. Rosenhain, B.A., and Mr. G. Shaw Scott, M.Sc, were 
appointed by the Council to act as the representatives of the 
Institute. The Covxncil have guaranteed the sum of c£50 towards 
the expenses of the Congress. 

The Council was represented at the Conference of the Association 
for the International Interchange of Students, held in London 
in June 1912, by Professor W. Gowland, F.R.S., and Dr. W. 
Rosenhain, B.A. 

Mr. G. Shaw Scott, M.Sc, was appointed by the Council to act 
as their representative in connection with the Cornish Meeting of 
Scientific Societies in Cornwall in July 1912. 

At the International Congress of Applied Chemistry, held in 
New York in September 1912, Dr. W. Rosenhain, B.A., officially 
represented the Institute. 

Dominions Royal Commission. 

In connection with an inquiry by the Dominions Royal Commission 
into the supply of non-ferrous metals and ores in this country, the 
Council have appointed the following committee, with power to add 
to their number from amongst the members of the Institute : Mr. 
G. A. Boeddicker (Honorary Secretary), Mr. W. Murray Morrison, 
Sir Gerard A. Muntz, Bart., Mr. Leonard Sumner, M.Sc, and 
Professor T. Turner, M.Sc. 

12 Annual General Meeting 

Annual Dinner. 

The Third Annual Dinner was held on January 16, 1912. There 
was an attendance of about 150, amongst whom were many dis- 
tinguished guests, including the Presidents of the allied societies, 
Mr. Arthur Balfour (the Master Cutler), Colonel Sir Hilaro Barlow, 
Bart., Sir H. F. Donaldson, K.C.B., and Sir Alfred Keogh, K.C.B., 

Mr. J. W. Earle said he had pleasure in proposing the 
adoption of the Report. 

Mr. J. P. Bedson seconded the motion. 

The Chairman thought that it would be agreed that the 
Report contained a record of steady progress and much useful 
work. Special interest attached to the part of the Report 
dealing with the work of the Corrosion Committee. It was at 
one time hoped that a Report from that Committee would have 
been received at the present meeting, but it was eventually 
thought better to wait until more definite results were at 
hand and further experiments had been carried out, so that 
the Report that would be presented would ultimately be more 
valuable. It must not be supposed, simply because a Report 
had not been presented, that the work was not in progress or 
was not receiving careful attention. There was now an oppor- 
tunity if any member wished to speak upon the Report, or to 
obtain any further information. 

No remarks being made, the motion for the reception and 
adoption of the Report was put and carried unanimously. 

Report of the Honorary Treasurer. 

The Chairman, as Honorary Treasurer, presented the 
following Report : — 

Report of Council 1 3 


(Professor THOMAS TURNER, M.Sc.) 

For the Year ending June 30, 1912. 

It is pleasing to be able again to report that the finances of the 
Institute are in a satisfactory state. The financial year opened 
with a credit balance of =£456 5s., and closed with a balance, also to 
credit, of c£563 10s. lid., showing an increase of .£107 5s, lid. 
This is especially gratifying in view of the fact that the legal costs of 
the Incorporation of the Institute were paid during the financial year. 
The sum received from the sale of Journals has increased from 
£132 18s. lOd. to =£159 13s. Id., and this is satisfactory not merely be- 
cause it furnishes a source of income, but because it affords definite 
evidence of the value which is attached to the Journal by interested 
persons who are in most cases not members of the Institute. 

During the year =£269 4s. 3d. was expended on the corrosion plant 
and its working expenses. The balance on July 1 was only £47 7s. 6d., 
which has since been practically all expended. It is intended to 
continue these experiments for two or three years longer, and for this 
purpose an income of about £100 per annum will be required. At 
a suitable time it is proposed to issue an appeal for further contribu- 
tions to this fund. 

The Capital or Deposit Account has been increased during the 
year by a sum sufficient to cover the entrance fees received from 
members on their election to the Institute. The Capital Account, 
therefore, now contains the whole of the entrance fees which have 
been received, together with bank interest to date. If it should be 
found possible each year to add to the Capital Account a sum at least 
equal to the entrance fees received, a reserve would be gradually 
accumulated, which would doubtless be of the greatest possible use to 
the Institute in future. 

Allowing for all known liabilities on June 30, 1912, the balance to 
the credit of the Institute was £548 5s. 8d. This is exclusive of the 
balance in the Research Fund. There was, in addition, library and 
office furniture, the contents of the library, and a large stock of 


Annual General Meeting 

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Report of Council 1 5 

Continuing, the Chairman said it would be noticed that the 
balance was stated as at the 30th June 1912, which Avas 
nearly nine months ago, but that was the end of the financial 
year. Although it did not come in the Report, the members 
might be interested to know that the financial position of the 
Institute still remained satisfactory, and he hoped at the end 
of next year he would be able to say the Institute had had as 
good a year as last year. 

On the motion of Mr. E. L. Rhead, seconded by Mr. C. F. 
Gaywood, the Report of the Honorary Treasurer was unani- 
mously adopted. 

Vote of Thanks to Treasurer. 

Mr. W. H. Johnson said he had very much pleasure in 
proposing that the best thanks of the meeting be given to 
the Treasurer for the very able way in which he had looked 
after the Institute's accounts. All the members were aware, 
as business men, that satisfactory finance was the one thing 
necessary either in a company or an institution. It was a very 
fortunate moment when, in 1908, the Institute selected as its 
first Treasurer the Chairman of the meeting, Professor Turner, 
who seemed to have been born as an accountant in addition to 
the many professional duties he had to undertake. He had 
managed the Institute's finances in such a faultless way that 
he had been always able to present a statement showing a 
satisfactory balance at the Annual Meetings. 

The only thing on which he (Mr. Johnson) felt any hesita- 
tion on the present occasion was that he did not think the 
members of the Institute appreciated the most excellent work 
that was being done by the Corrosion Committee ; in other 
words, if they appreciated the work better they would have 
doubled their subscriptions and induced their friends to sub- 
scribe. He believed when the Report was issued it would be 
seen that the work done fully justified the expense, and, what 
was more, warranted a much larger expenditure for the next 
few years in investigating that important project. He had 
much pleasure in proposing that the best thanks of the 

IG Annual General Meetmz 


Institute be given to the Honorary Treasurer for his kindness 
in presiding so ably over the financial department of the 
Institute's work. 

The resolution was put and carried with acclamation. 

The Chairman said he was exceedingly obliged to the 
members for the kind manner in which they had passed the 
vote of thanks. As a matter of fact, they made it easy for 
the Treasurer by paying their subscriptions promptly. It was 
a peculiarity of the Institute that the members as a whole did 
pay their subscriptions promptly. There were just a few out- 
standing, but he had been really surprised at the end of the 
year to find how few outstanding subscriptions there were in 
comparison with certain other societies in which he acted in a 
similar capacity. 

Election of Officers. 

The Chairman said that the next matter which came before 
the attention of the meeting was the election of the Council. 
Before the result of the ballot was declared it was his duty to 
report that Sir Henry Wiggin found it necessary to retire from 
the position of Vice-President. He wrote to the Council a 
very sympathetic letter, and, as the members had heard while 
the Report of the Council was being read. Sir Henry was good 
enough to forward with that letter a cheque for ten guineas 
for the purchase of additional bookcases for the Library. The 
Council, in accordance with the rules governing such a casual 
vacancy, appointed Mr. Boeddicker to act as Vice-President 
for the residue of the term of office of Sir Henry Wiggin. 
That led to a vacancy in the Council, which had been filled 
by the election of Mr. Alexander Cleghorn, of Glasgow, who 
took the place of Mr. Boeddicker for the remaining term of 
office of Mr. Boeddicker's service as an ordinary member of 
the Council. In accordance with the regulations, it was 
necessary that Mr. Cleghorn's election should be approved, 
and he therefore had much pleasure in proposing Mr. Cleg- 
horn's re-election as an ordinary member of the Council. 

Annual General Meeting 1 7 

Mr. G. A. BoEDDiCKER seconded the resolution, which was 
carried unanimously. 

The Chairman called upon the Secretary to announce the 
result of the ballot for the election of members to replace the 
retiring President, two Vice-Presidents (including the Honorary 
Treasurer), and eight Members of Council, the list as read 
being as follows : — 

Professor A. K. Huntington, Assoc. R.S.M. 


W. H. Johnson, B.Sc Manchester. 

Professor T. Turner, M.Sc. (Hon. Treasui^er) Birmingham. 

Mevibers of Council. 

Professor A. Barr, D.Sc Glasgow. 

T. A. Bayliss King's Norton. 

G. T. Beilby, LL.D., F.R.S. . . . Glasgow. 

Clive Cookson Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Arnold Philip, B.Sc, Assoc.B.S.M. . . Portsmouth. 

Sir William E. Smith, C.B. . . . London. 

Leonard Sumner, M.Sc Manchester. 

Cecil H. Wilson Sheffield. 

Vote of Thanks to Council. 

Dr. G. D. Bengough said it afforded him very much 
pleasure to move a hearty vote of thanks to the Council 
for the excellent work that they had performed during 
the past year. Every single member of the Council was 
known to be an exceedingly busy man, but in looking through 
the Report of the Council which had been presented earlier 
in the meeting, he was sure the members would appreciate 
the large amount of time they must have given to the 
work of the Institute. Even the Avriting of a Report of that 
kind Avas a very slow and long process. The members owed a 
very great debt of gratitude to the Council for all the work 
they had done during the past twelve months, and he there- 
fore had great pleasure in proposing a hearty vote of thanks 
to them for their services. 

1 8 Annual General Meeting 

Mr. E. L. Rhead, in seconding the motion, said all the 
members felt very keenly that the members of the Council 
were extremely alive to the interests of the Institute, and 
did all in their power to make it a success. The remarkable 
progress that had been achieved in the past four years was 
sufficient evidence of the success that attached to the work 
that they had done. 

The resolution was put to the meeting by Dr. Bengough, 
and carried unanimously. 

The Chairmax, on behalf of the Council, thanked the 
members very sincerely for the resolution they had just 
passed. The Council did take their duties seriously, and on 
that account a good deal of useful work had been done, and 
the Institute was no doubt making steady and substantial 
progress. There was, he thought, one little matter in which 
they might look for help from the general body of members, 
and that was in connection with the discussions. The dis- 
cussions were apt to be carried on by a limited number of 
speakers upon whom the Institute generally relied. There 
were a number of men, particularly younger men, in the 
Institute who had both scientific knowledge, a certain amount 
of experience, and also, he believed, the capacity for making 
themselves understood. He hoped that the discussions would 
not be left in the future so much in the hands of a few older 
members — (he was afraid he had been one of the greatest sinners 
in that respect in the past, as he had spoken upon many of 
the papers) — but that the young members would come forward 
and take their share in the work. 

Election of Members. 

The Secretary read the following list of names of candi- 
dates who had been duly elected members of the Institute as 
a result of the ballots taken in December 1912 and February 

Annual General Meeting 






Ash, Percy Claude 

10 Broad Street, 

Engaged in the 

G. Matthey. 


Golden Square, 

treatment of 

A. J. Webb. 


precious metals 
for dental pro- 

E. V. Jarry. 

Belaiew, Nicolai.T. 

Chemical Labora- 

Lecturer in Metal- 

W. Rosenhain. 

tory, Michael Ar- 

lurgy and Chem- 

G. A. Boeddicker. 

tillery Academy, 

mistry. Captain, 

A. K. Huntington. 

St. Petersburg 

Artillery of the 

Borchers, W'ilhelm, 

Ludwigsallee 15, 

Professor of Metal- 

W. Rosenhain. 


Aachen, Germany 


A. K. Huntington. 
T. Turner. 

Cardozo, Henri 

54 Rue de Prony, 

Director of Electro 

K. Eraser. 



Metallurgical Co. 

W. Gowland. 

A. K. Huntington. 

Gibson, Heseltine, 

9 Barnsley Road, 

Metallurgist to the 

T. Turner. 

B.Sc, [Student) 

Edgbaston, Bir- 

British Aluminium 

O. F. Hudson. 



A. G. C. Gwver. 

Goldberg, Harry, 

.-Aluminium Casting 

Chemical Engineer 

H. W. Gillet't. 


Co., Detroit, 

W. M. Corse. 

Mich., U.S.A. 

H. M. Boylston. 

Groves, Clarence 

Gamble Institute, 

Lecturer in Metal- 

T. Turner. 

Richard, M.Sc. 

St. Helens, Lanes. 


H. I. Coe. 
O. F. Hudson. 

Heath, William 

Heather Rocks, 

Assistant Analyst, 

T. Turner. 

Stanley [Student). 

Stockton Brook, 

the British Alum- 

A. G. C. Gwyer. 

Sto ke-upon- 

inium Company, 

O. F. Hudson. 



Hoyt, Samuel Leslie. 

Hevvaldstr. 2 ill. 


W. Guertler. 

Berlin, Schone- 

C. A. F. Benedicks. 

berg, Germany 

W. Rosenhain. 

Jennison, Herbert 

P. O. Box 348, An- 

Engaged in Manu- 

W. H. Bassett. 


s n i a. Conn., 

facture of Non- 

J. A. Capp. 


ferrous Metals 

W. M. Corse. 

Kirkaldy, William 

99 Southwark St., 

Engaged profession- 

A. A. H. Scott. 



ally in experimen- 

B. Blount. 

tal work and the 

F. W. Harboid. 

testing of metals 

Lambert, Wesley, 

55 Plumstead Com- 

Metallurgist, late 

A. K. Huntington. 


mon Road, S.E. 

Chief Metallurgist 

W. Rosenhain. 

Royal Gun Fac- 

T. Turner. 

tory, Woolwich 

Lyon, Professor 

Box 83, Oakland 

Consulting Metal- 

F. W. Harbord. 

borsey Alfred 

Station, Pittsburg, 

1 u r g i s t. In 

E. F. Law. 

Pa., U.S..\. 

charge of Metal- 
lurgy Section, 
U.S. Bureau of 

E. G. Constantine. 

Marshall, Frederick 

.-\dmiraltv, White- 

Engineer Com- 

Sir H. T. Oram. 


hall S.W. 

mander, Royal 

G. G. Goodwin. 


Henry R. Teed. 

NLayo, Charles 

Alderman's House, 

Consulting Engineer 

F. Tomlinson. 


Bishopsgate, E.C. 

H. C. H. Car- 
F. W. Harbord. 

Player, William 

54 Calthorpe Road, 

Dir. and Sec. The 

T. V. Hughes. 

Edgbaston, Bir- 

Hall Street Metal 

A. D. Keeling. 


Rolling Co., Ltd. 

J. W. Earle. 


Annual General Meeting 





Pollard, William 

Bei t-el-Barrache, 

H. Garland. 

Branch, B.A. 

Bulak Uakvuv, 

A. E. Seaton. 


Sir H. J. Oram. 

Rejto, Professor A. 

Budapest, Miiegyc- 

Professor of Tech- 

W. Rosenhain. 

toni, Hungary 

nology, Member, 

W. (jowland. 

Royal Hungarian 

A. K. Huntington. 

Academy of 


Rider, Joseph Jack- 

" Roxton," Chester 

E.xpertin Metals 

W. H. Johnson. 


Road, ICrdington, 

B. S. Harlow. 


W. G. Hanna. 

Rosambert, Charles 

Metallwerk, Man- 

Director of Metal 

W. Rosenhain. 

fred Weiss, 


W. Gowland. 

Ct^pel, near 

A. K. Huntington. 



Zabalkansky pr 9, 

Professor of Chemis- 

W. Rosenhain. 


St. Petersburg, 


A. K. Huntington. 


Sir G. .Muntz, Bt. 

Sauveur, Professor 

2 E 1 m w o d 

Professor of Metal- 

H. O. Hofnian. 


Avenue, Cam- 

lurgy and Metal- 

Henry Fay. 

bridge, Mass., 

lography, Har- 

H. M. Boylston. 


vard University 

Sitwell, Norman 

Co.x & Co. , Charing 

In Indian Ord- 

R. F. Hartley. 

Sisson Hurt 

Cross, S.W. 

nance Dept. , 

1. J. Edwards. 

Captain, Royal 

E. I. Thorne. 


Sjogren, Justus 

30 Easy Row, Bir- 

Metal Agent and 

T. A. Bayliss. 




Harry Jacobs. 
T. Turner. 

Tiemann, Hugh 

Carnegie Building, 

Metallurgist, Car- 

H. M. Howe. 

Philip, B.S. 

Pittsburgh, Pa, 

negie .Steel Co. 

W. Gowland. 


A. K. Huntington. 

Weiss, Eugen V. 

.■\ndrassy-ut IIG 


W. Rosenhain. 

Budapest, Hun- 

A. E. Seaton. 


W. Gowland. 

The Chairman said the list of members that had just been 
read would be ballotted upon. He was sure the members 
would notice with satisfaction that it contained the names of 
eminent metallurgists, not only in this country but on the 
Continent and in America, 

Election of Auditor. 

The Chairman said that the next matter Avas the election 
of the Auditor. Mr. G. G. Poppleton had served the Institute 
as Honorary Auditor from its commencement. Mr. Poppleton 
was a member of the Institute, and his work as Auditor was 
extremely efficient. He therefore moved as a compre- 
hensive resolution that Mr. Poppleton be thanked for his 

Annual General Meeting 21 

work during the past year, and that he be asked to conthiue 
to act as Auditor during the following year. 

Mr. W. H. Johnson seconded the motion, which was carried 

The Chairman said only one other duty remained for him 
to perform, and that was the very pleasant one of asking 
the President-Elect, Professor Huntington, to take the Chair. 
It would be unwise for him in London to endeavour to intro- 
duce Professor Huntington to a metallurgical audience. He 
had been connected with metallurgy for so many years ; he 
had been so well known for his interest in different branches 
of the subject, for his published works, for his original in- 
vestigations, and for his labours in connection with the older 
kindred Institute, the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, of 
which he had acted as President, and was so highly respected, 
that the members felt sure that, having undertaken the duty 
of presiding over the assemblage, that duty would be efficiently 
performed, and that the Institute might look forward to a very 
successful year under his Presidency. 

Professor Turner then vacated the chair, which was 
taken for the remainder of the meeting by the President 
(Professor A. K. Huntington). 

Vote of Thanks to Retiring President. 

The President said it afforded him much pleasure to know 
that his first act as President was to move a vote of thanks to 
the retiring President, Professor Gowland. All the members 
regretted very much indeed that they did not see more of the 
late President during his term of office. Unfortunately his 
health was not of the best, and he had to go away for a good 
part of the year ; but they all very much appreciated the 
work that he was able to carry out. He gave an interesting 
Presidential Address, and an equally interesting May Lecture, 
while he did much useful work for the Institute in a good 
many ways. He had much pleasure in proposing a cordial 

22 Annual General Me e tins' 


vote of thanks to Professor Gowland for his services during 
his Presidency of the Institute. 

Mr. G. A. BoEDDiCKER, in seconding the motion, said ho 
had the pleasure of coming in contact with Professor Gowland 
at a great many of the Institute's meetings, and he was par- 
ticularly struck by his ability, his unfailing courtesy, his 
almost excessive modesty, and his general good temper in 
carrying on the business of the Institute. In seconding the 
motion he again expressed the wish, which he was sure was 
fully shared in by the members, that Professor Gowland would 
soon return to this country in greatly improved health. 

The resolution was then put to the meeting, and carried by 

The President said he desired to propose a vote of thanks 
to Professor Turner for occupying the chair at that meeting 
in the absence of Professor Gowland. 

The resolution of thanks was carried by acclamation. 

Inaugural Address. 

The President delivered his Inausrural Address, at the close 
of which 

Sir Gerard A. Muntz, Bart. (Past-President), said the 
privilege fell to his lot of proposing a hearty vote of thanks 
to the President for the very interesting and instructive 
address he had just dehvered. The nature of the address 
pointed, he hoped, to the nature of the work that Professor 
Huntington was going to do during his term of office as 
President — work of a good, sound, common-sense nature, of 
steady progress and careful supervision. The President had 
given in the course of his address a description of the forma- 
tion of the institutions similar to their own, with all of which 
he (the President) had been connected, which showed that 
the new President had had an experience the benefit of which 

Animal General Meeting 23 


ought to fall upon the Institute of Metals. The President 
suffered, like his friend Mr. Boeddicker, from a superfluous 
amount of modesty, but he trusted the members would be 
able to " draw him out," for he knew that Professor Huntington 
could do great services for the Institute during his term of 
oflice. He had very great pleasure in moving a hearty vote 
of thanks to the President for his able and interesting address. 

Mr. T. A. Bayliss, in seconding the motion, said he hoped 
the forecast which the President gave in his address in regard 
to the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy would prove 
equally true in the case of the Institute of Metals in the 
coming years. The members were delighted to see Professor 
Huntington as President of the Institute, and looked forward 
with the greatest possible pleasure to a full year of good work 
for an institution which was appreciated by one and all. 

The resolution having been carried by acclamation, and the 
President having thanked the meeting for the hearty manner 
in which it had been passed, the meeting was adjourned at 
4.30 P.M. until 10.30 a.m. the following morning, Wednesday, 
March 12, 1913. 


Wednesday, March 12, 1913. 

At the adjourned meeting, which was presided over by the 
President (Professor A. K. Huntington, Assoc.R.S.M.), papers 
were read by Mr. Alexander Siemens (London) ; Mr. A. Philip, 
B.Sc. Assoc.R.S.M. (Portsmouth); Dr. G. H. Bailey (Kin- 
lochleven); and Mr. 0. F. Hudson, M.Sc. (Birmingham). In 
the absence of the authors, the Secretary read papers by 
Mr. G. H. Gulliver, B.Sc. (Edinburgh); and Messrs. H. S. 
Primrose and J. S. Glen Primrose (both of Glasgow). 

Each paper was followed by a discussion, a hearty vote of 
thanks being accorded in each case, on the motion of the 
Chairman, to the respective authors. 

24 Annual General Meeting 


The Chairman moved the following resolution : — " That the 
best thanks of the Institute be and are hereby tendered to 
the Council of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers for 
their courtesy in permitting the use of their Hall for the 
purpose of this Annual General Meeting." 

Professor T. Turner, in seconding the motion, said the 
rooms of the Institution were very convenient for the purpose, 
despite the discomfort due to the present building operations ; 
and the members were much indebted to the Council of the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers for the practical sympathy 
they had shown to the Institute in many ways. 

The resolution was put, and carried unanimously. 

Mr. G. A. BoEDDiCKER, in moving a hearty vote of thanks 
to the President for the excellent manner in which he had 
presided over the business of the meeting, said that Professor 
Huntington had proved an ideal Chairman. He had allowed 
the speakers reasonable margin ; he always kept them in 
good humour, and kept the whole meeting going splendidly. 

Mr. E. L. Rhead seconded the motion, which was carried 
with acclamation. 

The President thanked the members very heartily for 
their kind vote of confidence in him. It gave him great 
pleasure to preside over the meetings, which had gone off 
very smoothly, and he hoped successfully. 

The proceedings terminated at 4 p.m. 

Presidential Address 25 


By Professor A. K. HUNTINGTON, A.R.S.M. 
(King's College, University of London). 

In the early years of the establishment of a new institution, 
it is usual in a Presidential Address to call attention to the 
lines on which it is considered the institution could be most 
advantageously developed. Considerable assistance in this 
direction may result from a study of the purposes and pro- 
gress of other institutions on somewhat similar lines and of 
longer standing. 

It so happens that the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 
in the foundation of which I helped, and of which I became 
the second President, has recently celebrated its twenty-first 
anniversary. It has not unnaturally occurred to me to look up 
my Presidential Address before that institution on March 21, 
1894, and see how far the efflux of time has justified what 
I said on that occasion, and what guidance we may obtain 
from the career of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. 
One of the first sentences to catch my eye was : " Like all 
infants, its fortune will depend largely on those who have its 
early guidance. It may have enormous potential energy, but 
potential energy is a dangerous thing unless well directed. 
The same little packet of explosive, according as it is properly 
applied in a mine, or improperly applied to, say, the Royal 
Observatory at Greenwich, may do much useful work or in- 
calculable mischief." (It would appear I was unconsciously 
forecasting the advent of Suffragettes.) The Institute of 
Metals has been extraordinarily fortunate in this matter of 
its early guidance, and I am certain that I am only expressing 
the unanimous feeling of the members in saying that the 
quite exceptional rate of progress of the Institute of Metals 
is largely due to the well-directed energy and unfailing tact 
of its first presidents. Sir William White f and Sir Gerard 
Muntz. These gentlemen have still further increased the 

* Delivered at Annual General Meeting, London, March 11, 1913. 
t Deceased, to the great loss of the Institute, since this was written. 

26 Presidential Address 

obligation the Institute is under to them by continuing to 
give much of their valuable time to its affairs whenever any 
benefit could result from their doing so. The prestige of the 
Institute has been well maintained also by its later President, 
Professor Gowland, who unfortunately, although possessing all 
the capacity and will to do so, has been prevented by failing 
health from attending to the affairs of the Institute as much 
as he desired. The task I have before me, although in some 
respects rendered easier, is in others made more difficult by 
the exceptional ability of your past Presidents. I am con- 
soled, however, to some extent, by the thought that you have 
had opportunities of sampling my conduct in the chair during 
the past year, and if I shall prove but up to sample, I may be 
said to have fulfilled my contract. I hope, however, that it 
is unnecessary for me to say that I have the interests of this 
Institute very much at heart, and that I will try my utmost 
to promote them during my year of office. 

At the time of my address to the Institution of Mining 
and Metallurgy, the Iron and Steel Institute had been in 
existence twenty-five years. It was founded in 1869. The 
then Duke of Devonshire was its first President, and he gave 
a most able address, pointing out the advantages of co- 
operation among those engaged in a common pursuit. This 
enlightened advice has been followed by steel manufacturers 
with great benefit to all concerned. About twelve years after 
the inauguration of the Iron and Steel Institute, ten old 
School of Mines men met under the chairmanship of Sir 
Warrington Smyth to endeavour to form an institute on 
somewhat similar lines for the other metals. We, however, 
failed, and it was only after the lapse of about ten years that, 
with the help of the editor of the Mining Journal, success in 
this direction was achieved. It is of interest, as showing how 
many wheels within wheels there are in these matters, that 
the very circumstance which helped us to launch the Insti- 
tution of Mining and Metallurgy, viz. the support of the 
Mining Journal, stood in our way later on. Many people 
then would not join the Institution because they objected to 
its being connected with a newspaper. As a matter of fact 
the only connection between the Journal and the Institution 

Presidential A ddress 2 7 

had been that the former had given publicity to the necessity 
for the latter. In the course of time these early dif3Sculties 
were lived down, and the Institution has become the powerful 
body we know to-day, numbering some 25 00 members. Even 
then the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy only concerned 
itself with a part of the science and art of metallurgy, viz. that 
dealing with the extraction of metals from their ores. That 
part which has to do with the working and uses of metals and 
alloys was not discussed or referred to in the Institution of 
Mining and Metallurgy at all. That Institution does in fact 
differ from the Iron and Steel Institute in an important 
way. The latter practically does not concern itself with 
mining operations. It has to do with the smelting of iron 
ores into various grades of pig iron, the conversion of pig iron 
into the various kinds of steel, and the subsequent treatment 
and behaviour of such steels when in use. These few words 
give but a feeble idea of the immensity and diversity of the 
subjects which fully occupy the splendid energy of the Iron 
and Steel Institute. On the other hand, the Institution of 
Mining and Metallurgy specializes in mming and the extrac- 
tion of non-ferrous metals from their ores — mainly, however, at 
mines ; but it does not concern itself with the subsequent 
treatment and behaviour in use of these metals, nor would 
it ever have been likely to do so, the field it already covers 
being as much as any institute could satisfactorily cope with. 
It was the knowledge of this condition of things which 
prompted me, when the Faraday Society was formed, to 
include Metallography and electric furnaces in the scope of 
the work to be considered by that body. The Faraday 
Society, although doing admirable Avork, is hardly in a 
position to deal adequately with Metallography. 

This review should make it amply clear that not only was 
there room for an institution having the objects of the now 
existing Institute of Metals, but that such an association was 
urgently required, having regard to the great progress made 
by the Iron and Steel Institute in such matters, and their 
almost complete neglect in respect to the non-ferrous metals 
and alloys by other bodies. It is very gratifying that the 
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy has accepted in a 

28 Presidential Address 

most friendly way the position taken up by the Institute of 

Referring again to my address in 1894, I find I said : " The 
progress in the iron and steel industries in the last twenty- 
live years has been extraordinary, and I have no hesitation 
in saying that a large share of it is due to the existence of 
the Iron and Steel Institute. The members of those industries 
are no longer working against one another in a very narrow 
spirit, being afraid to confide their ideas one to another lest 
they should give a competitor an advantage. All this 
narrowness has disappeared, and now members visit one 
another's works and discuss everything concerning them at 
every opportunity. As in cvenjtJiing else, the best man wins 
in the long run, lohilst the rest of the world are benejited by more 
rapid progress." Nearly twenty more years have passed since 
those words were written. The same enlightened policy has 
been pursued in these industries ; still further great progress 
has been made ; the world has benefited by it and the best 
men, as ever will be the case, have come to the front. 

At the time this address was given I had in mind 
many works in this country where metals were smelted and 
refined, which preserved secrecy as to their doings, and would 
admit no one to their works. Now, notwithstanding that the 
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy has been in existence 
twenty-one years, these same works, for the most part, main- 
tain the same attitude ; they contribute nothing whatever to 
that Institution. The Institution has had its time fully taken 
up with metallurgy as carried out in direct connection with 
mines, and probably has given the works in question hardly 
a thought, and judging from the experience of the Institute of 
Metals, if they had acted otherwise they would probably have 
only received a rebuff. I do not think the Institution of 
Mining and Metallurgy would object to these works coming under 
the Institute of Metals. Perhaps in time they will come into 
line, but the time is not yet. I am entirely of the opinion 
expressed by the late Sir William White on a former occasion ; 
each individual must bo left to contribute as much or as little 
information to the Institute as he may think fit. The way 
in which this Institute has progressed during the few years 

Presiaential Address 29 

it has existed leaves no doubt in my mind that the non- 
ferrous industries will respond to its stimulus, just as the 
iron and steel industries did in the case of the Iron and Steel 

In a review of this kind it would be unfair to ignore the 
Society of Chemical Industry. Founded in 1881, it took all 
manufacturing chemistry under its wing. Its journal was 
divided into a number of sections, one being set aside for 
Metallurgy. Subsequently there was a section for Electro- 
chemistry and Electro-metallurgy. More recently Electro- 
metallurgy has been separated from Electro-chemistry and added 
to the section on Metallurgy. There can be no doubt that 
the Society of Chemical Industry has done good work in the 
field our Institute covers, and we should be grateful to it ; 
at the same time the Society of Chemical Industry would be 
the first to admit that the time is ripe for specializing more 
fully in this subject than they are in a position to do. 
Doubtless they will continue to have a section for Metallurgy 
for the information of their members, and in this the existence 
of our Institute will benefit them, as in this subject they 
have depended for the most part on abstracts, although from 
time to time they had original papers. I myself contributed 
two short papers, at the request of Sir Frederick Abel, to 
the first annual meeting held by the Society of Chemical 
Industry in 1882 at Manchester under the presidency of 
Sir Henry Roscoe. One Avas on the " Mexican Amalgamation 
Process for Silver" and the other on "Nickel." I mention 
this because it comes back to my mind that in the paper on 
the silver process it was shown that certain reactions, which 
were said to take place in a process investigated by a well- 
known French chemist, were really due to a reagent used in 
the investigation, and had no existence in the process at all. 
It is not often in chemical work that a mistake of this kind 
occurs, but in micrographic work it may quite easily happen, 
if extreme care is not exercised and observations checked 
by repetition and the use of difi^erent methods as far as 
possible. To illustrate this, I may say that recently in 
making an examination of a piece of metal a slice was cut 
and carefully polished ; it was then bent and etched. Very 

30 Presidential Address 

marked slip-bands appeared, which apparently threw an im- 
portant light on the matter under investigation. Fortunately 
I was aware that alloys consisting mainly of copper-zinc and in 
the j8 phase were particularly liable to the formation of slip- 
bands on being sawn or filed, no matter how carefully. It 
was in fact found that the slip-bands, although very marked, 
being in two directions at right angles, forming isolated squares 
in some cases, were only superficial, and not in any way due 
to the bend the metal had received. In this case what might 
have been taken for an explanation of the trouble was due 
to the original mechanical treatment in cutting the slice for 
examination. Similarly, in etching it is easy to be misled 
unless the nature of the etching is suitably adjusted to the 
particular point being looked for, say the " cores" in Plate II., 
so that for the same specimen it may be necessary to apply a 
variety of etchings. These remarks may appear very ele- 
mentary, but from considerable practical experience I believe 
it will be some years yet before they will be altogether uncalled 
for in speaking of micrography. 

It must be remembered that Metallography for practical 
purposes has only come into existence within the last fifteen 
years or so. The difference it has made in understanding 
what happens to metals and alloys in course of manufacture 
and in use is incalculable. Looking back, it is easy to 
appreciate that the knowledge to be gleaned from a chemical 
analysis of an alloy is as nothing compared with what can be 
obtained by the means now available for studying the internal 
condition and structure of metals and alloys, when their 
composition is varied, and they are subjected to suitable, or 
unsuitable, mechanical and heat treatment. In dealing with 
copper-zinc alloys in the a-^ range it has been the prac- 
tice for some years in my laboratory to use a method of 
micrographic mensuration occupying quite a short time where 
formerly a chemical analysis would have been required. If 
the Council should think it of sufficient interest to the Insti- 
tute, I shall be pleased to communicate a short description of 
this method at some future meeting. 

It is really due to the rapid growth of Metallography and 

Presidential Address 31 

Chemical Physics that this Institute came into existence when 
it did. 

On several occasions your attention has been called to the 
important part taken by Professor Carpenter and Mr. Johnson 
in the inception and founding of this Institute. Professor 
Carpenter constantly gives his attention to the working of the 
Corrosion Committee, and devotes a great deal of time to the 
Institute in various ways. We all know and welcome his 
surprising energy in supplying us with papers of the most 
up-to-date character. Sir Gerard Muntz, who might have been 
excused if he had retired behind the scenes for a time and 
taken a rest, has shown unabated zeal in the cause of the Cor- 
rosion Committee by remaining its chairman and giving it the 
great advantage of his practical knowledge and business ability. 

As will be seen from the Report of the Council, this Com- 
mittee is in active operation. . A good start has been made 
with the work, which is being carried out under the able 
supervision of Dr. Bengough. There is already every indica- 
tion that this work will be not only of considerable interest, 
but also of great practical utility. Although Dr. Bengough is 
giving a great deal of his valuable time gratuitously, an 
investigation of this kind cannot be carried out without a 
substantial monetary backing. It will be the shipping indus- 
try which will ultimately reap the benefit of the results, and it 
is only reasonable that those engaged in that industry, which 
is now in a particularly prosperous condition, should be urged 
to contribute liberally to the requisite funds. The most 
friendly relations exist between this Institute and the various 
institutions representing shipping interests, but for the most 
part the hands of these institutions are tied in the matter of 
voting funds for such a purpose. It is therefore to the 
individual members of these bodies that our appeal must be 
addressed, and I feel sure that it will not be in vain. 

It is gratifying to be able to report that the Library and 
Museum, under the able chairmanship of Mr. Boeddicker, our 
new Vice-President, who fills the vacancy made by Sir Henry 
Wiggin retiring from inability to attend the Council meetings, 
has made satisfactory progress. The collecting together of 
specimens illustrating the behaviour of metals and alloys 

3 2 Presidential A ddress 

under various conditions is an object worthy of the fullest 
encouragement, and likely to be prolific of much good in 
more than one direction. Notably, it becomes a starting- 
point for discussions between members, and inevitably leads to 
mutual enlightenment. For this, if for no other reason, it 
would be desirable to obtain better accommodation than the 
Institute has kt present ; but we must cut our coat according 
to our cloth. It is only by a considerable increase in members 
that we can be in a position to do effectively what is needed 
and would be most beneficial to the community. 

On the principle that " Nothing succeeds like success," our 
membership ought to go up by leaps and bounds. This is 
but the fifth year of our existence, and our membership is 
606. At the same period of its existence the Iron and Steel 
Institute had 587 members, whilst the Institution of Mining 
and Metallurgy reached practically the same figure (585) in 
its seventh year. The membership of the Iron and Steel 
Institute increased to 1206 in its fourteenth year, and to 1427 
on attaining twenty-one. The corresponding figures for the 
Institution of Mining and Metallurg}^ were 1324 and 2258. 
Our prospects are of the brightest. 

Both the Iron and Steel Institute and the Institution of 
Mining and Metallurgy have a considerable number of members 
either resident abroad or belonging to foreign nations. That 
foreisrners become members of our institutions is in itself a 


very healthy sign. We are indebted to Dr. Rosenhain, who, 
in consequence of his official status and his recognized scientific 
ability, has been in a position to help us much in this direc- 
tion. I am pleased to announce that our Autumn Meeting 
will take place this year at Ghent. This, it is hoped, will have 
the effect of increasing our foreign membership. 

I have had an analysis made of the countries from which our 
members are drawn. It is both interesting and instructive. 

By a coincidence the membership in the whole of America 
exactly equals that of Europe, excluding the British Isles. 
One would like to see Canada represented by a larger number, 
but Canada from a manufacturing point of view is in its 
infancy. Still it has engineers, and there is every indication 
that its progress in the next few years will be stupendous. 

Presidential A ddress 3 3 

Analysis of Countries of Residence of Members. 


Transvaal ....... 7 

West Africa 1 

Egypt 1 

— 9 


Brazil 1 

Canada ....... 3 

United States 37 

— 41 


India ........ 7 

Japan ........ 1 

— 8 


New South Wales 1 

Queensland ....... 1 

Victoria ....... 1 

— 3 

British Isles. 

England 430 

Ireland 2 

Scotland 55 

Wales 17 


Europe {excluding British Isles). 

Belgium ....... 6 

France ........ 6 

Germany ....... 12 

Gibraltar 1 

Hungary ....... 4 

Russia ....... 1 

Spain ........ 6 

Sweden ....... 4 

Switzerland 1 

— 41 

Total number of members in January 1913 . 606 

If I may be permitted, I will once more refer to my address 
of 1894. I said: "As having an important bearing on the 
mining and metallurgical industry, another case of great want 
of national foresight may be instanced. I refer to our colonial 
policy — if policy it can be called, for it has consisted of a 
masterful rather than a ' masterly inactivity.' Yet the position 
of our country, now second to none the world has known, 


34 Presidential Address 

must in the near future be determined by its relations to its 
colonies and dependencies. This is seen by all at home who 
are not immersed up to the eyes in petty party politics, blind- 
ing them to all else. Other nations are not only fast tending 
to supply the greater part of their own requirements, but are 
even trying to oust us in our own colonies. 

" The foresight up to the present has been all on the part 
of the colonies themselves. The building of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway — to take but one instance — will be a lasting 
memorial of the enterprise and sagacity of its leaders. It is 
they, again, not we, who are taking active steps to brace the 
British Empire round with the only bonds which can ensure 
its existence and continuance — direct and cheap communica- 
tion throughout by rail and steamer, and by telegraph and 

I venture to think that this is a fair forecast of what 
has happened and is happening. In the near future Canada 
will be one of the greatest factors in the world's aflfairs and 
doubtless a strong supporter of this Institute until she shall 
be in a position to have one of her own and even afterwards. 

The " Analysis of Countries " will repay another glance. It 
will be seen that Germany has twice as many members as 
any other country in Europe. It is the Writing on the Wall. 
She neglects nothing which can be helpful in establishing and 
maintaining her commercial supremacy, an altogether patriotic 
and worthy proceeding on her part, which we should be the 
last to blame her for. The number of German members is 
a compliment to this Institute which other nations might do 
worse than follow. 

It is to the credit of our country that it inaugurated the 
type of institution represented by the Iron and Steel Institute, 
the Society of Chemical Industry, the Institution of Mining 
and Metallurgy, and our own. Its supremacy in this respect 
is acknowledged by all other nations, for they have nothing to 
equal them, and freely become members of them. The most 
remarkable case of all is that of the Society of Chemical 
Industry, which actually has sections abroad. It has at 
present sections in New York, New England, Canada, and 
Sydney, New South Wales, and its President for this year is 

Presidential A ddress 3 5 

Dr. Bogert of the United States of America. This is indeed 
a breaking down of the walls ; one touch of science making 
us all akin. 

Our Institute, departing from the practice of the Iron and 
Steel Institute and the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 
is following the lead of the Society of Chemical Industry to 
the extent of having sections in this country, a most admirable 
start having been made in Birmingham under the Chairman- 
ship of Mr. Boeddicker, who in a most modest and unassuming 
way does so much useful work for this Institute. This section 
has been so active and successful, that it is to be hoped that 
others will be formed at, say, Liverpool or Manchester, in 
the neighbourhood of which there are many works, and at 
Sheffield, which, although a stronghold of steel, has many 
other industries. 

A further analysis has been got out to supplement that 
already given. It sets forth the number of journals sold in 
various countries apart from the journals sent in the ordinary 
course to members. This analysis is also very instructive. 
It shows the large number of our journals taken by the 
United States of America, and the prominent position of 
Germany is still further emphasized, France, however, showing 
up rather better than in the first analysis. This analysis of 
journals sold is, however, somewhat imperfect, because many 
of the journals bought by booksellers in this country are 
destined for abroad, and this Institute has no means of 
ascertaining what becomes of them, so they are included in 
those put down against England. 

Analysis of '^Journals" Sold in Various Countries. 


Transvaal 6 

Egypt 3 


Brazil 4 

United States . 101 

Japan 9 

36 Presidential Address 

British Isles. 

England 421 

Scotland 22 


Belgium ........ 6 

France ...... .15 

Germany ........ 37 

Holland 8 

Russia ........ 7 

Spain . . . . . . . . . 3 

Sweden ........ 9 

Queensland ....... 8 

In any case, that so many journals have been sold is highl}' 
satisfactory. People may join the Institute for various reasons, 
but they are not likely to buy the journal for any reason other 
than that they consider it contains valuable information which 
is likely to be of use to them as manufacturers, users, or 
professional men. 

It occurred to me to examine as to the percentage of the 
three classes of which our Institute is made up. It was found 
to be as follows : — 


Number of 


Per Cent. | 

Manufacturers .... 


Professionals .... 

Total . 





Having done that, I next proceeded to obtain from the 
Secretary the information contained in the following table : — 

Number and Percentage of Papers Contributed by Members 
since the Foundation of the Institute. 


Number of 

Per Cent. 

Professional members 


Manufacturers .... 




y| j 

Presidential Address 37 

I had no idea that the percentages of the numbers of 
members in the three classes forming the Institute would 
come out as near one another as they do. A very dififerent 
tale is told, as might be expected, by the table of papers con- 
tributed. The users are setting the manufacturers a good 
example, which it is to be hoped they will not be slow to 

The position between manufacturers and users is always a 
somewhat delicate one. If the manufacturer makes inquiries 
of the user as to how the material he has supplied is behaving, 
the user might turn round and say, " Dear me ! what is the 
meaning of this ! Evidently he has no confidence in the 
material himself, notwithstanding all he has said about it." So 
the manufacturer waits till the user goes for him, and, in the 
very human desire to save his own skin, he probably retorts that 
what has gone wrong is due to improper usage. In ninety- 
nine cases out of a hundred he is very likely right. What 
is required is more mutual confidence. If users would realise 
that others are quite as straightforward as themselves a great 
step would have been achieved. It may be taken for certain 
that, except in the case of a few people in a small way of 
business, manufacturers are acting straightforwardly and doing 
their very best to build up or maintain a good reputation. 
Manufacturers are at an enormous disadvantage in not being 
able to obtain readily and continuously reliable information as 
to how their material is behaving and, above all, to what con- 
ditions it is really being subjected in use. If users would 
invite manufacturers to send a representative at reasonable 
intervals to see and discuss the behaviour of the material they 
have supplied it would be greatly to the gain of all concerned. 

Speaking as a professional man who has had a great deal to 
do with works for very many years, I say that the greatest 
diflficulty I have had to contend with has been the obtaining 
of reliable information from users. It is not merely that they 
will not give it, but more frequently they have not got it. All 
sorts of trouble and mistakes result from this state of things. 
Everybody is accustomed to think he is competent to observe, 
whereas the actual fact is that very few people are competent 
to observe. To observe accurately requires a mental training 

38 Presidential Address 

from early youth onwards, which very few people hitherto 
have had. Now that metallography and physical chemistry 
are taught at so many institutions there will not in future be 
the same excuse that there has been, and young engineers and 
works' chemists should be required to have a competent know- 
ledge of these subjects. This is a direction in which the third 
components of our Institute should play an important part. 
They are also in the position very often to take the part of 
the honest broker and bring the manufacturer and user into 
sounder relations the one with the other, by pointing out that 
the users have everything to gain by carefully and systematic- 
ally observing what is happenmg to the metals and alloys they 
are concerned with, and giving this information in a friendly 
spirit to the manufacturer with the object of helping him to 
meet their requirements, which, from a business point of view, 
if no other, he will be anxious to do. In doing this the users 
themselves will also learn a great deal, which will cause them 
to realize that the old adage, that prevention is better than 
cure, has something to be said for it, and most certainly leads 
to economy and peace of mind. 

I am sure the members appreciate at its full value the 
example set by Mr. George Hughes notably, and by others, in 
bringing suitable papers on behalf of the users before us. 

We have reviewed the relations of the three components of 
this Institute to one another. It remains to examine the posi- 
tion this Institute occupies in relation to the public, for though 
it is not definitely stated as one of the objects of the Institute 
or referred to in previous presidential addresses, every in- 
stitution of the kind possessing a charter undoubtedly has 
obligations to the public. We enjoy certain privileges and 
recognition through the goodwill of the public, and the least 
we can do in return is to safeguard the interests of the 
public in every way in our power. This may be done in 
many ways. The more fully we recognize our obligations in 
this direction, the more influential for good will become our 
Institute in relation to Government departments and other 
institutions throughout the world. 

I recall to mind a case in my personal experience in 
which, had this Institute then existed, the matter might have 

Presidential A ddress 3 9 

been looked into and an authoritative statement made which 
would have relieved the mind of the public and saved railway 
engineers much anxiety. A somewhat serious explosion in a 
locomotive had taken place which was by some attributed to a 
copper-zinc alloy having been used for the stays in the fire- 
box. The old scare as to such alloys becoming brittle in 
use, especially in the presence of vibration and a temperature 
higher than the atmospheric, was raised. As a result many 
railway engineers who had been using a copper-zinc alloy for 
this purpose, though not the alloy in question, were afraid to 
put any more in. Personally I did not think it at all probable 
that the trouble had arisen from any change in the crystalline 
structure of the metal itself whilst in use. Through the 
courtesy of Messrs. the Caledonian Railway Company and 
J. Stone & Company, I am in a position to lay before you the 
results of an investigation I have recently made in this 
matter. Some stays from the firebox of a locomotive working 
at 160 lbs. pressure which had been in use sixteen years were 
sent to me. The firebox had been stayed throughout with 
the same material and it is still in use. I have tested one of 
these sixteen-year-old stays with the following result : — 

Breaking load 21 '8 tons per square inch. 

Elongation on 2 inches .... 75 '0 per cent. 
Reduction of area 70 '0 ,, 

Stay rod of approximately the same composition made in 
November 1912 gave : — 

Breaking load 237 tons per square inch. 

Elongation on 2 inches .... 67'0 per cent. 
Reduction of area 72 "5 ,, 

That no embrittling of the material has taken place is evident 
beyond any possibility of doubt, yet these stays have been 
for sixteen years under the most trying conditions it is 
possible to conceive. They have been subjected to ever 
varying temperatures and to constant vibration and racking 
stresses, which could not fail to produce brittleness if it were 
possible for it to occur. 

I have also investigated these stays under the microscope, 
with the results shown in the photomicrographs. Figs. 1 and 2, 
Plate I., correspond to the tests given above. There is prac- 

40 Presidential Address 

tically nothing to choose between them. Figs. 3 and 4, Plate I., 
are selected areas of the same at a very much higher magnifi- 
cation. Again there is practically no difference between them. 
The dark part is a beta area and the light alpha. The slight 
granulation of the beta is an etching effect. In Fig. 5, 
Plate II., are shown, by the dark areas, the " cores " in an ingot 
of this metal recently made up. In Fig. 6, Plate II., will be 
seen in the same manner the " cores " in the sixteen-year old 
stay. That they are smaller and more broken up is of 
course due to the rolling and annealing in the production of 
the rod. 

No one having considered these tests and photomicrographs 
could possibly doubt that the metal had not changed one iota 
during the sixteen years from what it was when it was first 
put into the firebox. Other stays of similar material which 
have been in use from nine to thirteen years have been 
examined with identical results. I had not the head of the 
stay just referred to, but in the case of some similar stays 
which had been in a firebox twelve years, I have examined 
both the part of a stay which is in the water space and also 
the head which had been exposed to the fire. The cores show 
strongly in each and to the same extent. 

Fig. 5, Plate II., has a further interest for us, as it serves 
as a practical illustration to a useful paper to be read to- 
morrow by Mr. Gulliver. The cores are due to the first metal 
to solidify being richer in copper and so on in a diminishing 
degree as the crystals form. In the micrographs the cores 
are shown by the formation of a patina during the etching. 
Each core has probably originated from many centres witn 
gradual shading off. It is, however, difficult to produce a 
photograph exactly representing that condition ; the cores are 
apt to show equally dark all over. I am indebted to Mr. 
Licence for the care he has bestowed on the photomicrographs, 
which had to be produced at very short notice. 

The fact that in the sixteen-year old stay the cores show 
strongly indicates conclusively that little or no diffusion can 
have taken place in the alloy during that time. It further 
shows that in the rolling down to rod the metal had not been 
unduly heated. I would add that the cores in Fig. 5, on 

^^S :^^-^ 


t •'^ 

- ^^^-^ 

■ m 

Fig. 1. — Stay in use in Locomotive Firebox 

Sixteen Years. 

Magnified 127 diameters. 

Fig. 2. — Similar Stay Metal Rod, 

made November 1912. 

Magnified 127 diameters. 

Fig. 3. — Tlie same as Fig. 1. 
Magnified 1500 diameters. 

FiG. 4. — The same as Fig. 2. 
Magnified 1500 diameters. 

Plate II 

-Original Ingot of Stay Metal made in Novenibei- IDTJ. 
Magnified 48 diameters. 

Fig. 6. — Stay in use in Locomotive Firebox Si.xteen Years. 
^L^gnified 48 diameters. 

Presidential Address 41 

examination, will be seen to follow the boundaries of the 
alpha areas ; to be more correct, the boundaries follow the 
cores. In Fig. 6 it will be seen that the original cored areas 
have been traversed by beta crystals as a result of the rolling 
and annealing operations, without, however, the relation of the 
cores to the original boundaries having been disturbed. There 
has been no diffusion or recrystallization as we usually under- 
stand it. The subject of " cores " is worthy of further investi- 
gation by the Institute, I therefore hope that the paper to be 
read to-morrow will result in a useful discussion. 

In concluding, I should like to express my appreciation of 
the services rendered to the Institute by its secretary, Mr. 
Shaw Scott. No matter what the services of others, and in 
many cases they have been considerable, this Institute could 
not have attained the success it has had if it had not been for 
the good work of its secretary. Mr. Shaw Scott has been 
suaviter in modo, fortiter in re. These attributes augur well for 
happiness in the married life into which he is about to enter 
with the charming daughter of our indefatigable treasurer, and 
new vice-president, Professor Turner. Miss Turner, who has 
studied metallurgy and achieved success in the University of 
Birmingham, will have that sympathy with her husband in 
his work which is so very helpful. All happiness and success 
to them in the years to come. 

On this happy note I will conclude my address. During 
my year of office it will be my earnest endeavour to promote 
the interests of the Institute in every way in my power, but I 
can only achieve success if I have the sympathy and hearty 
collaboration of all three sections of the Institute. 

42 Siemens: Me ial Filament Lamps 



Dr. M. v. Pirani published in Helios (No. 46, 1912) an 
article on the development of modern glow-lamps, which starts 
by repeating the fundamental necessity of every technical de- 
velopment being guided by the requirements of the consumer. 

Foremost among these is economy in the true sense of 
the word ; that is — low first cost combined with low cost of 

In the case of glow-lamps this means low first cost, long 
life, and a small consumption of current; but, in addition, 
such a lamp should be adaptable to existing electrical con- 
ditions (varying voltages) and to existing local conditions, 
which determine its shape and size, and, lastly, that it should 
not be too sensitive to rough treatment. 

All these requirements, except one, are fulfilled by the 
carbon filament lamp ; but its high consumption of current 
(3"5 watts per candle) at one time endangered the superiority 
of electric illumination over gas lighting, which, stimulated 
by competition, had become so economic that the extension 
of electric lighting was visibly checked. 

Curiously enough, the same man whose invention of the 
'• mantle " converted gas into such a formidable competitor 
of electricity, was the first to manufacture a glow-lamp with 
an osmium filament using only half the watts per candle, 
compared with the carbon filament lamp. 

Unfortunately, this first metal filament fell short of the 
carbon filament in other respects : it was exceedingly brittle, 
it became soft at a comparatively low temperature, so that 
a lamp with horseshoe filaments could only be used in a 
vertical position with the filaments hanging downwards, be- 
cause they could not be stayed in any other position, as they 
shortened perceptibly when heated. Finally, it could only be 
manufactured for low voltages. 

* Read at Annual General Meeting, London, March 12, 1913. 

Siemens : Metal Filament Lamps 


The further development of the osmium lamp was mter- 
rupted by the appearance of the " Nernst " lamp, invented by 
Professor Nernst of Gottingen. 

By employing a conductor of the second class he succeeded 
in producing light by means of short, comparatively thick, 
rods capable of supporting themselves and as economical in 
current as the osmium lamps, although the loss of heat by 
conduction is considerable owing to the rods glowing in air. 

But there are drawbacks, the principal one being that 
the cold filament does not conduct electricity, so that some 
special provision has to be made in each lamp to heat up its 


IVatts Per 








_____^^ % c p. 


^'~~~ — ■ — - 






900 900 1000 



100 200 iOD ^00 500 600 700 

Fig. 1.— .\lteration of Candle-power and of Watts per candle with time. 
Wotan Lamps of 10 candle-power. 110 volts. 

filament ; another drawback is the property of the filament 
that its resistance rapidly decreases with increase of tem- 

On this account it is necessary to insert a resistance in 
series with each lamp to guard against the efiect of varia- 
tions of voltage. 

A decided step forward was the introduction of the tan- 
talum lamp announced by Dr. W. von Bolton and Dr. 0. 
Feuerlein in the Elektrotechnische Verein (Berlin), 17th January 
1905— E.T.Z., Heft 4, 1905. 

They described the research work which had been carried 
on in the laboratory of the glow-lamp works of Siemens and 
Halske in Charlottenburg to discover methods for producing 


Siemens: Metal Filament Lamps 

the rare metals in a commercially possible manner, and then 
to try one after the other as filaments of glow-lamps. 

Beginning with vanadium and niobium, Dr. von Bolton 
found their melting point too low for obtaining results superior 
to carbon filaments. 

In these cases he had followed the same method of work- 
ino- that Dr. Auer had adopted for the production of osmium : 
the metallic oxide had been mixed with a suitable reducing 
agent, squirted into thread-form, and heated in a high vacuum. 

Proceeding to experimenting with tantalum in the same 

Per Cent 
Cmndl£ PoweR 

Watts P£k 

100 200 300 'too 500 600 700 800 900 WOO 1100 1200 1300 1*00 ISDo' 


Fig. 2.— Alteration of Candle-power and of Watts per candle with time. Wotan Lamps of 50 candle- 
power, 220 volts. 

manner, he obtained a minute globule of metallic tantalum 
which proved to be tough and malleable. Thereupon he 
melted metallic tantalum powder, produced by the methods 
of Berzelius and Rose in vacuo, and obtained pure metallic 
tantalum which can be hammered and drawn into wire suitable 
for filaments. 

As tantalum has a very much lower specific resistance than 
carbon, the filaments of tantalum lamps, at equal voltage and 
equal candle-power, have to be two and a half times the 
length and one quarter the diameter of equivalent carbon 
filaments; e.g. at 110 volts and 25 candle-power the length 
of a tantalum filament is 645 millimetres and its diameter 
0"047 millimetre against a carbon filament 250 millimetres 

Siemens : Metal Filament Lamps 45 

long and 0"18 millimetre diameter. Moreover, the softening 
of the wire at the working temperature made it impossible to 
imitate the double or treble loop of a carbon filament. 

After a good many trials, a satisfactory solution of this 
problem was found by winding the filament zigzag fashion 
between two star-shaped supports. In this way detrimental 
alterations in the position of metallic filaments are successfully 

Further data about tantalum will be found in a Friday- 
evening discourse delivered by the author at the Royal 

PER Cent Wnrrs Per 


+ 20 




100 zoo 300 ^00 SOO 600 700 BOO 900 1000 1100 

Fig. 3.— Alteration of Candle-power and of Watts per candle with time. Wotan Lamps 
of 1000 candle-power. 110 volts. (0-85 W. P. /C.) 

Institution on 23rd April 1909, and about the history of 
metal filament lamps in three articles of The Engineer in 
December 1906. 

As the tantalum filament had all the good qualities of the 
carbon filament, but consumed only about half the current for 
the production of the same illumination, it found a ready 
application everywhere, 103 million tantalum lamps being 
put on the market during the seven years since January 1905. 

Even this great success did not stop the endeavours to 
utilize metals with even higher melting points than tantalum. 
One of these is tungsten, melting at about 3000° C, but 
it^ was generally known to be too brittle to be drawn into 
wire. To overcome this diflficulty, Just and Hanaman heated 


Siemens : Metal Filament Lamps 

a carbon filament in an atmosphere of chloride of tungsten 
whereby it was covered by metallic tungsten. Afterwards the 
carbon foundation was removed by heating in the presence of 

Auer produced tungsten filament lamps, calling them osram 
lamps, by mixing metallic powder with organic materials to a 

% Volts. 


60 -f^ 3 J 




120- " 
130- »^ 

% Volt^ %C. 








• ■♦0 



- 10 


■ no 

- 'JO 

- Me 






%Amps "/oVo/tsl'^Ohms 






f 350 

//O -f 



.7 90 


^ /oo 


■ 105 






60^ «^ 




lOO^.- 100 




Fig. 4. — Table showing dependence of C/W (Watts per candle) ; 
per cent, of Candle-power, per cent, of Resistance (Ohms) on 
the difference of potential in per cent. ... in Wotan Lamps 
(100 per cent. =1"1 Watts per candle). 

paste which could be squirted into threads, the additions being 
removed by heating in hydrogen. 

A third method was proposed by Kuzel of Baden, near 
Vienna, who converted metallic tungsten into the colloidal 
state and then squirted it into threads which were treated as 
stated above. 

Differing from these squirting methods Avas a process 
employed by Siemens and Halske, who mixed metallic powder 
of tungsten with at first about 10 per cent, (later on 2-3 per 

Sie7Jtens : Metal Filament Lamps 47 

cent.) of nickel, and pressed the mixture into the shape of rods 
which were heated in an atmosphere of hydrogen up to near 
the melting point of nickel. These rods were malleable, and 
could be drawn down to serve as lamp filaments, and their 
strensfth exceeded that of the tantalum filament. 

These filaments when heated expelled the nickel which 
would have blackened their globes. They had, therefore, to 
be heated in special containers until they had lost all their 
nickel before being placed in the usual globes. It was found, 
however, that their life was quite uncertain. 




Wotan Lamp 

Carbon Lamp 
lob loo Job ♦M 500 600 700 aob loo Tooo Houits 

Fig. 5. — Alteration of Candle-power— Wotan Lamps, starting with 1"1 W. P. C, 
and Carbon Lamps, starting with 3'5 W. P. C— with time. 

While the process was being improved, a decisive step for- 
ward was introduced by the General Electric Company (U.S.A.), 
who patented in 1909 a process for making ductile tungsten, 
which is described in the British patents 23499 09 and 
8031 10, and of which the following is the fundamental fact 
on which the change in the properties of tungsten is based, 
viz. : that " by repeated mechanical working, the tungsten 
being heated during the earlier stage of the operations, a con- 
dition is reached where the metal acquires such physical or 
molecular characteristics that further working may, if desired, 
be continued at room temperatures." 

A very full description of the process will be found in the 

48 Siefnens : Metal Filament Lamps 

Zeitschrift filr angewandte Chemie, vol. xxv. Heft 37 (13th Sep- 
tember 1912), in an article on the production of ductile 
tungsten by Otto Ruff. 

He first describes the chemical processes necessary for the 
production of pure metallic tungsten powder. 

This is pressed into rods 13 centimetres long and 4 square 
millimetres in section by a pressure of about 5000 kilogrammes 
per square centimetre (equal to about 3 2 tons per square inch). 

In order to consolidate these rods, they are at first heated 
in an atmosphere of hydrogen to about 1300° C, and after- 
wards, by passing an electric current through them, to a white 
heat until the rod is firm enough to be hammered in a swaging 

The treatment of heating the rod and passing it through a 
swaging machine is repeated until the dimensions are sufficiently 
reduced to commence rolling and drawing through diamond 
dies in the same manner as other metal wire are treated. 

Mr. Ruff concludes his article by saying that the finished 
tungsten wire is silver white and possesses a very high break- 
ing strain, attaining up to 420-460 kilogrammes per square 
millimetre (266—292 tons per square inch); it is ductile, 
tough, very elastic, and non-magnetic. In the air, at ordinary 
temperatures, it does not change, but it oxidizes on the surface 
when heated to redness. Pure hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, or 
fluoric acid hardly attack it, perhaps on account of the forma- 
tion of a film of oxide, but it is dissolved slowly by a mixture 
of hydrochloric and nitric acids, and very quickly by a mixture 
of strong fluoric acid and nitric acid. Undiluted sulphuric acid 
attacks it only at high temperatures ; for instance, Ruder 
reports* that at 200° C. only I'l per cent, was dissolved in 
eight hours. 

Tungsten wire is not attacked by hydrated alkalis, but 
is oxidized by molten alkalies such as nitrite of potash, or 
nitrate of potash and chlorate of potash. 

Returning to the article in Helios written by Dr. M. 
V. Pirani, he tells us that the Wotan lamps, having pure 
tungsten filaments, are made in sizes varying from the 5- 
candle lamp at 110 volts, with a filament O'Ol millimetre 

* Jouryial of the American Chemical Society, 1912, vol. xxxiv. p. 387. 

Siemens : Metal Filament Lamps 49 

in diameter and 330 millimetres long, to the 2000-candle 
lamp at 220 volts (having an efHciency of 0°85 watt per 
candle), with a filament 0*275 millimetre in diameter and 
2*600 metres long. 

A special kind of lamp, for projector purposes, is made 
by rolling tungsten wire into tape which radiates light at 
the rate of 1*65 candles per square millimetre surface at an 
efficiency of 0*75 watt per candle. 

The alterations in candle-power and watts per candle 
while the lamps are burning 1000 hours are shown by the 
curves on pages 4, 5, and 6, viz. : — 

Fig. 1. 10-candle lamp at 110 voltsl Starting with 
„ 2. 50 -candle lamp at 220 „ J 1*1 watt per candle. 
„ 3. 1000-candle lamp at 110 „ 085 

A table (Fig. 4) shows the variation of watts per candle 
amperes and resistance depending on the variation of volts 
(100 — normal). 

The last curve (Fig. 5) shows the variation of the illuminat- 
ing power in a Wotan lamp starting with 1*1 watts per candle 
and in a carbon filament lamp starting with 3*5 watts per 

These results, taken together with the high temperature 
at which the tungsten lamp works, make it very doubtful 
whether it will be possible to construct a much more 
economical glow-lamp, so that the consumer will have to look 
for further economy to the improvement and cheapening of 
the electric supply. 


Discussion on Siemens Paper 


Mr. Alexander Siemens, in introducing his paper, said that the 
printed paper contained a sunnnary of the history of metal filament 
lamps. People made endeavours to make glo%Y lamps with metal fila- 
ments in the early forties, but at that time neither the supply of 
electricity, nor the ap2)aratus for creating the vacuum, nor many other 
details, were in such a state as to enable them to attain successful 
results. The metal filament was taken up by Edison, who tried 
platinum, but it was not satisfactory, on account of its low melting 
point. Then the carbon filament came in, which really fulfilled all the 
requirements which could be asked of a glow lamp, except that it took 
too much current. Endeavours had therefore never ceased to produce 
a filament which could stand a higher temperature than carbon (carbon 

Fig. 1, — " Spider" wound with Tantalum Wire Filament. 

did not melt, but it disintegrated at high temperatures), and thereby 
give more economical results, and convert more of the energy into light. 
He desired to show one experiment to demonstrate that point. The 
members would notice on the table two glass jars. In one of those glass 
jars he had put a carbon filament lamp, while in the other he had placed 
a metal filament lamp. He proposed to have the jars filled with water ; 
to put in two thermometers and take a reading ; then to turn the 
ciarrent on and watch the result. Both lamps were supposed to be 25 
candle-power at 200 volts. They therefore ought to give the same light, 
but the carbon lamp consumed very much more energy, as would be 
shown by the fact that the water in which the carbon lamp was placed 
went to a higher temperature very much quicker than the one in which 
the metal filament lamp was. 

The experiment was then carried out, and Mr. Siemens subsequently 
announced that the water in which the carbon filament lamp was im- 
n)ersed showed a temperature of 95°, while the water in which the 

Disaission on Siemens Paper 


metal filament lamp was immersed showed a temperature of 68°, the 
water in the first instance, before the lamps were put in, being 58°. 
The first successful metal filament lamp, Mr. Siemens said, was made 
by Mr. Auer, who made a paste of osmium mixed with deoxidizing 
agents, which he squirted into a sort of filament, which was afterwards 
heated in an atmosphere of hydrogen, and subsequently in vacuo, so as 
to convert the metallic oxide into metal. He was so far successful that 
he produced a lamp which, instead of using 3^ watts per candle-power, 
used onl}' about r7. But the filaments so obtained were very brittle, 
and could hardly be used in any position without a special fastening. 
That led to investigations being extended to other metals. Most people 






Fig. 2. 

tried the Auer method, but progress was made by Siemens and Halske's 
discovery of how to make metallic tantalum, which proved to be so 
ductile that it could be drawn through diamond dies into fine filaments, 
which took about as much current as the osram or osmium lamps, but 
which were infinitely stronger. He gave a lecture on tantalum and its 
applications before the Royal Institution, and he would not repeat what 
he said on that occasion. Siemens and Halske went on experimenting 
ill their lamp works, which were managed by Mr. Feuerlein, who, with 
the late Dr. Bolton, first described the tantalum lamps, and in their 
research laboratories, presided over by Dr. Pirani. Dr. Pirani succeeded 
in producing an alloy of tungsten and nickel. At first he used 10 per 
cent, nickel, but gradually the mixture went down to 2 and 3 per cent. 
The lamp was in a way very successful, but the result was uncertain. 


Discussion on Siemens Paper 

While further experiments were still beinj^ made to overcome those 
difficulties, the General Electric Company in America succeeded in 



Fir,. 3. 

converting the brittle tungsten into a ductile metal by simply working 
it, heating it in an atmosphere of hydrogen, then hammering it carefully 



100-lJO »OLI 2S0.P. 

Fig. 4. 



1 • ^ ''^' 


-' T&hTTil Kli 1 iU> 

1 \K\\ nLUM LABr 
1 lOO-lSOYOLTHCr.,' 

in a so-called swaging machine, and repeating that until the rods could 
be drawn out into wire. That had been found very successful — so 

Discussion on Siemens' Paper 


successful that the wire had been drawn out to a very small diameter. 
He desired to show the members a series of slides illustrating the 
manufacture of the lamp, and he also had witli him some samples which 





Fig. 5. 

SUPPORT Of "tflDtt" 
IS HADE. -^1 

he would hand round for inspection. Before doing this he wished to 
describe the production of metallic tungsten, which consisted, in the 
first place, of the ore being converted into oxide, which was afterwards 
reduced so that the tungsten metal was obtained in the shape of powder. 





Fig. 6. 

That powder was compressed in a hydraulic press into the shape of a 
rod, but the rod was so fragile that it had to be left at first on its 
support. It was then put into a porcelain tube, which was heated from 
the outside, a current of hydrogen going through to prevent oxidation \ 

54 Discussion on Siemens Paper 

then it was hammered as he had previously stated, and was eventually 
drawn out to a very fine wire. He desired to show to the menibers a 
specimen of the finest drawn tungsten wire, which was 0"015 millimetre 
in diameter — the ./^th jiart of a millimetre. [In order to illustrate the 
transformation which was produced by the working, two slides were 
then thrown on the screen. Other slides were also projected, including 
Figs. 1-6.— Ed.] 

He now proposed to show an experiment with a filament, which was 
2V millimetre in diameter, in order to show liow strong it was. He 
would attach a weight of 500 grammes, a little over 1 lb., to that 
filament, and it would be seen that the wire held it quite comfortably. 
The strength of the tungsten was very extraordinary ; it increased as 
the wire was drawn finer. Wire which was y^^ millimetre in diameter had 
a strength of 27,000 kilogrammes per square centimetre, which corres- 
ponded to 180 tons per square inch. If it was drawn finer down to i^V^^ 
part of a millimetre, i.e. O'OIS, then the strength was 57,500 kilogrammes 
per square centimetre, corresponding to 380 tons per square inch. 

All metallic filaments possessed the quality that with increasing- 
temperature their resistance increased, and that enabled them to stand 
a much heavier overload than other lamps. The members would notice 
that a stand was exhibited containing a number of lamps. Those lamps 
were 110 volts. He proposed to ask his assistant to take out resistances 
until the full current which was available in the Institution was put on 
the lamps, namely, 200 volts. [The current was switched on, and all 
the lamps stood the overload.] 

He also proposed to show the members that metallic filament lamps 
could stand shocks. He had an 8 oz. ball, which he proposed to allow 
to run down the slope that had been prepared on the table, and hit up 
against a lamp, first, when it was not burning, and secondly, when it 
was burning. [The ball was allowed to run down the .slope.] It would 
be seen that it made no difference to the lamp, and did not break the 
filament. He akso had another apparatus, which was rather a plaything, 
to show what the lamps could stand in the way of movement. [A lamp 
was subjected to severe movement in the apparatus referred to.] 

Professor A. K. Huntington, Assoc. R.S.M. (President), said that he 
was sure all the members were very much obliged to the author for 
giving such a delightful little lecture. It made the subject so very 
much more interesting to have it illustrated in the way he had done. 
Listening to tbe paper carried his mind back thirty years, which, how- 
ever, seemed to him almost like the previous day when he recollected 
what was being done at the time. It was the time that Sir William 
Siemens introduced the first electric furnace, which was shown at the 
Smoke Exhibition, and he persuaded the late Sir William Siemens in a 
weak moment to let him (the President) have the furnace at King's 
College : he did not think the author was on watch at the time. The 
furnace remained at King's College for some months. It was a rather 
costly installation, there being five dynamos of the D 2 type, one exciting 

Discttssion on Siemens Paper 55 

the other four. He was allowed to play with that delightful piece of 
apparatus, greatly to his joy as might be imagined. Amongst other 
things he tried melting tungsten, but he found he was up against a 
proposition very much tougher than he appreciated w^hen he started the 
experiment. He found that its volatilizing point was very near its 
melting point, and that the great power of the arc playing on a small 
area volatilized the metal there without melting the rest. It was only 
after a great struggle that he succeeded in getting a solid piece of 
tungsten by building up little by little. Up to that time the tungsten 
had only been obtained in powder. He succeeded in getting pieces as 
big as the top of the thumb which contained a certain amount of carbon — 
if he remembered rightly about 1 per cent. — and they were shown at the 
British Association Meeting in 1884 at the reading of the joint paper by 
Sir William Siemens and himself. Getting that tungsten led him to 
think that tungsten would be a very fine substitute for carbon, inas- 
much as so much current would not be required. At that time Mr. 
Ferranti was with Sir William Siemens, and was in charge of the 
apparatus. They filled up a long churchwarden pipe stem with powder 
and compressed it as best he could ; he forgot whether any material was 
used to stick it together, but he did not think it w^as. Then the current 
was turned on. It was not a very ideal way of trying it, but it was 
only a first step. The substance gave out a very powerful light, and 
eventually the current was turned on to such an extent that the whole 
thing blew up. It was not thought desirable, for one reason or another, 
to go on with the matter ; it was before its time, he supposed, and the 
idea was not followed up. He could not help thinking that if it had 
been followed up, tungsten lamps might have been in existence years 
and years ago, with considerable advantage to electric lighting. How- 
ever, it was no good crying over spilt milk, although it made his mouth 
water to look at the beautiful examples exhibited that morning and 
think of what happened thirty years ago. He did not know whether 
the author remembered it, but personally he had not forgotten it. With 
regard to the question of the strength of the material, it was a great 
pleasure to him to see the tungsten come out as it had, because he had 
always held that if a metal was malleable in alloy with other metals 
it was malleable itself. He might be wrong, but it had always been in 
his mind that that was actually a fact. The converse of that did not 
of course hold good. A metal might be brittle in an alloy, and yet 
might be malleable in itself, because compounds might be formed which 
were brittle although the components of the metal were not themselves 
brittle. In conclusion, there were one or two questions he would like 
to ask. With regard to the strength of the tungsten wire, he would 
like to know how it compared with steel when drawn down to the same 
diameter, because it was well known that the finer metal was drawn 
down, the greater the strength. With regard to the process for pro- 
ducing tungsten wire, the members had been told that alternate heating, 
hammering, and swaging were used. He desired to know whether that 
was the reason for the effect stated, or whether it was the withdrawal of 

56 Discussion on Siemens Paper 

the carl)on by the presence of hydrogen wliich led to the vdtimate mallea- 
bility of the tungsten being worked on. 

Mr. Arnold Philip, B.Sc. (Member of Council), said the preparation 
of tungsten was so novel that practically all one who had not had an 
opportunity of preparing it and experimenting with it could do was 
to ask questions. He did not think any information was contained in 
the literature he had seen on the subject which dealt with the physical 
properties of tungsten. No doubt the manufacturers of the wonderful 
material Mr. Siemens had described were in a position to state its specific 
gravity and its resistivity. Its melting point must be so high that its 
determination must involve great difficulties ; he would like to know if 
it had been possible to determine it. Personally he was accustomed to 
think of the diameters of the wires not in terms of millimetres but in 
terms of thousandths of an inch. He had just jotted down the figure 
which Mr. Siemens stated as the diameter of the wire which had a 
strength of 380 tons per square inch, namely 0"015 millimetres, and found 
that this was equivalent to a little more than half a thousandth of an inch. 

Mr. Siemens said it was one-sixtieth of a millimetre. 

Mr. Arnold Philip agreed with Mr. Siemens. Half a thousandth of 
an inch was a very fine fibre, the toughness of such a fine tungsten wire 
was quite extraordinary. He had been interested to hear the President 
ask the question as to what was the ultimate tensile strength of steel wire 
drawn down as fine as that. He fancied plough steel wire ran to about 
130 tons, but that would be in the form of a comparatively thick wire, 
and if it were drawn down to very fine diameters it would no doubt 
be considerably higher. But he thought it was improbable that steel 
wire had ever been drawn down as fine as half a thousandth of an inch. 

Mr. AV. H. Johnson, B.Sc. (Vice-President), thought the paper presented 
many points of interest in regard to the use of the rarer metals, by which 
he meant metals that were uncommon and were only just beginning to 
be used, such as tungsten and tantalum. He took great interest in the 
figures which the author had quoted as to the wonderful breaking strain 
of tungsten. 

Mr. G. A. BoEDDiCKRK (Member of Council) said that two points in- 
terested him specially in the paper, the first being that the production 
of a homogeneous ductile metal from a refractory powder simply by 
pressure was the only instance with which he was ac([uainted. Another 
point had interested him greatly, on which he hoped the author would 
give further information, namely, how the metal was annealed during 
the process of drawing it down to such a fine size. 

Mr. E. L. Rhead, M.Sc. Tech. (Manchester), said that if the President's 
views that metals which were malleable in their alloys would themselves be 

Discussion on Siemens Paper 57 

malleable if properly treated were correct, it should be possible to obtain 
malleable antimony and bismuth, since an alloy of antimony and tin con- 
taining more that 10 per cent, of the former metal could be rolled -with 
ease. In the case of tungsten enormous changes had been induced by the 
mechanical treatment to which it had been subjected, but the probability 
of obtaining similar results with antimony and bismuth was much more 
remote, as the two metals in question had been known and experimented 
with for so long. The field for research in that direction was much less 
promising. Another point that might be further remarked upon was the 
facility with which tungsten took up carbon at high temperatures. In 
early attempts at reduction he had been unable to obtain the metal with 
less than about 10 per cent, carbon. The brittleness was attributed to 
the presence of that element. He further asked whether the carbon 
deposit formed by the process of "flashing" on the older type of squirted 
filament had any eftect on its strength and durability. 

Mr. J. P. Bedsox (^lanchester) said that as a steel wire drawer 380 
tons per square inch breaking strain struck him as being very marvellous, 
and he would very much like to be let into the secret that would en- 
able him to make steel which would give anything like half that amount 
with safety and durability. Steel was capable of being drawn down to very 
small sizes, but when one got into the neighbourhood of 30 it was very 
difficult work indeed. Although he knew of steel in fine sizes giving 
150 to 180 tons breaking strain per square inch, still the drawing of the 
wire to that weight impoverished the material. The question that he 
particularly desired to ask the author in relation to the wire was whether 
it would stand any bending at that high strain of 380 tons or whether it 
was brittle at that point. He did not know whether he was right in 
assuming that the tungsten wire should be annealed again before it was 
applied to the lamp and bent round. High-strained steel wire which 
was to be used for pianos in the finer qualities of wire, had to stand 
a bending test round a peg. All high class wire had to stand a test 
round itself and back again three or four times over, so that the 
members would appreciate there was a good deal of life left in the 
wire at 120 tons when it was capable of doing that. It would be of 
great interest if the author would state what bending the tungsten 
filament would stand, and whether a pinch of tungsten in a melt of steel 
would add 50 or 100 tons to the working strain per square inch. If 
that were the case it would be very valuable to wire-drawers. 

Mr. George Hughes (Member of Council) said he desired to make 
only one remark, namely, that, as representing a very large consumer, 
he thought it only right that he should testify to the excellence and 
reliability of the author's lamp. 

Mr. F. W. WiLLcox (British Thomson-Houston Company) stated, 
it was very difiicult for anyone to do justice to such a large subject 
as Metal Filament Lamps in a very short paper such as this, and no 

58 Discussion on Siemens Paper 

doubt this was a difficulty tlie author had experienced. In such a short 
paper one necessarily would have to omit many important matters. 

The first point to be commented upon was the efficiency value given ; 
this value was evidently based on " Hefner " candle-power and not 
an English candle-power. It would be very desirable to have the author 
state if Hefner candle-power values were referred to. 

]\[r. Alexander Siemens said that the figures were based on Hefner 

Mr. WiLLCOX, continuing, said that the Hefner candle-power had 
a 10 per cent, lower value than the English, so that the efficiency values 
stated in the paper would, on an English basis, be 10 per cent, poorer 
values, i.e. not so high an efficiency by 10 per cent. Furthermore, in 
the values given on page 47 it should be noted that the efficiencies which 
lamps would require to give the life results shown would vary with the 
voltage and size of lamps. The efficiency of any metal filament lamp 
was poorer for the higher voltages (200 volts), than it w^as for the lower 
(100 volts), and also poorer in general for smaller sizes than for larger 

It was hardly possible to over-emphasize the credit due to Von Wels- 
bach in the development of metal filament lamps. No doubt if the 
paper had been longer, the author would have been able to have given 
more emphasis to the important work of Von VVelsbach. It was through 
the latter's w'ork that it became possible to make the tungsten filament 
a commercial possibility. He was the first to teach the world how 
to make a coherent filament from metallic powder. His work, however, 
was confined to the one metal — osmium, which metal he considered the 
appointed metal for filaments. Von Welsbach gave the process, and 
it was for others to take advantage of it and apply it to a more practi- 
cable metal than osmium. Just and Hanaman were fortunate in making 
that application. The so-called .Just and Hanaman process of manu- 
facturing tungsten filaments was wrongly referred to by the author. 
The processes used by the licensees under the Just and Hanaman patent 
were two, one to take the tungsten powder, mix it with an organic 
binding medium, squirt filaments, baking them to make them conductive, 
and then pass current through them in an atmosphere of hydrogen and 
water vapour, the purpose of the hydrogen being to prevent the tungsten 
from oxidization, and the water vapour to remove the carbon by oxidi- 
zation, so as to leave a filament of pure tungsten. 

In view of the above, it would seem that the author was in error in 
the statement that Auer produced tungsten filaments, when he really 
confined himself to osmium. After Just and Hanaman had applied 
Auer's process to tungsten the manufacturing production of a tungsten 
filament lamp was taken up by the Auer Co. (D.G.A. of Berlin). The 
author had omitted to refer to the work of Dr. Coolidge, of U.S.A., on 
the use of amalgam binders and on the use of alloy metals, which were 
quite important developments in the application of metallic filaments. 

Discussion on Siemens Paper 59 

The development of the drawn tungsten wire filament was a most 
revolutionary development because it was thus made possible to correct 
the one deficiency of tungsten lamps by making the lamp durable and 
comparable in strength with ordinary carbon filament lamps. The pro- 
duction of the tungsten lamp was made a much more definite process 
as the result of using a continuous filament which could be wound in 
an unbroken length on its supports, in place of the previous sectional 
filament which had to be spliced and held together at various points. 

Mr. Edward J. Bolton (Oakamoor) said it was not quite clear to him 
from the author's remarks how it was possible to swage a bar of tungsten 
small enough to draw it through a diamond die without any intermediate 
process, such as rolling or something of that sort. 

]\Ir. Alexander Siemens remarked that rolling was done ; he omitted 
to mention it. 

Mr. Alexander Siemens, in reply, said he thought Mr. Willcox had 
not appreciated all he had said in his paper of Dr. Auer von Welsbach. 
Welsbach and Auer were one and the same man. He had given references 
to some other papers because he did not wish to burden his present paper 
with details, and the work of Dr. Auer von Welsbach was fully appreciated 
there. In those papers the process which Dr. Coolidge had proposed 
(also sc^uirting lamp) was mentioned, but he did not think it was worth 
while to spend much time in referring to squirted lamps, because that stage 
in the manufacture of metal filament lamps had been passed, and nobody 
would dream of making them now. Mr. Bedson wanted to get a steel 
with half as high breaking strain as that of a tungsten filament. He 
desired again to refer to the fact that the 380-ton material was a very 
fine one. AYhen the filament was -^ millimetre diameter the strength 
was 180 tons per square inch, Avhich, as has been said, was also that 
of very thin steel wire. If still thicker material was used, of course, the 
breaking strain diminished, but anyhow it seemed stronger than steel. 

Mr. Boeddicker was astonished that homogeneous metal could be 
produced by pressure. It was not strictly pressure alone. The coher- 
ence of the little rod when it left the hydraulic press was very small 
indeed ; it could very easily be disturbed and made to fall to pieces 
again. That was put into a porcelain tube and heated while hydrogen 
was passed through the tube. Then it seemed to get a little more 
strength ; it was then heated again in a current of hydrogen, and an 
electric current was passed through it to make the particles adhere to 
each other still more. Eventually it was passed through a swaging 
machine which just touched it ; it did not do much to it. Between each 
pass through the swaging machine and the next it was put again into 
a porcelain tube through which hydrogen went, and it was heated. 
After it had been passed through the swaging machine and through rolls, 
it was not necessary to heat it any further, although it was very often 
done. There was perhaps a little less mechanical power necessary to 

60 Communications on Siemens Paper 

draw it down, but it was perfectly ductile while it was cold, and it did 
not want any annealing at all in the that steel was annealed ; it 
did not get hard. The diameter of the wires was calculated from the 
length and the weight. The wire exhibited was t;V milimetre in diameter 
and had a 500 gramme weight on it. The wire could be bent ; as a 
matter of fact it had been wound round in order to fasten the weight on 
to it, and also at the top as well, so that it seemed to be absolutely 
elastic. With regard to the physical |»roperties of the tungsten, he 
had quoted in his paper what ]\Ir. Kuif said in his article, " That the 
finished tungsten wire is silver white and possesses a very high breaking 
strain, attaining up to 420-460 kilogrammes per square millimetre 
(266-292 tons per square inch); it is ductile, tough, very elastic, and 
non-magnetic." That was the information Mr. Philip asked for. The 
President asked whether the withdrawal of carbon was the cause of 
the ductility. The powder was prepared from the dioxide W0O3, and 
was absolutely pure. Very great care was taken during the reduction 
not to bring any carbon anywhere near it, so that the powder which was 
eventually compressed was absolutely pure tungsten. It was very neces- 
sary to make it as pure as it could be possibly obtained in order that it 
should adhere a little bit. If, however, any carbon got into it it was taken 
out by the hydrogen which was passed over it. He had already stated 
that the steel, according to Mr. Bedson, was really quite as strong as 
tungsten, and he desired to remind the members in addition that tungsten 
had been used as an alloy of steel, and that the alloy was exceedingly 


Professor A. K. Huntington, Assoc.R.S.M. (President), wrote, with 
reference to Mr. Rhead's remark regarding tin and antimony, pointing 
out that in an alloy of tin with 10 per cent, of antimony a hard, brittle 
tin-antimony compound in cubical crystals of the approximate com- 
position SbSn was formed, which remained in suspension in the ex- 
cess tin. It was a condition which existed in many white bearing 
metals. Those crystals would separate from the excess tin if the mixture 
were kept molten and undisturbed for a sufficient time at a low tempera- 
ture. If such a mixture could be rolled it was due to the great .soft- of the excess tin, and it in no way disproved what he (Professor 
Huntington) had said. 

Mr. E. L. Rhead, M.Sc.Tech. (Manchester), wrote, that he would like 
to ask the author whether filaments of drawn wire were as suitable for 
alternating as direct currents, or whether a change took place that rendered 
them brittle and thus reversed the effect of the mechanical treatment ? 

Mr. Siemens, in reply to Mr. Rhead, wrote that drawn tungsten 
filaments were as suitable for alternating as for direct currents. 

Philip : Contributions to the History of Corrosion Gl 




By ARNOLD PHILIP, B.Sc, A.M.I.E.E., Assoc.R.S.M. 
(Admiralty Chemist). 

Distilling apparatus is largely used both on merchant 
steamers and on ships of the Royal Navy for the purpose 
of preparing fresh water, not only for washing and cooking 
purposes, but also for supplying the make-up feed water for 
the steam boilers. 

The distilling apparatus consists in general of two parts. 
Firstly, a cylindrical boiler or evaporator which is fed with 
sea water either by hand or automatically. In this sea water 
a steam heating coil is either partially or totally immersed. 
Through this steam heating coil a current of high-pressure 
boiler steam (primary steam) is passed at a temperature of 
from 240 to nearly 400° F. 

The raising of the sea water surrounding the coils to this 
temperature causes it to boil, and the steam (known as 
secondary steam) which is thus evolved from it passes over 
into the second part of the distilling plant. This is known 
as the distilling condenser, and is in general very similar 
in construction to the forms of main and auxiliary condensers 
used on steamships. 

There are, however, one or two differences between the 
construction of the distilling condenser and the auxiliary and 
main condensers as now generally used in H.M. service which 
should be noted. In the distilling condenser the steam passes 
through the condenser tubes and the cooling water circulates 
outside them. This is the reverse of the usual practice in 
main and auxiliary condensers. Secondly, the tubes in the dis- 
tilling condenser are usually vertical and expanded into the 

* Read at Annual General Meeting, London, March 12, 1913. 

02 Philip : Contributions to the History of Corrosion 

tube plates, whilst in the iniiin and auxiliary condensers they 
are horizontal and pass through watertight glands in the 
tube plates.* 

It is interesting to remark here that, whether on account of 
the fact that the distilling condenser tubes are vertical, or 
whether because they are expanded at their ends into metallic 
contact with the tube plates, or whether because the sea 
water circulates outside the tubes inside a steel casing instead 
of inside the tubes, no case is known to the author of corrosion 
trouble occurring to the tubes in these condensers on their 
sea- water side. This statement that corrosion is absent on the 
sea-water side of condenser tubes in a distilling condenser 
merely represents the author's personal experience and the 
results of the inquiries he has been able to make, and to this 
extent it appears to confirm the views already expressed by 
him in previous communications to the effect that by far the 
greater part of the trouble with the corrosion of condenser 
tubes with sea water is due to the presence of carbon or other 
electrically conducting relatively electro-negative body de- 
posited along the inside of the tubes at the bottom, and that 
on the other hand practically all the other less important 
corrosive actions can be stopped by the use of masses of 
properly connected iron and steel or perhaps aluminium and 
zinc as protective metals. 

Notwithstanding this freedom from corrosion of the tubes 
of distilling condensers upon their outer or sea-water surfaces, 
very great difficulties have been experienced from the corrosion 
of these tubes upon their inner or steam surfaces. 

From time to time in the past, what in the aggregate is 
a large number of cases have occurred in which very serious 
corrosion has taken place on the steam side of the condenser 
tubes of sea-water distilling apparatus. 

The trouble usually first made its appearance by the 
presence of what was believed to be priming in the distilling 
evaporator. This was indicated by the fact that the water 

* It should be stated that distilling condensers of other patterns in which the cooling 
water passes through the tubes and also in which the tubes are horizontal are used, 
but the type most generally employed until recently is that here described, and the 
remarks as to corrosion on th3 sea-water side of distilling condenser tubes must be 
understood to apply to this form Of condenser only. 

Philip: Coiitrihit ions to tJie History of Corrosion 63 

from the distilling condenser gave a precipitate or cloudiness 
when tested with silver nitrate solution. More marked symp- 
toms of corrosive action were indicated by the distilled water 
possessing a disagreeably metallic taste, and reports from various 
ships showed that soap used with such water sometimes gave a 
light bluish-green curd. In one case the distilled water, after 
boiling in the ship's " copper," was used for making tea, and 
gave a black coloured infusion, whilst the ship's " copper " 
(actually made of iron) became coated internally with metallic 
copper. In short the distilled water contained copper, and 
on examining the distilling condenser tubes they were found 
to be markedly corroded on their steam side. The corrosion 
was so active that the distilled water in once passing through 
the tubes dissolved sufficient copper from them to produce the 
troubles referred to. The cause of the presence of the copper 
was at first, as stated above, attributed to the priming of the 
sea water in the evaporators, and the action of the sea salt thus 
passing over into the distilling condenser tubes was looked upon 
as causing the solution of the copper. This view appeared to 
be confirmed by the fact that the usual silver nitrate test 
of the distilled water seemed always to demonstrate the 
presence of salt. 

Early endeavours to reduce the effects of the supposed 
priming were made by coating the insides of all the condenser 
tubes and other steam pipes with tin, whilst steel and zinc 
vapour baffle plates and protector blocks were placed in the 
head of the evaporator and in the vapour pipe connecting 
the head of the evaporator with the distilling condenser. 
Both these remedies were found to eftect a temporary cure, 
but unfortunately after a while th3 same troubles reappeared. 
The degree to which these difficulties, due to the corrosion 
of the tubes and the presence of copper in the distilled water, 
were noticed was found to vary a good deal in difterent ships, 
and even in the same ship marked fluctuation occurred from 
time to time. 

The author's first examination of a case in which corrosion 

of distilling condenser tubes had been observed was in August 

.1904, and on looking through previous correspondence upon 

this and other similar corrosions he found, in a letter written 

G4 Philip : Couiribulions lo the History of Corrosion 

by an engineer officer in 1903, the suggestion that as part 
of the heating surface of the primary steam coils in a 
particuhir evaporator was under normal conditions of working 
left above the sea-water level, it was possible that this getting 
quickly coated with scale and consequently overheated might 
evolve hydrochloric acid from the magnesium salts found 
in the deposit, and that it was the acid thus evolved Avhich 
caused the corrosion observed in the distilling condensers. 

This observation appeared to be a very probable explanation 
of the corrosive troubles which had been noticed, and steps 
were at once taken to fully examine the particular case then 
under question from this point of view. 

It was found that generally evaporators may be divided 
into two classes, namely, those containing drowned heating 
coils {i.e. in which the primary steam coils are completely 
immersed in the sea water or brine which they are used 
for heating), and those in which the primary steam coils are 
only partially covered with water. 

Experiments made on board a ship which was fitted with 
evaporators both of the drowned coil type and the partially 
exposed coil type showed that when connected to the 
distilling condenser the drowned coil type evaporator always 
made water practically quite free from copper, whilst the 
evaporator with the exposed heating coils when connected to 
the same condenser gave water which contained copper. 

The brine from both types of evaporator was then examined, 
and it was found that from the drowned coil type it had a 
very faintly alkaline reaction to phenolphthalein, whilst the 
brine from the evaporator having the partially exposed heating 
coil possessed a very strongly alkaline reaction to the same 

On opening up an evaporator and examining the inside sur- 
faces of the walls of its casing, it is usually found that the lower 
portion, which contains the sea water or brine which is under- 
going evaporation, is coated all over with a brilliant white in- 
crustation, and this white incrustation extends upwards above 
the level of the brine, as far in fact as the water can splash 
when boiling. Above this region, however, the inside surfaces 
of the head of the evaporator (if it is not of the drowned coil 

Philip: Contributions to the History of Co7'rosion 65 

variety) are usually much corroded and coloured a deep 
orange-brown. The tops of the steam coil, as far as they 
project above the surface of the brine, are also thickly coated 
with white incrustation. Chemical analysis shows this in- 
crustation to be a mixture of calcium sulphate and basic 
sulphate and chlorides of magnesia, together with a consider- 
able proportion (2 '3 5 per cent.) of magnesium hydrate. This 
incrustation is normally heated up to practically the same 
temperature as that of the primary steam, i.e. to a temperature 
considerably over that of the boiling brine, and it is at the 
same time constantly splashed with the boiling brine itself. 
Under these conditions the magnesium chloride present is de- 
composed, hydrochloric acid is evolved with the steam, and a 
strongly alkaline incrustation and also an alkaline brine are 

The chemical tests on the white incrustation and the 
alkalinity of the brine itself clearly show that some acid must 
have been driven off by the process of treating the sea water 
in the evaporator. Sea water is itself quite neutral to phenol- 
phthalein to commence with, and the amount of alkaline base 
found to be separated was much greater than could be ex- 
plained by any other hypothesis than that hydrochloric acid 
had been driven off. 

In order, however, to demonstrate beyond dispute that 
hydrochloric acid was actually evolved, it was considered 
desirable to prove its presence in the distilled water. 

This was a matter of some little difficulty, on account of 
the very small amount in which the acid was present, namely, 
from 01 to 0-05 or less parts of HCl per 100,000. To deter- 
mine the acidity of such a weak solution by direct titration is 
not a satisfactory procedure. Hydrochloric acid is so volatile 
that it is not possible to concentrate it by evaporation. The 
distilled water, besides containing hydrochloric acid, also con- 
tains sodium chloride due to slight priming, and also chlorides 
of copper, tin, and zinc, formed by the acid water flowing 
through the condenser tubes. The quantities of these 
metallic, chlorides which are present in the water are of 
about the same order of magnitude as the amount of hydro- 
chloric acid itself. As these salts lose HCl on evaporating to 

60 Philip : Contributions to the History of Corrosion 

dryness, the method of determining the difference between the 
total chlorine present in the water and then the chlorine 
present in the solid residue after distillation to dryness does 
not give the correct amount of free hydrochloric acid present. 

The method of test which was finally adopted was to add 
sufficient of a saturated solution of pure sulphate of silver 
(7 72 grams per litre) to the water. This causes a precipitate 
of silver chloride to be formed, and free sulphuric acid equi- 
valent to the amount of free hydrochloric acid present is 
liberated : after heating to coagulate any silver chloride 
formed, it is filtered off and a large bulk of the water thus 
treated is evaporated down to a small bulk. This then 
contains all the free sulphuric acid. To demonstrate that it 
was free sulphuric acid a portion of it was dropped on a piece 
of lump sugar, and this was heated for an hour in a water oven 
at 210° F. The presence of the sulphuric acid was demon- 
strated by the blackening of the sugar as the acid became 
concentrated, whilst a similar piece of sugar treated as a con- 
trol with a residue from ordinary distilled water to which the 
same amount of the silver sulphate solution had been added 
gave no blackening. In order to be certain that the silver 
sulphate was itself quite free from acid before use it was washed 
by boiling up with successive small quantities of distilled 
water, and the washed salt was employed for making up the 
silver sulphate solution used in the experiments. The actual 
determination of the amount of the free acid present was 
carried out by a titration on the concentrated residue, obtained 
from a further portion of the water under examination, after 
it had been treated with the pure silver sulphate solution as 
described above. 

Tests carried out in this manner showed that the water 
obtained from distilling plant which caused corrosion of the 
condenser tubes, and which contained copper, invariably also 
contained free hydrochloric acid. 

The amount of copper present in such waters is conveniently 
estimated by a colorimetric test, using potassium ferrocyanide 
in comparison with standard solutions of a copper salt. 

The results of some actual tests made upon samples of 
water obtained from two distilling plants, in which one had an 

Philip : Contribtitions to the History of Corrosion 6' 

evaporator with the upper portion of its primary steam coils 
above the surface of the boihng brine, whilst the other had its 
steam coils drowned (that is to say, completely immersed 
beneath the surface of the brine), are here given : — 

Typs o*^ Evaporator. 

Coils e.vpobed 

above the Surface 

of the Brine. 

Drowned Coils 

Rate of working evaporator in tons of )^ 
distilled water per diem . . j 

Pressure of primary steam in lbs. per I 
square inch absolute . . . ) 

Corresponding temperature of primary | | 
steam . . . . . . I 


Pressure of secondary steam in lbs. per | 
square inch absolute . . ) 

Corresponding temperature of secon- |^ ; 
dary steam . . . . . ) ' 

Copper in grains per gallon present in | 
the distilled water obtained . . )' i 

Reaction of the brine in evaporating toi 
phenolphthalein . . . . • 

Reaction of dislilled water to methyl |^ 
orange . . . . . . ) 


IG tons 

S tons 

215 lbs. 

60 lbs. 

S37-4° F. 

292-5° F. 

30 lbs. 

27 lbs. 

258° F. 

244 -r F. 







1.3 tons 
40 lbs. 

267-1° F. 
18 lbs. 

221-9° F. 



5 tons 

25 lbs. 

240° F. 

15-5 lbs. 

214-5° F. 






At the date at which these results were obtained, 1904, the 
method of determining quantitatively the amount of free 
hydrochloric acid present had not been worked out, but tests 
for free hydrochloric acid made upon other samples of distilled 
water by the silver sulphate method a few months later 
showed, as has been stated above, that this acid in the free 
state is always present in the distilled water obtained from an 
evaporator in which the primary steam coils are exposed in 
the secondary steam space above the brine. 

From the results given above, however, it is apparent that 
the rate at which an evaporator is worked, or, in other words, 
the temperature of the primary steam, caused the amount of 
copper in the distilled water, and therefore of the hydrochloric 
acid formed in the evaporator, to vary. The more the evapo- 
rator is pressed, the greater the amount of hydrochloric acid 

68 Philip: Contributions to the History of Corrosion 

formed in a given time. There is further some evidence to 
show that the evolution of hydrochloric acid from the salts in 
sea water may not only be caused by the heating of the saline 
incrustation on the heated steam coils, but that this acid may 
also, but to a much smaller extent, be given off' from the in- 
crustations formed on the lower sides of the evaporator shell, 
and also possibly even from the brine itself, and in a given 
form of evaporator the formation of free hydrochloric acid is 
favoured by the high temperature of the primary steam coils 
and the strong concentration of the brine. To obtain the least 
quantity of hydrochloric acid from a given evaporator, it is 
therefore necessary to avoid too great a concentration of the 
brine by suitable adjustment of the sea- water feed and brine 
cocks, and also, and most eff'ectively, to reduce the rate of 
evaporation as much as possible. Both of these methods of 
remedying the trouble are, however, faulty, for they both tend 
to render the evaporator inefficient. The best remedy is to 
only use evaporators with drowned steam coils. 

The passage of copper into the boilers with the feed water 
is, of course, most undesirable from the point of view of boiler 
corrosion, and it has been proposed to avoid this by passing 
the distilled water through a scrubber of large granulated 
zinc or small zinc blocks. The feed tank into which the water 
from the distilling condensers is pumped is usually fitted with 
zinc protectors attached to its walls. In the absence of zinc 
scrubbers, if owing to defects in the evaporators the presence 
of copper in feed water is unavoidable, its harmful effects may 
be best minimized by keeping the water alkaline with lime, 
for this causes the objectionable soluble copper salt to be con- 
verted into the comparatively harmless insoluble precipitate of 
cupric hydrate, but this palliative with boilers running at high 
pressures, and in the presence of organic oils, must be regarded 
with distrust. 

From what has been stated above, it is evident that the 
measure taken to prevent the presence of copper in the dis- 
tilled water, by tinning the condenser tubes, causes the tempo- 
rary disappearance of the copper, because tin instead of 
copper is dissolved from the inner surfaces of the condenser 
tubes, and this metal is not readily detected in the distilled 

Philip : Contributions to the History of Corrosion 6 9 

water, whilst directly the tin has been removed by the acid 
water the copper will once more make its appearance. The 
use of steel or zinc baffle plates in the head of the evaporator, 
and zinc protector blocks in the vapour pipe, also cause a 
temporary removal or diminution of the amount of copper in 
the distilled water, due to the fact that the baffles, &c., remove, 
or partly remove, the hydrochloric acid from the evaporator 
steam, but as the plates become rapidly corroded, they be- 
come inefficient and the trouble again appears. 

The serious nature of the corrosion which may occur, due 
to the acid evaporator steam, is well shown from the following 
extract from a description by an engineer officer of what 
occurred in a ship using evaporators with steam coils which 
were not drowned: — 

" The brass valves and valve seatings wear in the most ex- 
cessive manner, in fact it appears as though one or more 
constituents of the metal were eaten out of it altogether, and 
only a hard mass left ; this remark applies particularly to the 
vapour valves, through which the secondary (gained) steam 
passes. ... It is no new thing, but has been going on for the 
past three years. The fresh water made always has a metallic 
taste, and when worked with soap turns a very slightly pale 
greenish colour ; but the fresh water made by a second 
evaporator which has drowned coils is perfectly fresh, tasteless, 
and good, and gives no colour with soapy water, although the 
steam is condensed in the same distilling condenser as the 
unsatisfactory Avater from the other evaporator." 

70 Discussion on Philip's Paper 


Dr. G. D. Bengough, M.A. (Liverpool), in opening the discussion, 
thought the paper was a most interesting contribution to the history of 
corrosion, and that the author might reasonably claim to have proved 
his case that hydrochloric acid was really the cause of the corrosion he 
had seen on distilling condenser tubes. He had no criticism to offer on 
that part of the paper. As a matter of fact, he was rather ready to 
accept that explanation, quite independently of the evidence that the 
author had brought forward, because he had been investigating for s^ome 
time an analogous action, and he had come to the conclusion that hydro- 
chloric acid might occasionally be formed in ordinary condenser tubes — 
not distilling condenser tubes — such as the main condensers of a ship in 
the mercantile marine. He thought the hydrochloric acid might arise 
from the hydrolysis of zinc chlorides, and perhaps iron chlorides. He 
had collected a certain amount of evidence on that point, so that he was 
more ready to accept the evidence that the author now brought forward 
in a rather different case. He thought the hydrochloric acid was 
formed in the case of mercantile marine condensers, rather than in the 
Royal Navy, because the author had stated that corrosion was ob- 
tained in the main condensers of the Royal Navy only in exceptional 
cases ; whereas his (Dr. Bengough's) laboratory showed that there 
were a large number of cases of corrosion going on in the mercantile 
marine, his room being a sort of museum of defective tubes. He thought 
the reason hydrochloric acid formed in some of the mercantile marine 
condensers and did not form in those of the Royal Navy was that much 
less care was taken in the treatment of the condensers in certain cases in 
the mercantile marine than under the very stringent regulations that 
were issued by the Admiralty to their engineers for the protection of the 
condenser tubes. He hoped on a future occasion to put before the 
members some evidence that hydrochloric acid could act very seriously 
in the case of certain mercantile marine condensers. There were a few 
questions he Avished to ask the author in order to obtain from him a little 
additional information. He would like to know first of all what form 
the corrosion took in the condensers — whether it took the form simply 
of a severe general attack on the condenser tubes, or whether it 
took the form of pitting and dezincification, giving little copper spots 
on the tube. He would like to ask the author also whether the distilling 
condenser tubes were entirely emptied of water when they were not work- 
ing, or whether the water was allowed to remain in them and just made 
up from time to time. He also wished to ask how long the corrosion 
took to show itself : was it a very quick action, or did it take place fairly 
slowly ? In connection with the table given on page 67 the results there 
given were obtained in 1904 ; and he would like to ask whether, owing 
to the fact that drowned coils were now used, the trouble to which refer- 
ence had been made had entirely ceased % 

Discussion on Philip's Paper 71 

Sir Gerard Muntz, Bart. (Past-President), said he had not much 
to say, because, like his friend Dr. Bengough, he did not know enough 
yet about distilling condenser tube corrosion to be able to say much 
about it. He desired to congratulate the author, not only on his paper 
but on his candour, because not very long ago he understood the Admi- 
ralty never had any trouble with condenser tubes or condensers — that 
they had obtained perfection, and that they had nothing further to look 
forward to. It was always of great interest to him when he obtained a 
little bit of side information giving the experience of the Admiralty on 
the subject of condensers, and he thought the figures which the author 
had given pointed to the fact which, speaking as a manufacturer, he had 
been trying to drill into the heads of people for many years, that the 
trouble must not always be sought where it was found. By that he 
meant that when corrosion was found going on in a condenser tube it 
was by no means certain that the trouble arose in the condenser tube. 
In the course of the last few weeks he had an opportunity of discussing 
the matter with various authorities — the scientific specialists referred to 
at the Dinner on the previous evening — and five out of six distinguished 
gentlemen from the scientific side had expressed to him, without his asking 
or suggesting it to them, the opinion that in no case, or in very few 
cases, had they ever found the trouble in corrosion arose from anything 
in the constitution of the tube. That was a very wide confession to 
come from five gentlemen. He would not mention their names, because 
he did not want to hurt their feelings or commit them for the future ; 
but he gave the members his Avord of honour that they made that state- 
ment to him in the course of the last two or three months. The paper 
went far to justify their existence as an Institute. It showed how very 
ignorant the members were, how much they had to learn, how much they 
had been looking in the wrong direction, and how very fortunate it was 
that they had an expert like Dr. Bengough engaged in a special research 
on corrosion, so that they might eventually arrive nearer the truth than 
they had done in the past. 

Dr. G. H. Bailey (Kinlochleven) said he did not find himself able 
entirely to agree with the attitude taken up by Dr. Bengough. He did 
not accept the hypothesis that hydrochloric acid was necessarily the 
cause of the corrosion, and he did not find from the paper that the 
author was very keen to believe it himself. It seemed to him that 
hydrochloric acid had been hit upon as a last resort as the only means 
of accounting for the removal of copper from the tubes. It had always 
struck him that the oxygen in the water was a very important factor 
in such matters. In the first place, it must be remembered that water 
containing oxygen could actually dissolve copper. The second difficulty 
which arose was that the hydrate of copper which was formed might 
be expected to separate out. He was thinking personally more particu- 
larly of the copper, because copper was spoken of in the paper. Hydrate 
of copper in the presence of a certain amount of organic matter, such 
as would occur on the steam side of the tube, would be easily taken into 

72 Discussion on Philip's Paper 

solution. The members were perfectly aware that in a colloidal form 
hydrate of copper would dissolve freely in water. There was thus no 
difficulty, therefore, in keeping the water charged with a certain amount 
of copper, provided oxygen was present. If there was no oxygen present, 
then the chemical expert and the chemist particularly would find a 
difficulty in arranging formulae or conditions under which he was able 
to get the copper into solution without calling to his aid hydrochloric 
acid. It was also to his mind absolutely convincing, if what he said was 
true — (and if what he said was true it was a striking confirmation of 
it) — the fact that drowned tubes avoided the trouble, and that only 
where air was capable of access did trouble arise. Precisely the same 
condition of things happened in regard to aluminium. Aluminium 
exposed to water was acted upon with great readiness, but aluminium 
exposed to water that had been boiled and from which all the air was 
expelled was absolutely unacted upon. Aluminium that was exposed 
to strong salt solution was absolutely unacted upon if there was no air 
present. He had had aluminium exposed to such water for four months, 
and absolutely no action had taken place. There was one other point 
that he hoped he might be permitted to mention. He did not quite 
gather whether, when the author said that he was unable to determine 
the presence of hydrochloric acid, because it was so volatile and therefore 
distillation would affect it, that experiments were done to make quite 
sure that that statement was a true one. As a matter of fact, the state- 
ment in the paper was to the effect that apparently it was not considered 
desirable — he did not know whether that was the attitude or whether 
the thing was absolutely tried — to find the amount of hydrochloric acid 
by distillation because hydrochloric acid was so volatile. As a matter of 
fact there was the strongest evidence that if weak hydrochloric acid was 
distilled water passed off, and if strong hydrochloric acid was distilled 
hydrochloric acid passed off, until a certain balance of strength was 
reached ; but that did not convince him that, with minute quantities of 
hydrochloric acid, that would be true. A good many years ago now he 
had a case where hydrochloric acid was alleged to have been produced 
from boiler water containing magnesium chloride and such materials. 
In order to satisfy himself as to whether it was possible, even if hydro- 
chloric acid were formed in the boiler, that it would distil over, he took 
the trouble to make very weak solutions of hydrochloric acid and distil 
them. He found that, as a matter of fact, no trace of hydrochloric acid 
passed over until the hydrochloric acid in the retort became comparatively 
strong. There was absolutely no trace. He would like to ask the 
author, with regard to the statement that was made about hydrochloric 
acid, whether experiments of a similar nature were done in order to 
make it quite sure that it was not possible by distilling with water to 
get a residue which wOuld be capable of being tested as to its acidity ? 
His own experience would lead him to think that it would be so 
possible ; and if the experiment had not been tried it would certainly 
be one worthy of repetition. After that lapse of time he could not recall 
what was the exact strength he used, but he could assure the members 

Discussion on Philifs Paper 73 

that it was a strength of acid certainly lower than ^^ per cent. It was 
merely intended to show that traces of hydrochloric acid, if in water, 
would be left behind as a residue after distillation, 

Mr. E. L. Rhead, M.Sc.Tech. (Manchester), said that Dr. Bailey had 
dealt with most of the points in the paper to which he intended to have 
referred, and he would therefore confine himself to asking one or two 
questions. He would like to know first of all whether the author had 
established the fact that hydrochloric acid would attack copper, and that 
without the presence of oxygen. The evidence in the paper certainly 
was not sufficient to give that intimation, or to destroy a well-cherished 
fact, so far as the members knew at present, that copper was not attacked 
directly by hydrochloric acid, but that in the presence of oxygen the 
action went on somewhat freely. So far as the paper was concerned, he 
thought the question of the drowned coils somewhat established the 
necessity of an excess of something — air he took it — on the top of the 
cooling liquor. The second question he desired to ask following upon 
that was whether experiments had been tried with water. They 
might be carried out, perhaps, in deaerated water in an oxygen-free 
atmosphere, in order to jirevent air from being taken up by the water. 
He believed that one of the remarks made by the author with regard 
to the action of hydrochloric acid upon certain condenser tubes referred 
rather to brass tubes than to copper tubes. 

The President, interposing, said he took it that the tubes referred to 
in the paper were copper-zinc tubes. 

Mr. Arnold Philip said the tubes were all made of condenser tube 
composition — copper-zinc. 

Mr. Rhead said he was extremely sorry if he had misunderstood the 
paper, but it certainly gave him the impression that copper tubes were 
referred to. In that case the remarks he had made re hydrochloric acid 
would not have the same weight. 

]\Ir. Arnold Philip, in reply, said he was afraid he had rather taken 
it for granted that the members knew the exact form of apparatus that 
was used for distilling condensers, and he therefore did not give, as it 
might have been better if he had done, a diagram in the paper. [Mr. 
Philip then made a diagram on the board similar to that reproduced 
on page 74. — Ed.] 

The cooling sea water enters the distilling condenser at A and passes 
out at B, and a portion of it is fed into the bottom of the evaporator at 
C, and leaves the evaporator in the form of brine, or hot concentrated 
sea water at D. The brine in the evaporator has a primary steam coil 
passing through it from E to F. This steam, which may be supplied 
direct from the boilers, heats up the brine, causing it to boil, and itself 
becomes condensed, and is pumped away at F to the feed tanks. The 
steam from the boiling brine passes into the space G. It is known as 


Discussion on Philip's Paper 

the secondary or gained steam, and passes over into the distilling con- 
denser, and is condensed as it flows through the vertical distilling con- 
denser tubes, and is finally pumped away at K to the feed water tanks. 
The details of arrangement of the primary steam coil flow of cooling 
water, and method of using distilled water from the condensed primary 
and secondary steam, are very varied, but the very diagrammatic sketch 
given below, and this short description, are probably sufficient to make 
the present paper intelligible. 

Mr. Philip said that the chief differences between the distilling con- 
denser and the main or auxiliary condensers — and even these were not 
fixed differences, it was a matter of practice largely — were, firstly, that 
such condensers when used for main and auxiliary condensers were as a 
rule made horizontal, and secondly, whilst in ordinary main and auxiliary 

D Evaporator with Drowned Distilling Condenser. 

Steam Coils. 

Diagrammatic Sketch of General Arrangement of a Sea-water Evaporating Plant. 

condensers, the sea "water usually went through the tubes — not invariably, 
but in modern practice generally. The steam, in fact, was in the space 
outside the tubes. In the distilling condenser of which he was now 
speaking, the steam went through the tubes and the sea water circulated 
outside them. In the ordinary main or auxiliary condenser the scale was 
inside the tube ; in the distilling condensers he Avas now describing, the 
scale from the sea water was outside the tubes ; otherwise it was quite 
similar to an ordinary main or auxilliary condenser. He was afraid, 
from what had been said, that he had not made these points sufficiently 
clear in the paper, and if so it was certainly liable to lead to some 
confusion. He would for convenience deal with the discussion in an 
inverse order. Mr. Rhead considered that it was necessary to demonstrate 
that hydrochloric acid would not by itself attack copper or metals, but 
considered the action to be largely due to the presence of oxygen. But 

Discussion on Philip's Paper 75 

he fully agreed that oxygen must be present. Oxygen was always pre- 
!^ent iu the sea water fed into the distiller evaporator. It was fed in 
by automatically controlled pumps, or the feed might be controlled by 
hand ; it was heated up by the primary steam, and this steam was 
separately condensed. Sea water was always alkaline to litmus but 
neutral to phenolphthalein, and it contained a large amount of air. And 
when he referred the corrosion he had ascribed to the action of hydro- 
chloric acid he wished it to be understood that air was also always 
present. It was self-evident from the construction of the evaporator 
that that was so. The fact that it was hydrochloric acid with the air, 
and not the air by itself, which caused the corrosion, was fairly clearly 
proved, he thought, by the circumstance that if the evaporator tubes were 
drowned, although air was still present in the sea water and came off with 
the steam, the hydrochloric acid was not generated because the evaporator 
tubes did not emerge above the surface of the brine, and consequently the 
corrosion took place. With a different form of evaporator in which no 
tubes did emerge above the surface of the brine ; their exposed surfaces got 
splashed with the brine, and thick encrustations were formed on them 
from the salt in the brine, and as the primary steam was at a higher 
temperature, and sometimes at a considerably higher temperature, than 
the bi'ine, the dissociation of the magnesium chloride took place on the 
exposed surfaces of the evaporator tubes, in the space containing the 
secondary steam and air hydrochloric acid Avas formed, and corrosion of 
the distilling condenser tubes took place. To demonstrate that it was 
not air by itself which caused the corrosion, he relied therefore on the 
experiments he had described, in which two different forms of evaporator 
had been successively connected to the same condenser, in the evaporator 
having drowned tubes, no hydrochloric acid was formed and no corrosion 
was observed, whereas in the evaporator with exposed tubes free hydro- 
chloric acid was formed and corrosion of the distilling condenser tubes 
took place. Sir Gerard Muntz had made some very kind remarks, but 
had credited him personally with having more assurance on the resistance 
of Xavy-type condenser tubes to corrosion than he really possessed. It 
might be supposed that he must have stated somewhere or other that he 
had never seen any corrosion at all in condenser tubes. But he did not 
think this was so. Corrosion did occur even in Admiralty tubes. All 
he had said was that the percentage of corrosions causing perforation and 
pitting was very low. There must be some millions of tubes in actual 
use in the Royal Xavj^, and a very much larger number in the mercantile 
marine, and in the latter the number of corrosions obtained was stated to 
be very considerable. Dr. Bengough said that he had a museum of cor- 
roded pieces. The number must, however, be something extraordinarily 
large if it represented even a very small percentage of the total number 
of tubes in use in the mercantile marine. The number of pitted corro- 
sions and perforations with which he himself had met formed a very 
small percentage on the number in use in the Royal Navy, and as a 
rule the time taken for setting up such corrosion was fairly prolonged. 
Dr. Bengough asked whether pitting occurred in distilling condenser 

76 Discussion on Philifs Paper 

tubes. It did, although, as a matter of fact, he bad not inspected many 
of the tubes which had thus Ijeen corroded. The trouble as a rule 
showed itself by the copper appearing in the distilled water. People 
complained when they had their bath, not that they came out blue, but 
that the soap came out blue, and that when they made tea it went black, 
the reason being that the water was boiled in a "copper" (which was 
really made of iron), the copper being deposited inside the " copper " and 
iron passing into the water causing the black colouration with the tannin 
off the tea. To get rid of the copper the practice had been to tin the 
distilling condenser tubes inside, and this apparently caused the trouble 
to disappear, i.e. black tea was no longer obtained, and there was no blue 
colour in the bath water, and the evolution of the hydrochloric acid there- 
fore passed unnoticed. Various means of putting protector bars and 
baffle plates in the head of the evaporator of iron, steel, and zinc also 
appeared to stop the trouble for a time. With regard to the emptying 
out of the condensers when not at work, he was not quite sure that Dr. 
Bengough followed that the steam or inner side of the tubes was always 
emptied. The condensed steam naturally ran down and was pumped 
into the feed tank. There was, as a rule, no corrosion at all on the outer 
or sea-water side of the distilling condenser tubes. As to the action 
being quick or slow, it appeared at once — that is, the indication of copper 
in the distilled water appeared at once, and the corrosion must clearly, 
therefore, take place also at once. He had been very much interested 
to hear Dr. Bengough's remarks about free hydrochloride acid being 
the cause of corrosion in the tubes of ordinary condensers. AVhy he 
(the speaker) found it difficult to conceive that free hydrochloric acid 
could effect corrosion in the tubes of ordinary condensers, speaking 
only of the type used in the Royal Navy, was, because both the 
corrosion and the deposit occurred on that side of the tube surface 
over which the sea water flowed. Now the sea water was alkaline 
to litmus, and thus, according to this view, the cori-osion in the auxiliary 
and main condenser tubes was taking place from free hydrochloric 
acid on the sea- water side, where an alkaline solution was flowing over 
the surface of the metal which was corroding. However, a scale was 
also usually formed on the surface of the metal under corrosion which 
was also of a basic character, consisting in part of carbonates of lime, 
magnesia, &c., and it was always, as far as his experience went, rather 
markedly basic in character, although it did not have an alkaline re- 
action to phenolphthalein. Dr. Bengough also credited him with having 
made the same statement as that to which Sir Gerard Muntz referred, 
namely, that he had maintained there were no tubes in the Navy which 
corroded. He wished to emphasize the fact very strongly that there were 
very few involving localized corrosion and pitting, and that those corrosions 
of this character which did occur were not due, as far as he had been 
able to ascertain, to the composition of the metal ; they were due to 
other causes. The cause of 80 to 90 per cent, of them was the presence 
of ashes or some other electric conducting materials deposited in the 
bottoms of the tubes. If the tubes were used with the sea water out- 

Communications on Philif s Paper 77 

side them, and particularly if they were vertical, a very large class of 
corrosions disappeared at once, whilst if the tubes were in actual metallic 
contact with the casing with attached protector bars of steel, aluminium, 
or zinc, or if the casing was of steel, not 90 per cent., but probably 99'9 
per cent., of the corrosion which he had seen would be prevented. It was 
an opinion to be taken for what it was worth, but he thought it was 
the correct view. 

Professor A. K. Huntington, Assoc.R.S.M. (President), in dealing 
with the question of the action of hydrochloric acid, said that some little 
time ago he had a boiler stay sent him which had a composition some- 
what analogous to the tubes referred to by Mr. Philip. The stay had 
had the zinc removed from it in places, and he found that the depth 
the zinc had been removed was in direct ratio to the thickness of the 
deposit on the stay. Where there was a thick deposit of scale there 
the zinc had been removed to a corresponding extent, and where there 
was very little scale there was very little zinc removed. He came to 
the conclusion at the time that it was due to magnesium salt in the 
scale. He did not carry out any investigations on the point, although 
he thought of doing so, and hoped to do so one day, so that the remarks 
Mr. Philip had made on the subject were of very considerable interest to 
him. The particular stay to which he referred had a slot in it in one 
part which was filled up solid with deposit, and the removal of the 
zinc was at its maximum there where there was very little access of 
water. He did not at the moment know the exact position the stay had 
been in, whether it was totally immersed or partially exposed. It would 
accumulate more deposit on the top side than on the bottom, and the 
part showing the removal of the zinc had presumably been on the upper 

He thought the members were extremely indebted to the author for 
his paper, which was a very useful contribution to the corrosion ques- 
tion, which they were all so much interested in, and he desired to 
propose a hearty vote of thanks to him for the paper. 


Mr. H. J. Young (Wallsend-on-Tyne) wTote that he had met a 
similar type of phenomenon when dealing with the residues from 
marine boilers and steam chests. If these residues were heated in a 
test-tube at a comparatively low temperature vapours came off which 
were acid to litmus. In some cases he had been unable to detect either 
chlorides or sulphates in the residues, yet in all cases under his notice 
the acid vapours had been evolved. He remembered one residue com- 
posed merely of the oxidized elements of cast iron together with free 
iron and carbon, and mineral oil of very low acidity, and no chlorides or 
sulphates whatever. He thought Mr. Arnold Philip had opened out a 
subject not only of great interest, but also one of immense importance 

78 Attthors Reply : Philifs Paper 

to more than the non-ferrous industries, and the remarks he had made 
above were merely introduced with a view to pointing that out. 

Mr. Arnold Philip wrote that on reading over the printed di.scussiou 
he had l^ecn impressed by the fact that both Dr. Bailey and INlr. Rhead 
still appeared to doubt that the corrosion he had described was due 
to the action of hydrochloric acid in the presence of air ; indeed the 
former speaker even considered that he, the author, was not convinced 
that the theory he had himself proposed Avas correct. He wished there- 
fore to emphasize the fact that in his opinion the statements he had 
made in the paper gave an overwhelming proof that the observed corro- 
sion was due to hydrochloric acid, and he could not help feeling that if 
Dr. Bailey would make a careful perusal, outside the atmosphere of 
discussion, of what he had recorded even he would become convinced. 

With reference to Mr. Young's remarks he feared that the circum- 
stances of the case which he referred to were too incompletely known, 
or not sutHciently fully described, to permit of it being treated as an 
example of the same kind of action as that with which he had dealt 
in the paper. 

Bailey : The Cori'osion of Alut7iinium 79 


By G. H. bailey. D.Sc, Ph.D. 

Taken in its widest sense, the question of the corrosion of 
aluminium is much too large to be dealt with in a single 
communication. Furthermore, it is of a diverse nature both 
in regard to methods of inquiry and to results, so that when 
we examine the action of the atmosphere or atmospheric 
agencies, the action of water under varying conditions and 
purity, the action of mineral or organic acids, of alkalies and 
alkaline salts, and of organic liquids, we are confronted with a 
series of sectional and more or less independent investigations. 
In the present communication I propose to confine myself to 
the consideration of the corrosion of aluminium by water and 
by solutions of common salt, and to give some of the results 
of investigations with which I have been from time to time 
engaged during the past three years. The literature con- 
nected with this subject, some references to which are given 
at the end of this paper, is already quite considerable, and I 
do not intend to refer to it in detail. Many of the experi- 
ments that have been published are, however, open to criticism, 
partly on account of the methods employed and partly in 
consequence of the material upon which the experiments have 
been made, and hence the conclusions that have been drawn 
are apt to be misleading. 

There are, for instance, investigations from authoritative 
sources m which the rate of corrosion is determined by refer- 
ence to the weight of metal employed, when manifestly this 
factor must be referred to the surface exposed to action. In some 
cases the value attaching to estimates is lessened by the con- 
sideration that the samples of metal used Avere of a very low 
grade of purity — usually under 99 per cent, purity — whereas 
the bulk of the metal which is supplied for commercial use, in 
this country at all events, is of 99 per cent, to 99*5 per cent, 
purity. Moreover, impurities which are still liable to exist in 
the metal, such as sodium and copper, and which have a very 

* Read at Annual General Meeting, London, March 12, 1913. 

80 Bailey : The Corrosion of Aluminium 

marked effect on the extent of corrosion, are apt to be ignored 
in the investigation of corrosion, whilst other impurities whose 
eifect is usually negligible are given too large a significance. 

An interesting series of determinations bearing upon the 
effect of copper on corrosion appears in the 8th Report of 
the Alloys Research Committee, by Carpenter and Edwards, 
pp. 216 and 254. 

Estimation of the Extent of Corrosion. 

The first step towards obtaining some definite knowledge 
relating to the corrosion of aluminium must involve the adop- 
tion of a method of ascertaining Avith approximate accuracy 
the amount of metal removed or acted upon during the 
exposure, and it is perhaps of greater importance that the 
method adopted should be capable of use in the hands of 
different experimenters and yield comparable results than 
that it should be rigidly accurate. 

If aluminium sheet be exposed to the action of water for 
some days, it will be found that the water becomes slightly 
turbid owing to the formation of hydrate of alumina. On the 
sheet being removed and the surface rubbed, a further amount 
of such solid matter is obtained. It is seldom, however, that 
the whole of the adherent deposit can be removed by rubbing, 
for the sheet will, even after such treatment, usually be found 
to be slightly heavier than it was when first placed in the 
water. The deposit on its surface, though essentially alumina, 
varies in character and composition according to the nature 
of the aluminium sheet and of the water employed, and, with 
impure waters, may contain some matters derived from the 
water itself. 

Messrs. Heyn and Bauer (Konigliches Materialprlifungsamt 
Gross Lichterfelde West) recognized the difficulty of removing 
and estimating such deposit, and determined the adherent 
portion (which is as a rule larger than the amount suspended 
in the water) by exposing the sheet subsequently to the action 
of dilute sulphuric acid, evidently on the assumption that the 
acid would dissolve the deposit without notably attacking the 
metallic aluminium. 

Bailey : The Corrosion of Ahmziniui7i 81 

Unfortunately, the reverse is the case, for usually the 
exposure necessary to remove the deposit is so prolonged 
that it is quite impossible to ignore the action of the acid 
upon the aluminium, nor have I found it practicable even 
by a consecutive series of immersions and weighings to arrive 
at the amount of the deposit in this way. The association 
of chromic acid with sulphuric acid hastens the removal of 
the deposit, but does not attain the desired result. Other 
reagents and other means have been tried, but without any 
satisfactory issue. I have therefore in my experiments used 
the method now described. 

Method for Determining Kate of Corrosion. 

A sheet of aluminium, of at least 100 square centimetres 
surface, is cleaned by the application successively of ether, dilute 
caustic soda, and dilute nitric acid, subsequently being well 
washed and heated for some hours at about 100° C. to get rid 
of moisture. It is then weighed, the weight being taken as W. 

It is now totally immersed in say half a litre of water, or 
solution, at a known temperature, and left with occasional 
agitation for at least forty-eight hours. 

The sheet is then removed and, so far as possible, cleared 
of deposit by rubbing. The whole of the substance so re- 
moved or previously suspended in the water is filtered off, 
ignited, and weighed. With good ordinary sheet this material 
consists almost entirely of alumina, and in view of minor 
corrections, which need not be referred to, may be taken as 
representing half its weight when expressed in the form of 
metal. The weight so found being represented as w, it is 
evident that, ignoring the adherent deposit, the sheet should 
now weigh W — to. 

Now expose the sheet for some hours to a temperature of 
about 200° C. to render alumina anhydrous, and weigh it. 
This new weight being represented as iv\ the expression 
w' — (W — to) gives the amount of adherent deposit, and this 
similarly is reduced so as to be expressed in the form of metal* 

* The total aluminium removed by corrosion may, for practical purposes, be more 
simply expressed as three-fourths of the weight of suspended and removable matter 
added to one-half of [w' - W). 


82 Bailey : The Corrosion of Aluminium 

With very impure metal, or when very impure waters or 
solutions are employed, the residue obtained in both cases 
may be of more complex character, and must be submitted 
to further examination. But in general the amount of metal 
removed may be ascertained from the above factors. An 
actual example will make the matter clearer and indicate 
the order of magnitude of the materials dealt with. A strip 
of aluminium sheet, whose weight was 6"4978 grammes and 
surface 150 square centimetres, was exposed to good tap 
water at boiling temperature for eight days ; the suspended 
deposit weighed 10 milligrammes; the sheet after rubbing 
weighed 6 "506 2 grammes. The deposits amounted to 10 
and 13*4 milligrammes respectively, and the metal removed 
by the action of the water was thus 11"7 milligrammes. This 
represents a rate of corrosion amounting to very nearly 
1 milligramme of aluminium per day per 100 square centi- 
metres of surface exposed. 

Nature of Corrosion. 

An examination of the liquid in which the metal has been 
placed shows that, except in waters containing free acid or 
alkali in notable quantity (and such waters are rare amongst 
domestic supplies), no aluminium whatever -passes into solution, 
and that the corrosion is purely a question of oxidation of the 
aluminium to alumina at the expense of the oxygen dissolved in 
the water. This important result may be further established 
by exposing the metal to water from which the air has been 
expelled. Samples of aluminium sheet have indeed been 
exposed under such conditions, not only to water but also 
to a strong (15 per cent.) solution of common salt for several 
months without undergoing any corrosion. It follows also 
from this of course that, especially if the surface of aluminium 
be large in comparison with the volume of water used and no 
measures are taken for renewal of the air contained in the 
water, the rate of action gradually diminishes. 

This is most strikingly the case when hot, and particularly 
boiling, solutions are used. For instance, a sample of sheet 
exposed to the action of water at about 95° C. for thirty 
days showed a rate of corrosion — ■ 

Bailey: The Corrosion of A huninmm 83 

During the first day equal to 3 '3 milligrammes per 100 cm.- per day. 

next 7 days equal to 1'2 milligrammes per 100 cm."- per day. 
., 11 ,,' ., 0-3 

,. 11 .. ,, 0-1 

This falling off is also partially due to the protective action 
of the deposit formed on the surface of the metal, so that 
vessels or tubing exposed to continuously heated water under- 
go very slow corrosion. 

Limitations of the jMethod. 

Determinations made by the method described above serve 
only to ascertain the amount of the metal removed by 
corrosion, and have little direct bearing on the specific nature 
of the physical phenomena or other exceptional conditions 
often associated with corrosion. Nor do they afford any 
explanation how it comes about that tw^o particular samples, 
substantially of the same composition, may show somewhat 
different rates of corrosion ; or to what extent the attack on 
the metal is evenly distributed over the surface, or more or 
less confined to pitting and small areas. Such problems, 
however, cannot be elucidated except by the application of 
special and independent methods of inquiry. 

The simpler question dealing alone with the extent to 
which good and well-annealed aluminium sheet is acted upon 
by various potable waters or solutions or reagents is one of 
supreme importance in regard to the commercial uses to 
which aluminium is put. I am also quite prepared to admit 
that in minor details the method proposed may be open to 
criticism, and that the values it gives are in all probability 
somewhat too high. A considerable experience of its appli- 
cation in practice, however, indicates that under the variations 
which occur normally in the course of investigation and also 
in the hands of different observers comparable and reliable 
results are obtained. 

Experimental Results. 

Below are given the amounts of corrosion of metal, having 
various grades of purity and character, during exposure to 


Bailey: The Corrosion of Aluminium 

water and solutions of common salt. I have also added, 
although this contribution is not intended to deal with the 
action of acids and alkalies, a few instances illustrating by 
way of comparison the rate of corrosion by weak solutions 
of some acids and of caustic soda. Though in the earlier 
part of the paper I have expressed the results in milligrammes 
per day per 100 cm.^, the data given helow are stated in grains 
per day per sgiiare yard of surface. 

Index Figure and Composition of Samples. 







per Cent. 

per Cent. 

per Cent. 




















99 06 

0-116 per cent, sodium. 












































0-30 per cent, copper. 
















Samples exposed to the Action of good Tap Water. 


Amount of Corrosion at 


10° C. 

100° C. 
























"1 In metal where the silicon exceeds the iron 
!- the corrosion products are almost entirely 

J adherent to the metal. 
Sample containing copper. 

Bailey: The Corrosion of Ahtfninium 
Samples exposed to Solution of Common Salt. 



Amount of Corrosion at Various Concentrations. 


At 10° C. 

At 75° C. 


1 per 

5 per 

10 per 

15 per 

3 per 

15 per 



















11 -3 






Contained much sodium, i 



,, ,, ,, 1 










, , 


55 5 












Contained copper 



>> i> 




They may be converted into the metric form by dividing 
by 1-29. It may be added that a corrosion amounting to 
10 grains per day per square yard, i.e. 10 units, as stated above, 
implies the removal of a film -^Toth part of an inch in thick- 
ness of metal by continuous action extending over a whole 

Sampdes exposed to very had Tap) Water. 

These waters contained exceptionally large quantities of 
mineral matter, including alkalies; they had a distinctly 
alkaline reaction. 


Amount of Corrosion at Various Temperatures. 

Water A. 

Water B. 

Water C. 

10° C. 

75° C. 

10° C. 

75° C. 

10° C. 

75° C. 



15-8 3-2 




6 Bailey: The Corrosion of Aluminium 

Comimrative Statement of Rate of Corrosion hy Acid and Alkali. 




































General Conclusions feom Foregoing Results. 

1. That in general the greater its degree of purity, alumi- 
nium is less acted upon by water and salt solutions. 

2. That in presence of copper or sodium the corrosion is 
notably accentuated. 

3. That where the percentage of silicon is higher than that 
of the iron the action is less pronounced in the case of water 
and acids, and more pronounced in salt solution. 

4. That water and common salt solution, from which air 
has been expelled, have no corrosive action. 

5. That corrosion is accentuated («) at high temperatures, 
{h) by the presence of impurities in the water, especially 

G. That unannealed metal is much more seriously corroded 
than annealed metal, owing no doubt to the unequal physical 
condition of the metal in the unannealed state. 

7. That the results obtained by acting on aluminium with 
acids or alkalies afford no definite indication of its behaviour 
in presence of water or aqueous solutions. Had it been 
possible to establish any parallel, the investigation of the 
corrosion of aluminium would have been much simplified, 
since the difficulties presented by the formation of suspended 
or adherent deposit would be eliminated. 

Bailey : The Corrosion of Aluminium 


Watson-Smith. — "Action of certain Solutions on Aluminium and Zinc." 
Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, 1904, p. 475. 

Carpenter and Edwards. — Eighth Report of the Alloys Research Committee, 
1907, pp. 216, 254 et seq. 

F. VON FiLLiNGER. — Z. Unters. Nahr. Genussm. in 1908, p. 232. 

J. T. W. EcHEVARRi. — "Aluminium and some of its Uses." Journal of 
the Institute of Metals, No. 1, 1909, vol. i. p. 125. 

E. K. Davis. — "The Use of Aluminium for Non-Corrosive Purposes." 
Metal Industry, 1910, p. 109. 

E. Heyn and 0. Bauer. — Mitteilungen der Konigliclien Mater ialpriifungsamt, 
1911, p. 2. 

88 Discussion on Bailey s Paper 


Dr. G. D. Bengough, M.A. (Liverpool), in opening the discussion, said 
that 'Dr. Bailey, in referring to the remarks that he (Dr. Bengough) 
made on the last paper, said that he under-estimated the important part 
that oxygen played in corrosion. He did not do so at all. He entirely 
agreed that oxygen played a very important part in corrosion, not only 
in the case of aluminium, but also in the metal he was investigating, 
namely, brass ; in fact, he believed the primary action in the corrosion 
of brass was the formation of copper and zinc oxides, secondary reactions 
taking place and resulting in the formation of basic salts. So far was 
he from underrating the importance of oxygen on the question of corro- 
sion, that he felt convinced that the author's account of the oxidation 
and the relation between oxidation and corrosion of aluminium was 
correct. He thought the author's method of estimating the amount of 
corrosion was sound and satisfactory, and, with possibly small errors that 
might be obtained in the method, it would come well within other 
inaccuracies that might be obtained in connection with the very difficult 
investigation of corrosion quantitatively. From what the author had 
said in connection witn the paper, he thought the course of the corrosion 
ran very parallel indeed between aluminium and brass. The factors 
that the author found affected the corrosion of aluminium, he (Dr. 
Bengough) found affected the corrosion of brass. The author found 
that the rate of corrosion with almniniuni fell off as time went on. He 
(Dr. Bengough) had found exactly the same alteration in the rate as 
time went on with brass. The ditferences between the two cases were 
largely due to the fact that in the case of brass they were dealing with 
very adherent oxides which did not fall off readily, whereas in the case 
of aluminium they were not adherent. They also got secondary re- 
actions, particularly in connection with zinc, which did not occur in the 
case of aluminium. He had not investigated aluminium at all, but he 
fully accepted what the author said on the subject. In brass they got 
zinc going into the solution (but not copper), so that the case was very 
analogous to the one described by the author. They had less difficulty 
than Dr. Bailey in one way, in that, although they had secondary re- 
actions to investigate, they had not the same trouble in investigating the 
loss of weight, because the films of oxide that were formed were very 
thin and perfectly adherent. In one way they were better off, but in 
another way they were worse off, because they still had further things to 
investigate. There was a fair parallel in certain features with the 
corrosion of brass, and the phenomena that he found differed in some 
ways from the phenomena which were accepted pretty generally in con- 
nection with the corrosion of metals. The idea of direct oxidation was 
anathema in certain quarters in physico-chemical studies, but the author 
had evidently come to the conclusion that oxidation which appeared to 
be direct was a very important point in corrosion, and he had been 
gradually coming to that conclusion himself in connection with brass. 
So that in certain respects they stood shoulder to shoulder against the 

Discussion on Bailey s Paper 89 

pretty big body of physico-chemical opinion, though conclusive proof 
was still lacking. 

Dr. R. Seligman (London) wished to say, in the first instance, that 
he thought the author's complaint that so many corrosion determina- 
tions were made with reference to weight, was fully justified. It was 
a very unscientific method of dealing with the question, and did not 
lend itself to comparison in any way. At the same time he thought 
those who threw stones ought not to live in glass houses, and he did 
not know that it helped the members to compare the results of the 
author with those of other workei^s to talk of "good tap water" and 
" bad tap water." That was not a very accurate description of the 
materials used. The next question which he desired to touch on was 
the list of papers given by the author at the end of his communication, 
in which he referred to some of the previous workers on the subject. 
When he came to look at the conclusions arrived at by the author, he 
found that four of them were conclusions arrived at by one of the 
authors whose works were thus referred to. Those who had read Heyn 
and Bauer's paper would remember that they were the first to prove 
that if air was kept out of the solutions no corrosion took place. They 
carried on their experiments, if he remembered rightly, for about four 
or five months, and found no corrosion at all when air was excluded. 
Then they also laid it down that corrosion was accentuated by high 
temperatures, and they also gave a very long list of experiments on the 
effect of impurities in the water. Then they discovered — he thought it 
was a very valuable discovery — the effect of the physical state of the 
metal, i.e. whether it was annealed or unannealed. He thought there- 
fore that the author would not have strained his generosity if he had 
referred to Heyn and Bauer rather more explicitly. Similarly, in regard 
to the author's third conclusion, as to the percentage of silicon and its 
effect, that matter was dealt with by Formenti about eight or nine years 
ago, who also showed the protective action of silicon in stopping cor- 
rosion by water. There was one difference he noticed (to which Dr. 
Bengough referred) between the author's results and those of Heyn 
and Bauer. Heyn and Bauer made the statement that the first action 
in the corrosion of aluminium by water was the solution of aluminium, 
and subsequently oxidation took place at the surface of the liquid, but 
Dr. Bailey stated that no solution took place. He would like to ask the 
author whether he had done any definite experiments on that point, 
because there was nothing in the paper to guide the members as to 
whether that was correct or not. It seemed to him an extremely diSi- 
cult question to solve, and therefore one required to be careful in 
making the statement. He now desired to deal with a point which he 
ventured to think was of very considerable importance. The author 
said on page 83 that his method was exclusively intended to determine 
the amount of aluminium removed or oxidized during corrosion. It 
pretended to do nothing else, and the author stated so very clearly. 
But in the next paragraph he noticed the author said that determina- 

90 Discussion on Bailey s Paper 

tions so made on well annealed aluminium were of extreme importance 
from the point of view of the durability of the metal. There he found 
himself absolutely at variance with the author, basing his view on a 
considerable experience of the metal. When one was discussing the 
corrosion of aluminium by water and such solutions as the author was 
dealing with, the gravimetric determination of the amount of metal 
oxidized was of no importance whatever with regard to the durability 
of the metal. If aluminium was poisonous, or gave off anything 
poisonous to water, then he thought the author's statement would be 
correct, and they would want to know how much poison got into the 
water. But it was well known that aluminium was not poisonous. 
If one was dealing with the solutions in question, the only thing one 
wanted to know was whether the corrosion was going on locally or 
whether it was going on generally. The amount of material removed 
was quite without importance on that point, and in spite of that the 
author on a subsequent page argued from his results that it implied the 
removal of a film T>-^o*h part of an inch in thickness of metal by con- 
tinuous action extending over a whole year. [The author here demurred, 
and Dr. S. read the following statement from the paper : — " It may be 
added that a corrosion amounting to 10 grs. per day per sq. yard, i.e. 
10 units as stated above, implies the removal of a film -g^th part of an 
inch in thickness."] He thought that was an extremely dangerous 
fallacy which he could best explain by giving an example. For that 
purpose he had brought with him a little piece of aluminium plate 
which had been in strong nitric acid for a year. In that case there had 
undoubtedly been the removal of a film of metal, and it had been so 
uniformly removed as not in any way to affect the appearance of the 
metal [specimen produced]. That was a corrosion which one was able 
to calculate and to reckon with. It was clear that if a plate of a certain 
thickness was taken, it was possible to calculate its life within a reason- 
able figure, and if its thickness was doubled its life also would approxi- 
mately be doubled. The sheet to which he had referred had lost 40 
milligrammes per 100 square centimetres per day, i.e. 40 times as much 
as the author's. On the other hand, he had also brought with him a 
little piece of aluminium which formed part of a pipe, and which had 
been in what Dr. Bailey would probably call good tap water for a short 
period of months. There the local action which took place in the water 
would be seen. The inside was being attacked in places while the 
majority of the surface was altogether unattacked. Here and there 
action was going on to a very considerable depth. In such a case as that, 
he wished to know what importance it could possibly be how much metal 
had been lost. If it had all been lost in the area of a pin's head, the 
loss of weight was of no importance whatever, in his opinion, and he did 
not see that it mattered whether it was measured in grammes per square 
yard, or in scruples per square pole, or anything else. He felt rather 
strongly on that point, because he thought all were agreed that alu- 
minium in the past had suffered very seriously on account of shutting 
their eyes to the disadvantages which the metal suffered from, and the 

Discussion on Bailey s Paper 91 

dangers to which it was exposed. He could not believe that the progress 
of the metal was to be advanced in that way, and for that reason he took 
the strongest possible exception to any statements such as those to which 
he had drawn attention, which might lead, however unintentionally, to a 
false sense of security. 

Mr. S. L. Archbutt (National Physical Laboratory) said that he ap- 
preciated the opportunity of making a few remarks with regard to Dr. 
r.ailey's paper. With regard to the method — the times of immersion 
were surely too short, and hardly justified conclusions as to the probable 
behaviour of the material during much longer periods such as would 
obtain in service. The experience of Dr. Rosenhaiu and himself was 
that the formation of a protective coating or patina might have a con- 
siderable influence on the rate of corrosion which could only be deter- 
mined by much longer periods of immersion than those used. The 
author himself drew attention to the marked influence of such a pro- 
tective coating on page 83. Values obtained from such short periods of 
test were rather to be considered as representing initial corrosion of the 
material, and it was open to question whether they might be taken as a 
measure of its subsequent behaviour. Further, in calculating the total 
aluminium lost, by the method given, it appeared necessary to assume 
that the hydroxide of aluminium which could not be removed from the 
sheet by rubbing (and which in the example given on page 82 was in 
excess of that removed) was entii-ely converted into A^Og by heating 
the sheet to 200° C. Apart from any evidence which Dr. Bailey could 
give them to the contrary, there seemed to be considerable doubt as 
to whether this adherent alumina would be completely dehydrated by 
such treatment. If it was not, the method of calculation employed 
might lead to errors having considerable influence on the results, especi- 
ally if used for predicting behaviour over very much longer periods. 
The observation that where silicon was in excess of iron, the corrosion 
products were almost entirely adherent was very interesting. Finally 
he should like to ask the author exactly how the specimens were im- 
mersed. His experience had been that no matter what the material 
support, wood, glass, rope, etc., corrosion was accelerated wherever the 
alloy came into contact with it, and it seemed that friction might play 
an important role in the matter. 

Mr. Arnold Philip, B.Sc. (Member of Council), said he happened to 
have some figures with him for corrosion, not of aluminium, but aluminium 
containing 3 or 4 per cent, of cadmium, and he found that so far as the 
amount of corrosion of suspended samples was concerned they were of 
the same order as those given in the author's results. The corrosion 
tests he had made were carried out in sea water. He was not quite 
clear why a temperature of 10° C. had been selected by the author in- 
stead of the usually accepted normal temperature ; sea water was the 
solution which he had had to deal with, and the resistance of material 
to corrosion in sea water was the important question for naval work. 


Discussion on Bailey s Paper 

There they had oxygen and a certain fairly definite average composition, 
and the Admiralty practice had been to examine corrosion in sea water 
at an average temperature of roughly about 15° C. The tests that 
he now described were made on the alloy firstly by suspending it in sea 
water by a cotton thread. Unfortunately in engineering work it was im- 
possible to have aluminium by itself ; it had to be su])ported on some- 
thing else. It was either in contact Avith gun-metal or steel, or perhaps 
some other white metal bearing. To take these factors into account, 
therefore, four different methods of test were used. First of all, as he 
had stated, the metal was suspended on a thread of cotton ; it was also 
(/;) tested in contact with steel ; (c) in contact with Admiralty gun- 
metal ; and fourthly (d) in contact with Admiralty gun-metal whilst 
subjected to a rubbing test. The figures were as follows : 

Duration of Corro- 
sion in Days. 

Total Loss of Weight 
in Milligrammes per 
Sqiiare Inch of Sur- 

Nature of Support 

of Test-piece df 

Aluminium Alloy. 

Loss of Weight in 

Grains per Square 

Yard of Surface per 










Rubber in contact 
with Gun-metal 



The figures he gave did not give the amount of corrosion in the scruples 
per acre to which a previous speaker had referred, but he agreed that he had 
also used absolutely indefensible units. The unit he had used was fixed, 
and might perhaps be excused by the fact that the weights he possessed 
were gramme weights, and it was therefore easy to put the results down 
in milligrammes; he also possessed inch scales close at hand, and as engi- 
neers were accustomed to working in square inches, he had used these 
units. A report was required in a hurry, and the figures were i)ut 
down in the most convenient form of measurement at hand. 

The rubber referred to in the result given on the last line of the table 
was made of an open-work cotton fabric. He thought it would be of 
interest to put forward these figures as showing that, on the whole, they 
were of the order of the figures which the author had found. Under what 
were very similar conditions of test, namely on page 84, the author stated 
that at 10° C. in good tap water the corrosion loss in grains per square yard 
per day was 1-75, 0-85, 0'81, 0-45, which results were of the order of the 
0-71 loss he had recorded on the top line of the table he gave. If he 
might offer one criticism on a very useful paper, he would point out that 
the author's results were in almost all cases based on single tests only, 
and his experience of corrosion was that it was very desirable to make a 
large number of tests under as far as possible absolutely similar con- 
ditions, in order to eliminate anything in the nature of accidental in- 

Discussion on Bailey s Paper 93 

terference. Incidentally Dr. Bengough had remarked that just as Dr. 
Bailey had observed a closely adherent coating of oxide of aluminium 
formed on the samples he had examined, which coating could not be 
removed by friction, so he had observed a similar patina of red oxide 
of copper formed on brass. He (the speaker) wished to say that his 
own experiments with brass alloys confirmed this observation ; it was 
useless to try and remove this patina by friction, and chemical means 
were very much to be suspected as affecting the weight of the material. 
He had some samples with him of aluminium containing 3 per cent, 
of cadmium which he would leave on the table for the inspection of the 
members. One of them was of great interest, because he found that 
some rolled samples of aluminium blistered badly during corrosion, and 
in judging of the amount of corrosion for practical purposes it was 
necessary to include the scale of aluminium metal that came off from 
such blisters, which must be regarded as part of the corrosion. The 
sample after corrosion and external cleaning weighed largely in excess of 
its original weight, and it was possible to see at some points the cakes of 
basic chloride of aluminium, and he did not know what, under the 
blistered layer of thin aluminium, and this explained the increase in 
weight of the sample under test. The blistering effect was very remark- 
able. The sample he showed was a piece of aluminium alloy containing 
3 per cent, of cadmium that had been drawn into a tube. 

Dr. F. J. Brislee (Liverpool) said that he was inclined to disagree 
with the remarks Dr. Seligman had made on one point. He thought 
it was better to have some quantitative measure of corrosion than none 
at all, and it was extremely difficult to get any of those particular 
instances, as they all knew. He agreed with him most emphatically 
on one point, namely, that the paper which the author had referred to 
by Heyn and Bauer pointed out one important fact which he did not 
think had been brought out so far in the discussion, namely, the nature 
of the dejDosit which occurred on the metallic aluminium. They pointed 
out that, when aluminium was immersed, say, in a water containing 
calcium salts, the precij^itate also contained calcium. Whether they 
were justified in weighing that precipitate and calculating back the 
metallic aluminium, was a point that was open to the gravest doubt. 
He was rather astonished, a short time ago, to discover that aluminium, 
in the presence of a very dilute solution of caustic soda, was almost 
quantitatively converted into aluminium hydrate, which separated out 
at the bottom of the tank, scarcely any of the aluminium going into 
solution. On the other hand, if a small quantity of calcium sulphate 
was added, the reaction was different, with the result that he could not 
say that the precipitate was aluminium hydrate, but contained a notable 
quantity of calcium hydrate and calcium oxide in addition. 'J'he 
mechanism of the reaction is as yet not worked out. Without knowing 
it he was working on very similar lines to the author, but unfortunately 
his results were entirely vitiated for the above reasons, and for the time 
he felt rather bowled out. Like Dr. Seligman, he was more imme- 

94 Discussion on Bailey s Paper 

diately concerned with certain of the industrial aspects of aluminium. 
It was a metal of unique disadvantages, so unique that, if it had not 
been for its electrical conductivity, it would have been as dead as the 
proverbial door nail. Frequently an aluminium vessel, probably a 
domestic utensil of some sort, was handed to him, and he was asked to 
account for its awful appearance ; the aluminium appeared to ha^e gone 
into pits — not uniformly corroded. Samples could be taken from it all 
over, and it would be found on analysis reasonably pure, anything 
between 99"3 and 99'5 per cent., and yet the pitting was indiscriminat- 
ing. It had gone into pinholes, and the vessel, as a vessel, ceased to be 
of any use whatever. What was the cause of it? If he remembered 
rightly (Dr. Seligman would correct him if he was wrong, because he 
had a much greater experience of aluminium vessels), so far as his 
experience went, the corrosion was not worse between wind and water, 
where the oxidation should be greatest. On the whole, however, he was 
inclined to agree with the author's conclusion that the oxygen did play 
an all-important part in the change. He thought they could all agree 
on the subject of the protective coating, in which he was immediately 
concerned, particularly where aluminium was exposed, not to the direct 
action of liquids but to spray. There, from an experience extending 
over three years, he had seen aluminium in the form of rod corroded 
very considerably, and then stand up to its work, for the remaining 
time, without any trouble whatsoever, and it was working at the present 
moment in an entirely satisfactory manner. He was inclined to think 
that, if only the exact conditions could be found, the coating was acting 
protectively ; and he knew of at least one patent at the present moment 
for the electrical insulation of aluminium wire by depositing on it a 
flexible coating of aluminium oxide. He had seen armature coils wound 
with it, and had been very much astonished to find that the aluminium 
oxide under those conditions was flexible enough to allow the wires of, 
say, something about 18 or 24 standard wire gauge, to be wound on a 
spool a little more than 1 inch in diameter. He desired, before sitting 
down, to thank the author for having brought forward the paper dealing 
with a subject which hit so many of those present extremely hard. 

Professor T. Turner, M.Sc. (Hon. Treasurer and Vice-President), 
desired to make a few remarks on the general subject of corrosion tests. 
He had often felt a doubt, when he had put a specimen into a liquid, 
and desired to see what the effect of corrosion would be, as to whether 
the specimen that was put into the liquid fairly represented the material 
that was under test. For example, the members had to do largely 
with castings in the metal trade. Those castings had a skin, and tests 
of the kind which the author had conducted had no reference to the 
question as to whether or not that skin was a protection. He was 
not in any way reflecting upon the author's work ; it was simply an 
inherent difficulty that everyone met with. In other cases metal left 
the manufacturer's hands that had been cold-worked, and into which 
oil had been pressed. A certain amount of that oil penetrated into the 

Discussion on Bailey s Paper 95 

surface pores of the metal and helped to protect it. In other cases the 
metal had been heated ; it had been finished hot from the rolls, or had 
been annealed. Some of the advantages that were claimed for annealing 
might be, and very possibly were, due to the kind of surface that had 
been produced as the result of the heating. If a piece of brass which 
had been rolled was heated again and annealed, it had very curious 
markings or discolorations, and that must affect the electrical character 
of the surface. An endeavour was made, before carrying out a cor- 
rosion test, to get what was regarded as a normal state of metal. It 
was desirable to clean it from grease, from scale, and so forth, and the 
author had adopted a good method for that purpose. He had treated 
it first with ether to remove the grease, then with dilute caustic soda to 
finish that part of the purification, and then with dilute nitric acid. 
He had no doubt that, when a metal such as copper was treated with 
nitric acid, even if the surface was washed repeatedly with distilled water 
afterwards, there was still a dift'erent condition in the surface of that 
copper, and some of the nitrogen was retained in the surface. If the 
copper was heated in a vacuum, it would be found that different gases 
would be produced. A very simple way of testing it was to take two 
sheets of copper-foil, place them on a piece of glass ; then take one in the 
ordinary way and heat it to 200° C, and the particular effect of trans- 
parency due to oxidation, to which he had referred in previous years, 
would be found. But if one sample had previously been treated with 
very dilute nitric acid, even though it had been washed repeatedly, it 
would be found that it would oxidize more rapidly than the original 
sample. In the author's experiments, when there was a deposit on the 
surface, before it could be examined the deposit was removed by rubbing 
— he presumed with the finger. If that was the case, there was a 
certain amount of grease from the finger put on the surface. Or it 
might be rubbed with very fine emery, and some of the emery particles 
would be pushed into the metal. It might be rubbed with a glass rod, 
which would harden the surface in lines, and give a metal that was more 
positive than the rest ; and wherever there was a little scratch where 
the glass rod had rubbed the surface, it would give a difi'erent electro- 
motive-force to the rest of the metal. The subject was an exceptionally 
diflBcult one, not only as applied to any tests that the author might have 
conducted, but it was a question that was in his mind whenever he 
attempted to supervise any experiments on corrosion. He found it 
extremely diflicult to satisfy himself that the tests really corresponded 
with the kind of test which the metal would have to undergo in practice, 
or that he had not seriously altered the conditions by his attempts to 
prepare the material. 

Dr. A. G. C. GwYER (Milton) said that he desired cordially to associate 
himself with Professor Turner's remarks, and that he too had been 
interested in the method by which the author had cleansed his sheets, 
notably with caustic soda. When a sheet was treated with such a 
chemical the polished surface was dissolved away, leaving the body of 

96 Discussion on Bailey s Paper 

the metal more porous and prone to general corrosion, and that was 
one cause which would tend towards unduly high results. There was 
no doubt but that in the final stages of the polishing and burnishing 
processes, a thin amorphous layer of metal was flowed, as it were, over 
the surface of the sheet, as Beilby had shown, and that theoretically this, 
being an unstable modification, would corrode more rapidly than the 
ordinary metal. But in his (the speaker's) opinion this was not in 
practice strictly true, because the presence of this amorphous skin acted 
as a protective against corrosion by flowing over and closing up the pores 
of the metal. 

Another point he was specially interested in was the corrosion of the 
specimens which contained 0'09 per cent, and 0-11 per cent, respectively 
of sodium. These specimens when corroded in salt solution gave the 
numbers 18"6 and 15'0 respectively at 75° C. Yet curiously enough, 
at only 10° C, the relatively high silicon aluminiums gave 8"5 and 
6"5, which seemed rather excessive in comparison. He would like 
to know what explanation the author had to offer. He thought the 
effect of sodium would be more pronounced, and that of silicon rather 
less pronounced, iu salt solution. The paper clearly showed that the 
predominance of silicon was advantageous, because not only was the 
corrosion less in the case of tap water, but the products of corrosion 
were almost entirely adherent to the metal. If the aluminium hydrate 
was suspended in the solution, it was the same thing as the metal 

He very heartily subscribed to expressing the results so as to take full 
account of the area of surface exposed, because the specific gravity of 
aluminium was so low in comparison with that of the common metals. 
In the case of, say iron or brass, for equal areas, the actual weights 
would not be so very difi"erent, whilst in the case of aluminium the 
weight would be only about one-third, roughly speaking. This was 
important, particularly in view of Dr. Rosenhain and Mr. Archbutt's 
recent work, which had led them to introduce the term " specific 
tenacity," as affoi-ding a means of comparing the tensile strength of the 
light alloys of aluminium with that of other metals, iceight for tceu/ht. 

Mr. E. F. Law (London) said that he wished the author had been able 
to give a few more data. He finished his paper by giving what he called his 
" general conclusions from foregoing results," but, with due deference to 
the author, he did not think the results given in the paper justified these 
conclusions. He was not finding fault in the least with the conclusions ; 
he was inclined to think they were right, but he submitted that the 
results given in the paper did not support the conclusions. For example, 
the very important second conclusion, " That in presence of copper or 
sodium the corrosion is notably accentuated," was unsupported by figures. 
On looking at the analysis of the alloys he could not find that any copper 
was given at all, and sodium was given in only two cases. Not only was 
copper not mentioned, but there was no allowance for copper in the 
analysis, the aluminium having! obviously been estimated by diflference. 

Discission on Bailey s Paper 97 

He did not think the author was wrong for an instant, but he did not 
think he was justified in stating it as a general conclusion drawn from 
the foregoing results. The same remark, he thought, applied to con- 
clusion Ko. 3, " That where the percentage of silicon is higher than that 
of the iron the action is less pronounced in the case of water and acids, 
and more pronounced in salt solution." He did not think the author's 
figures quite bore that out, and in any case the results recorded were too 
few to justify the conclusion. He agreed with Mr. Philip that a greater 
number of determinations were necessary, and that these should be done 
in duplicate. Before concluding, he desired to emphasize what Dr. 
Seligman had said with regard to expressing results in terms of loss of 
weight. That method did give a figure, it was true, but it was not the 
important thing. Local corrosion was the trouble which caused nearly all 
the disasters. If uniform corrosion alone had to be contended with, the 
difficulty might be met by introducing a factor of safety ; it could be 
allowed for. It was uneven corrosion, pitting and so on, which they 
could not contend with. For that reason he did not think merely 
expressing results as a loss of weight per square centimetre, metre, or 
whatever unit might be chosen, really gave a very accurate indication of 
what was likely to occur in practice. 

Dr. G. H. Bailey, in reply, said he would endeavour as far as possible 
to summarize the statement that he thought was due to the members, 
but he was also anxious to reply to any individual objection which had 
been taken. Personally he was immensely indebted for the amount of 
criticism, and especially for any adverse criticism which had been given, 
because he was present as a seeker after truth, and adverse criticism was 
the thing which helped towards the realization of that end. He would 
therefore deal with such points as seemed to him deserving of reply, and 
would endeavour to be as brief as possible. In the first place, he was 
glad to be able to array Dr. Bengough on his side, in that at any rate 
he was cognizant of oxygen as a common cause of corrosion, and he 
was interested to hear Dr. Bengough's admission that in other metals 
the same thing might happen. Dr. Seligman rather took exception to 
his statement of " good and bad tap water." He did not think that 
would carry any amount of sympathy. Personally, he did not want to 
specify too clearly as to what the nature of the tap water was — where it 
came from, and what was its composition. He was afraid that would 
hardly have done, and those who were bu.siness men would agree with 
him in that statement. All he wished to say was that bad tap water had 
a greater action upon aluminium than good tap water. Another criticism 
which had been ofi"ered was that he might have overlooked altogether the 
possibility of other impurities having been carried down on to the metal 
without being duly allowed for. He was perfectly well aware that that 
had not been overlooked, and had in fact specifically referred to it in the 
paper. His experiments had not been directed, as Heyn and Bauer's 
were, also to solutions of different salts. He had kept the paper as 
simple as possible, and that was the main part of his policy. Wherever 


98 Discussioji on Bai/eys Paper 

the tap water was of such a nature that it might possibly and conceiv- 
ably bring any sediment on to the metal, he had taken the trouble to do 
what must be done in such cases, namely, follow the impurities up and 
see whether they came from the metal or from the water. He thought, 
therefore, it might be taken that the results given were arrived at with 
every care, at any rate that he could think of. Then he was criticized 
for not paying sufficient attention to Messrs. Heyn and Bauer's jmpers, 
and for quoting certain conclusions that they had already stated. It 
was not wrong, surely, that he should find himself in agreement with 
some of their conclusions. It ought to be an honour to them that some- 
one else, working along the same lines, had arrived at the same con- 
clusions, or at any rate some of them. Personally he did not claim any 
originality for what he had done ; he had not taken out a patent for his 

Those conclusions in several cases were so inevitable that they must be 
drawn, even though the experiments themselves might not have been 
conducted on the right lines. The next point was whether solution took 
place first, and oxidation afterwards. Personally he gave it up ; it was 
an academical point. It might no doubt lead to a valuable discussion on 
ionization and other things which might take place, but it did not concern 
him what took place in the first instant during which corrosion occurred. 
Then he had been ridiculed for the units he had chosen. He selected his 
unit, as one speaker seemed to imagine he had done, in order to get a 
unit which should appear not in the second decimal place or the third 
decimal place, but in order that it should give him some reasonable 
number. He had a great objection to hybrid units. All his own results 
were stated in millimetres per 100 centimetres square, and that gave 
approximately the same number as the one he had adopted. He adopted 
inches because he thought it might be more useful to people who were 
engaged in practical work, and having adopted inches he followed suit by 
adopting grains. With regard to calculating the thickness, he never for a 
moment wished to suggest that there was it|-o inch exactly removed from 
each part of the field of the surface. He had made it perfectly clear in his 
paper that he had not tackled anything more than to represent a method 
by which the amount of aluminium dissolved away from a given sheet 
should be estimable, independent of all other considerations, which was 
an important matter commercially. The question as to whether a metal 
was removed evenly from the surface or by pitting was one that could 
only be answered by a special investigation devoted to the purpose. He 
had distinctly stated in his paper that he had not pretended to make 
that investigation. It was a most interesting investigation, but each 
case was its own problem. All that he proposed to do was to suggest a 
method for determining the corrosion of aluminium, and to measure the 
amount of aluminium removed by different vehicles under diflfereut 
circumstances in a given time, and use that as a measure of the corrosive 
character of that piece of aluminium according to its composition and 
properties. Mr. Archbutt thought the times of exposure were too short. 
Personally he did not think they were — not for a moment. Long ex- 

Disatssion on Bailey s Paper 99 

posure, as the members could imagine from what he had said when 
giving the abstract of his paper, had the disadvantage that all the time 
the air was being taken out of the water and the aluminium was being 
protected from attack. Although it might be a problem as to how much 
aluminium was removed in seven weeks from a given sheet, that was an 
independent problem. He wanted to get results which could be fairly 
comparable with one another in analytical practice. He was also aware 
that the results were in all probability slightly on the high side. Com- 
mercially, as he was interested commercially in aluminium, it might be 
said that that was a mistake. He supposed it was, but he wanted to get 
a standard on which other people could work, on which the work could 
be repeated in other hands, and that the results should be capable of 
being taken together. He was less concerned that he should make 
aluminium out to be less attacked than it was. Then it was doubted 
whether 200° was a high enough temperature to get rid of the moisture. 
As a matter of fact the sheets were heated at that temperature until 
constant — that was the test ; and 200° was a sufficient temperature for 
removing the water provided sufficient time was given. Professor Turner 
had asked about the immersion. The immersion was certainly clone 
without supporting on iron or other metal, to which reference had been 
made in the discussion. These were absolutely fatal to any attempt to 
determine the corrosion of metal. He found that the simplest and best 
way in the end was to simply take the sheet, bend it into a half-circle, 
and put it in the water, resting on the glass vessel at the bottom. He 
assured the members that not very large numbers of results — of which 
those given were a condensation — had been made, but he had also made 
what he had not referred to, immense numbers of confirmatory results, 
so that it might be taken that the numbers which were given were 
definite, reliable, and, he thought, sufficient. The fingers were a very 
efi"ective means for removing any adherent material. He quite admitted 
that the surface of the aluminium might be changed by the treatment he 
had suggested, but at the same time something must be done. "With a 
sheet covered with oily and other matter it was necessary to do some- 
thing. Professor Turner asked what the action would be on the original 
sheet. The action on the ultimate sheet would depend upon the methods 
that he used for the cleaning, but it would be very difficult to say what 
was the action on the original sheet, because it was always covered with 
a certain amount of impurity which must be removed by the simplest 
method. With regard to copper, the results which he was obtaining for 
metal containing copper were not finished at the time he had written 
the paper. 

The President suggested that if Dr. Bailey could communicate any 
results of that sort, it would be an advantage. 

Dr. Bailey said that he would insert the copper results along with 
the ultimate data which appeared when the paper was published, but he 
had already had sufficient general evidence to indicate to him that copper 
and sodium were accelerating tendencies in regard to corrosion. 

100 Co)nmumcations 07i Bailey s Pater 


Messrs. E. Heyn & O. Bauer (Berlin) wrote that in view of the 
rather unfriendly form given by Dr. Bailey to his critical remarks on 
the work published by them on " Phenomena of the Disintegration of 
Aluminium," they did not wish to enter into a discussion of the work 
of Dr. Bailey, and would restrict themselves to refuting his unfounded 
criticism of their work. 

(1) It was an erroneous supposition of Dr. Bailey if he thought that 
the qualities of aluminium examined by them were of a composition 
which deviated from the commercial quality. They were very much 
astonished at his assertion, which he himself would find to be a mistaken 
one if he would occupy himself more closely with the question of 

(2) If Dr. Bailey desired to reproach them with incompleteness, by 
having in their experiments made the loss in the weight of aluminium, 
in consequence of the action of the water, to refer to the weight unit 
and not to the surface unit, he was again mistaken. The writers did 
not bring the loss in weight in relation either to the weight or the 
surface unit, but communicated directly the decreases of weight observed 
on samples of the same dimensions and, consequently, of the same sur- 
faces. The surface area could be easily calculated from their (Messrs. 
Heyn & Bauer's) indications, so that anybody who desired to do so could, 
himself, calculate the losses of weight for the surface unit. They refused 
to make such calculations as long as it had not been established that 
the loss in weight, in consequence of the corrosion by water, was pro- 
portionate to the surface. They did not believe in such proportionality. 

(3) It was a further mistake on the part of Dr. Bailey if he asserted 
that they had not recognized that the contents of copper and sodium 
in aluminium might exercise an influence on the amount of corrosion. 
They knew, of course, that the chemical composition of aluminium was 
able to exercise an influence on its chemical resistance. On the other 
hand, they could not understand what that question might have to do 
with their work. They could only assume that Dr. Bailey had not before 
him their original work, or that he did not consider it necessary to peruse 
that work more in detail, before starting to criticize the same. If he 
had done so he would have observed that the object of their work was 
to ascertain the origin of the peculiar and local strongly destructive 
corrosion of aluminium, with which Dr. Bailey did not seem to occupy 
himself at all. 

(4) It was a further mistake on the part of Dr. Bailey if he stated 
that they had " assumed " that, when removing the tarnish on the test 
plates by means of diluted sulphuric or nitric acid and in the presence 
of bi-chromate of potassium, the aluminium itself remained without 
corrosion. They did not assume that, but have proved it, as shown in 
their Table 6. According to that table there resulted, dependent upon 
the size of the aluminium samples used and after having subjected 
the same for ten minutes to the action of sulphuric acid 1 : 1 with bi- 

Coinmunications on Bailey s Paper 101 

chromate of potassium, a decrease in weight of the samples by 0*125 
milligrammes. The same value was obtained by letting nitric acid (25 
per cent.), in addition to bichromate of potassium, act on the said plates 
for the same duration of time. As the time for removing the tarnish 
on the aluminium plates did never exceed ten minutes, the mistake 
caused by the dissolution of aluminium could not exceed the above 
quantity of 0-125 milligrammes. 

Dr. Bailey confined himself to doubting that, but omitted to publish 
experimental proofs by figures in such a manner that it might be 
possible to examine these. 

The general phrases used by him with respect to that point did not 
convince the writers of the correctness of his opinion. 

Mr. G. Cecil Jones wrote inviting Dr. Bailey to explain why he put 
forward a formula which was inexact when, by the use of an equally 
simple formula, the amount of corrosion could be calculated from the 
experimental results exactly, assuming the accuracy of Dr. Bailey's 
assumption that the suspended matter was wholly alumina and that no 
aluminium passed into solution. In many jjractical cases this assumption 
would be false, most natural waters depositing calcium carbonate on 
boiling and acids and alkalies dissolving aluminium. But, even in such 
cases, the determination of the alumina in solution and suspension was 
easy, and if its weight were denoted by xo and the weight of the plate 
before and after treatment by W^ and Wg respectively, then clearly 
Wg -{-w — Wj was the weight of oxygen which had combined with 
aluminium to produce alumina, and this oxygen was equivalent to f its 
weight of aluminium, so that the amount of aluminium converted into 
alumina or dissolved under the conditions of the experiment was given 
by the formula f (W^ + if — W^^). Applying this formula to Dr. Bailey's 
worked example, one found that 20 '7 milligrammes of aluminium was 
oxidized. Dr. Bailey's formula led to the conclusion that the corrosion 
amounted to only 11 '7 milligrammes, so that either he (Mr. Jones) had 
gone astray in his reasoning or Dr. Bailey's formula was not even 

He also invited Dr. Bailey to give some figures in support of his con- 
clusion (No. 2) that, in presence of copper, the corrosion of aluminium 
was accentuated. He did not wish to be understood as challenging the 
accuracy of this conclusion, but he had already seen it copied into one 
daily and one weekly paper, and, in these days of international abstracts, 
there was a distinct risk that the impression would be widely dis- 
seminated that this paper contained evidence on the point, whereas, so 
far as he could see, it contained none, but merely the author's opinion 
based on evidence which he had not thought it necessary to bring 

Mr. W. B, Parker (Rugby) wrote that he had read the paper of Dr. 
Bailey with much interest, and felt it would prove of considerable value, 
because it quoted all the data necessary to judge the merits of the results 

102 Conimunications on Bailey s Paper 

He would suggest that -when ^YO^killg with thin, or moderately thin, 
sheets of commercially refined aluminium, the total ammint of corrosion 
produced in a given time by reagents such as water or salt solutions 
could be more accurately determined by a })rocess based upori a gaso- 
metric method, similar to that used for the determination of metallic zinc 
in a zinc dust containing oxides, than by Dr. Bailey's method. 

The following was a rough outline of the method : — 

Taking a suitably sized specimen of the metal ; clean, dry, and weigh it, 
and call this weight A. 

Then expose it to the corrosion test for the required time. 

Remove it from the liquid, washing it very thoroughly (preferably 
with distilled water), to free it as far as possible from loose mud, &c., hut 
do not ruh it. 

Without further treatment ignite or dry the sample in hydrogen at a 
temperature just sufficient to completely dehydrate the adherent alumina, 
silica, &c., left on it, and thus render them insoluble in cold or slightly 
warmed dilute hydrochloric acid ; then reweigh the dry sheet, and call 
this weight B. 

Meantime filter off and determine the weight of mud suspended in the 
reagent used for corrosion. Consider this as being all alumina (AUOg), 
and call it C. 

Now immerse the dry reweighed specimen in dilute hydrochloric acid 
in a suitable apparatus for measuring the volume of hydrogen given off, 
and keep it immersed until either all of the metal is dissolved or sufficient 
to cause the coat of alumina to fall off completely and expose a clean 
metallic surface. This surface can be washed free from acid subse- 
sequently for weighing. The hydrogen is a measure of the metallic 
aluminium acted upon by the acid, and this is found by calculation — 
call this D. 

If the specimens are very thin sheets, say under 0-032 inch thickness, 
it will be best to completely dissolve them in the above operation, and 
thus arrive at the total iceight of metal left tmcorroded. 

In this case A - D gives the weight of metal which was corroded. 

If the specimen is thick, and thus weighs heavy in i-atio to its area, the 
reaction in the gas apparatus can be stopped as soon as a clean metallic 
surface is obtained. 

In this case we need to reweigh and determine the aluminium remain- 
ing undissolved. This can be done as shown below — suppose it weighs 
E, and the gas equals D (weight which is dissolved). Then (E + D) 
= total weight of aluminium not acted upon by the corroding reagent, 
and hence A - (E + D) = weight of the metal which was corroded. 

By subtracting D or (E + D) from B we get the weight of dry 
corrosion products left on the sheet after the corrosion test, and, calling 
this F, we have C + F = total weight of the corrosion products. This 
is, however, of less importance and less accurate than the determination 
of the unacted upon metal as given above. 

It is easy to measure almost any volume of a gas to 0"1 cubic centi- 
metres. A volume of 1"3 cubic centimetres of hydrogen is equivalent to 

Communications on Bailey's Paper 


0-001 grammes of metallic aluminium. The solubility of hydrogen in 
water is roughly 2 per cent, by volume of the water at 5° C, and a 
correction for this can be made if needful. So this method is accurate 
to at least ±0-002 grammes. 

The sketch below gives an idea of the apparatus required, and its 

Wash Water 


Wmter Fon 

OF CflS 

method of use. Its size will, of course, depend upon the size of and 
weight of specimens used, but for a 5 gramme weight is about as below. 
The specimen A is fixed on an ebonite rod B, which passes through 
rubber bung into the reaction flask C. The latter is only about half-full 
of dilute HCl, i.e. to a known volume. The delivery tube K is attached, 

104 Commtmications on Bailey s Paper 

and the collecting flask with graduated neck (F) is filled with water and 
inverted over the exit of N in trough G. The cock H is opened, and the 
specimen is jiushed down into the acid in C, or the acid in D forced into 
C, and the gas evolved passes through N and is collected in F. By 
opening K and raising D enough acid is supplied to vessel to carry 
the reaction as far as retpiired. The cock H is then shut, and the 
pressure of hydrogen in C forces the acid back into D when this is 
lowered, so that the vessel C is emptied of acid, then K is closed, stop- 
cock M is opened and also H, and water passes from tank E into C and 
forces all gas and air into F, where it is measured, and (the volume of air 
deducted) gives the volume of hydrogen generated. M and H are then 
shut, A is then withdrawn (if not completely dissolved), washed, dried, 
and weighed to get E. 

Dr. W. RosENHAiN, F.Pt.S. (Member of Council), wrote that he was 
much interested in the question of the corrosion of aluminium and its 
alloys, and had looked forward to Dr. Bailey's paper with considerable 
interest. He must confess, however, that he was very disappointed on 
reading the paper to find that it contained the record of what he could 
not help regarding as somewhat scanty and unsatisfactory experiments, 
upon which Dr. Bailey appeared to base a very large superstructure of 
conclusions, some of which could obviously not be drawn from the data 
contained in the paper. 

With regard to the method of experiment employed by Dr. Bailey, he 
felt that it was far from satisfactory, principally because the time of 
immersion was extremely short. His own experiments, extending over 
corrosion experiments made upon aluminium and its alloys for a period 
of more than five years led him to the view that the initial rate of 
corrosion found during the first few weeks of immersion was frequently 
very difterent from the average rate taken over months or years. For 
that reason he felt quite satisfied that experiments made with an immer- 
sion of only a few hours were quite untrustworthy as a guide to the 
permanent behaviour of the material. 

The whole question of studying corrosion in light alloys or in pure alu- 
minium, might be approached from two points of view. There was first of 
all the direct practical point of view from which it was desired to ascertain 
by experimental means the probable behaviour of a given commercial 
material in practical use. Now the practical behaviour of such a material 
must depend on a variety of factors, including the homogeneity of the sheet 
tested, its condition of annealing, surface condition, mode of support, and 
finally the composition and constitution of the metal itself. What mattered 
for practical purposes was the combined efi^ect of all these influences, 
some of which might be regarded as being fundamental properties of the 
metal in question, while others would be properly ascribed to imperfec- 
tions in the mode of manufacture of the sheet. The latter could in many 
cases be avoided by suitable treatment based upon properly ascertained 
data, but the fundamental solubility of the metal itself could not be 
altered except by adopting a different composition. From the other 

Communications on Bailey s Paper 105 

point of view the question of corrosion was to be studied as a property 
of the metal itself, and as far as may be the influences of fortuitous con- 
ditions of manufacture should be eliminated from the results of the 
experiments, so that comparative results for metals of different composi- 
tion could be obtained. Once such results were available, the best 
material could be decided upon, and its mode of treatment perfected as 
far as possible afterwards. For the latter purpose, which was that prim- 
arily kept iu view when systematic investigations of alloys were carried 
out, the method of making corrosion tests by ascertaining the loss of 
weight appeared to be a sound one, since it rightly disregarded from this 
point of view the locally destructive effects of pitting, and merely 
measured the general average solubility of the metal. On the other hand, 
as a practical test, determinations of the loss of weight were not satis- 
factory unless they were accompanied by evidence as to the absence or 
presence of pitting ; but it was not easy to devise any quantitative method 
of recording observations on pitting, and a mere ocular estimate was not 
very satisfactory for comparison purposes between a number of somewhat 
similar materials. Perhaps the best method to use would be to employ 
comparatively thin sheets, and to note the order in time in which the 
sheets of various materials were completely perforated, or as an alter- 
native series of specimens of the same material might be exposed to the 
corrosive influence and subjected to mechanical tests at specified intervals, 
the mechanical tests (tension) serving as a rough means of measuring the 
least cross sectional area of the strip. Of course with such very short 
periods of immersion as those employed by Dr. Bailey, the question of 
pitting hardly arose at all, but he could not regard those tests seriously 
as giving any real information on the subject. 

Dr. R. Seligman (London) wrote that, in replying to the verbal dis- 
cussion of his paper. Dr. Bailey gave the following two reasons for not 
stating in his paper that his conclusions 4, 5, and 6 were arrived at 
several years ago by Heyn and Bauer, namely: — 1. That these authors 
gave their results as percentage loss of weight. 2. That their determina- 
tions were inaccurate owing to certain errors in arriving at the loss of 

With regard to the first statement, he (Dr. Seligman) could only assume 
that Dr. Bailey was relying on an imperfect abstract. Had he consulted 
the original, he could not have failed to observe that the samples with 
which Messrs. Heyn and Bauer worked were all cut to a uniform size. 
Their results were, therefore, strictly comparable with one another. 
Moreover, they gave the exact dimensions of their test-pieces, even to 
the thickness, so that their results were also comparable with those of 
other workers. 

As to Dr. Bailey's second statement, he would remind Dr. Bailey 
that the chief value of the paper of Heyn and Bauer lay not in their 
gravimetric results, but in their observations of the ditferent forms which 
corrosion assumed under the varying conditions of their experiments and 
with the various forms of metal which they used. 

106 Communications on Bailey s Paper 

Mr. H. J. Young (Wallsend-on-Tyne) wrote that at one time lie had 
experience of the making of corrosion tests, and his observations were 
that if a sheet of metal were placed for a definite length of time in a 
liquid, the results were anything but accurate, the main sources of in- 
accuracy arising from the following factoi'.s : 

1. The molecular condition of the surface of the metal. 

2. The bulk of liquid employed and the means whereby its constitu- 

tion was kept constant (occasional filling up with water being 

3. The small variations in pressure made large differences in dis- 


4. The uncertain quantity of agitation. 

5. The unknown quantity of air introduced during the experiment 

(partly by 4). 

The first difficulty was only solved by using fine wires drawn through 
the same die, even though unlimited supplies of sheets were available ; 
while the other four were overcome by the invention of an apparatus 
specially designed to meet the case. Without those innovations, he (Mr. 
Young) would be inclined to regard the results with respectful caution. 

Dr. Bailey wrote in reply to Mr. Jones that the latter's statement, 
" then clearly W.^ ■\-id - Wj, was the weight of the oxygen which had 
combined with the aluminium " was incorrect ; the expression really 
represented the weight of the oxygen in the suspended and detachable 
alumina, plus the weight of the adherent alumina. With regard to 
Mr. Parker's proposed method, tempting as it might appear, he (Dr. 
Bailey) had found it to fail principally in consequence of the errors 
arising from the presence of iron and silicon in the metal. 

Dr. Rosenhain seemed disapjjoiuted that the subject of the paper 
was something quite different from what he had anticipated, though 
the purpose of the author had been very distinctly indicated both in 
the paper itself and during the verbal discussion. Yet he thought 
no one was in a better position than Dr. Rosenhain himself to realize 
that the problems in his (Dr. Rosenhain's) mind must, owing to their 
complexity, be attacked by special methods, and would involve years 
of work. The author had laid down as a necessary preliminary to 
all such inquiry a departure from the slip-shod methods of determining 
the amount of aluminium removed from a given sample under observa- 
tion, and he believed that some such departure was essential to further 
progress in research on whatever lines it might proceed. 

He proposed, with regard to Messrs. Heyn & Bauer's communication, 
to follow the order of their own statements. 

1. As to the composition of the samples of aluminium used by Messrs. 
Heyn & Bauer, he found that out of a large number of samples only 
three seemed to have been analyzed at all completely, the percentage 
impurity being given as follows : — 

Author s Reply : Bailey s Paper 





Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 

It was clear therefore that, disregarding minor constituents, the 
impurities in those samples could not have been less than 1*29 per 
cent, on the average. In those samples where the content of silicon 
alone was quoted, it was noteworthy that that was very high, and thus 
the metal must have been of low grade ; it was also singular that each 
of the three samples contained copjDer (an unusual constituent), the 
copper in the rest not having been estimated. It thus became evident 
that if Messrs. Heyn k, Bauer's statement were to be accepted, the metal 
contained at least double the impurity usual in the case of aluminium 
made in the British Isles, and, as the author was aware, in many other 
quarters. Sodium, always present, and often in quantities such as to 
have a serious affect on the behaviour of the metal towards reagents, 
was not even mentioned, though nitrogen to the extent of about one- 
thousandth per cent, was not overlooked. 

2. The statement as to the necessity for associating the amount of 
corrosion with surface rather than with the weight of metal, was not 
made in reference to Messrs. Heyn k Bauer's work, in which manifestly 
the proper course had been adopted in that respect. 

3. It was quite recognized that the objects which Messrs. Heyn 
and Bauer had in view were different from those taken up by 
the writer, but so far as the analytical methods and details were 
concerned, these could not fail to be of interest as indicating that 
the specific precautions mentioned were necessary and important in 
view of the conclusions based upon the results. Yet it seemed strange 
that if it were known that copper and sodium had an important effect, 
especially on disintegration, the presence or absence of those elements 
should have been practically left out of account. It was also remarkable 
that, and especially in view of the subsequent behaviour of aluminium 
as related in Messrs. Heyn & Bauer's paper, the 230 cubic centimetres 
of water used was, so far as could be gathered, not renewed or aerated 
during 207 days exposure. 

4. With regard to the conflict of testimony as to the possibility of 
completely removing a coating of alumina without acting materially 
upon the metal, the assurance could only be made that the perfectly 
definite statement given in the author's paper would not have appeared 
unless he had assured himself by numerous observations that it was 
justified. He had, as indicated, approached the matter from more than 
one standpoint, and he now felt that it need not be unduly laboured, 
as Messrs. Heyn & Bauer were in a position to satisfy themselves on the 
point by experiment, and from an examination of their own published 
results. These showed very considerable variations on duplicate speci- 

108 Commtmuations on Bailey s Paper 

mens ; they showed in a large number of cases, even on similar specimens, 
jiositive and ncgatim values widely differing. Ko further proof than 
that was necessary to indicate that the method was untrustworthy. 

In conclusion, the author wished to make it clear, in reply to more 
than one of those who had sjjoken upon the paper, that according to his 
experience it would be better to trust in general to a short, but not 
too short, period of exposure to the reagent ; that would vary with water 
and salt solutions from a day to a week according to circumstances. In 
special cases a prolonged exposure might be essential, but in such cases 
(as had been illustrated in the paper) wide variations were possible, and 
only specific conclusions could be drawn from the results. It was also 
material to add that the numbers quoted in the paper were representative 
of a very numerous series of experiments, which it would have ])een 
impracticable and useless to reproduce in full, and that wherever possible 
or necessary parallel duplicate determinations were performed in con- 
firmation of the values accepted. 

Hudson : The Microstructure of Gei'vian Silver 109 


By O. F. HUDSON, M.Sc, A.R.C.Sc. 
(Birmingham University). 

The white and ductile alloys of copper, nickel, and zinc which 
are known as " German Silvers " are of somewhat widely 
varying composition, and are made in a number of different 
qualities, the most usual of which contain about 55—60 per 
cent, of copper, 15-20 per cent, of nickel, and 20-30 per cent, 
of zinc. The general properties and microstructure of this 
class of alloys are described by Law,t who points out that, like 
almost all commercial ductile alloys that are rolled and drawn, 
they consist essentially of crystals of one substance only, 
namely, a solid solution. Also he has shown that the micro- 
structure of German silver closely resembles that of the 
brasses w^hich consist of the a solid solution of the copper- 
zinc series, and these observations are in agreement with the 
results of Tafel's | investigation of the ternary system copper- 

In order to study the effect of continued annealing on the 
crystalline structure of German silver a number of samples 
were supplied to the author by Mr. G. A, Boeddicker. These 
samples were all of the same quality and of the following 
approximate composition : — 

Per Cent. 

Copper 580 

Nickel 18-5 

Zinc 23-5 

The samples had been annealed under ordinary works con- 
ditions at a temperature of 700° C. for varying lengths of 
time. Two series were supplied, the first having annealing 
times of 1 to 10 hours and second from 24 to 72 hours. 

* Read at Annual General Meeting, London, March 12, 1913. 

t "Alloys and their Industrial Applications," by E. F. Law (Griffin). 

X V. E. Tafel, Metallurs^ie, July 1908, vol. v. p. 413. 

110 Hudson : The Ahcrostrit-cture of Germmi Silver 

Typical microstriictiires * of the cold-rolled and annealed 
samples arc shown in Plate III. Figs. 1 to 6. These show that 
the usual crystalline growth takes place on annealing, but it will 
also be observed that the cold-rolled alloy still shows very dis- 
tinct signs of the original cored structure of the cast material. 
The " cored " structure is still in evidence after prolonged anneal- 
ing, as is shown by Fig. 5, which is the microstructure of the 
sample after 48 hours' annealing at 700° C. After 72 hours' 
annealing at 700° C. the alloy is practically homogeneous 
(Fig. 6), although faint traces of the "cores" were observed 
even in this sample when very slightly out of focus under the 
microscope. The conclusion that the light and dark shading 
observed on the etched surfaces of Mr. Boeddicker's specimens 
was due to the persistence of the original " cores " of the crystals 
of the cast alloy was confirmed by experiments with an alloy 
of similar composition cast in the laboratory. The alloy was 
cast in a small strip mould, and the casting, gV-i^^h thick, 
was rolled, annealed by heating to about 700° C. for a few 
minutes, and rolled again to give a strip |-inch thick. The 
structures of the cast alloy and the final cold-rolled strip are 
illustrated in Plate IV. Figs. 7 and 8. Portions of the cold-rolled 
strip were then annealed for varying times at a temperature of 
720° C, and typical structures of annealed specimens are shown 
in Plate IV. Figs. 9 and 10. Here again the persistence of the 
" cored " structure is evident. Fig. 9 shows that annealing at 
720° C. for G hours was quite insufficient to give uniformity 
of composition, but after 15 hours at this temperature 
(Fig. 10) the alloy was perfectly homogeneous. The question 
of whether or not a German silver is composed of a perfectly 
homogeneous solid solution can be decided by the examina- 
tion of a suitably polished and etched surface by means of a 
hand lens, or even by the naked eye ; for the presence of any 
remains of " cores " is shown by a very fine but distinct 

* The specimens for microscopic examination were prepared as follows : The surfaces 
were filed and rubbed on emery-papers in the usual way, then lightly polished with 
" Globe" metal polish, and finally rubbed on wet parchment on which was spread some 
freshly prepared magnesia. The specimens were then dipped in a strongly acid solution 
of ferric chloride for a few seconds, lightly polished with magnesia, and again treated 
with ferric chloride, these operations being repeated if necessary. 

Hudson : The Micro structure of Geinnan Silver 111 

pattern or graining which is accentuated by relief polishing, 
owing no doubt to slight differences in hardness. 

The extreme slowness of diffusion in German silver as 
compared with the corresponding a solid solution of the 
copper-zinc alloys is caused by the presence of the nickel. 
Diffusion appears to take place equally slowly in cupro-nickel, 
as is shoAvn in a series of photomicrographs of the structure 
of that alloy which were published by Bengough in his recent 
paper on the properties of alloys at high temperatures.* An 
examination of those photographs indicates that annealing for 
an hour at a temperature of 800° C. was insufficient, and that 
the same time at 900° C. was required to make the alloy 

It may be of interest very briefly to note here the results 
of a few preliminary experiments made to determine the effect 
of heat treatment on the properties of German silver. 

Rolling Qualities. — Annealing for 10 minutes, 100 minutes, 
and 10 hours at 800°, 850°, and 900° C. in all cases gave 
specimens that were found to roll easily and well, and the 
same result was obtained after annealing for half an hour at 
950° C. and 1000° C. All these annealings were carried out 
in air in an electrically-heated tube furnace, while a specimen 
annealed for 2 hours in an atmosphere of coal-gas at 85 0° C. 
also rolled perfectly. A portion of the specimen whose 
structure is shown in Fig. 10 was also rolled with satisfactory 
results, and on again annealing for a short time at 750° C. the 
structure of the alloy was, as shown in Plate IV. Fig. 12, one 
that indicates no deterioration in mechanical properties. It 
thus appears that a coarse crystalline structure due to pro- 
longed or drastic annealing is in itself no sign of inferior 
rolling qualities. 

Hardness. — The original series of specimens supplied by 
Mr. Boeddicker were tested by means of the Shore scleroscope, 
and the results, of which a selection is given, shoAv that 
prolonged annealing accompanied by pronounced crystal 
growth does not lead to any decrease in hardness beyond that 
due to the normal annealing operation. 

* Journal of the Institute of Metals, 1912, No. 1, pp. 123-174, Plate XV. Figs. 2 to G. 

112 Hudson : The Microstrticture of German Silver 

Hardness Number 

As rolled 


Annealed for 1 hour 


700° C. 





1 1 


, , 


1 ■ 


, , 







In conclusion the author wishes to thank Mr. G. A. Boed- 
dicker for his kindness in providing the material on which 
this work has been carried out. 

* The hardness number is that obtained with the " Blunt " hammer. 

Annealed for 10 hours at 700° C. 


if . 



Fig. 2.— Annealed fur 1 Ikjui- atj7(iO ( 

Fig. 4.— Annealed for 24 hours at 700" C. 

,r^ ...■wmat-. 


Aiinraleil fur 48 hours at 7»"l l-'. 





"4. s. 

/ ' J. 

-ijstt -; 




Fig. (i.— Annealed for 72 hours at 70U° C. 

hutographs illustrating the effect of annealing at 700° C. on the structure of German Silver containing 
copper, 58 per cent. ; nickel, 18'5 per cent. ; zinc, 23'5 per cent. 

I>i all cases — Magnification 100 [reduced ^Q per cent, in reprodtcctio?i) ; illumination vertical; 
etching medium strong ferric chloride. 

Plate IV 

Fig. 8.— Cold Rolled. 

' r-i .y 



■ • ,.;' ,r-li-X 

G. 9. — Rolled and Annealed for (i hours at 720' C. FiG. 10. — Rolled and Annealed for 15 hours at;720° C. 

^ ii4 

V^:^ ^-m^: yAf^~ - ■ 'A 

V".;^'v /V;- ^^^ ^,- ■•■%V'-■V'^■^v■^'•••-' 
Fig. 12.— Same as Fig. 11— Annealed at 750° C. 

Fig. 11.— Same as Fig. 10— Cold Rolled. 

Photographs of the structure of German Silver containing about 58 per cent, of copper, 18 per cent, 
of nickel, and 24 per cent, of zinc. 

/// all cases— Magnification 100 [reduced %S per cent, in reproduction) ; illumination vertical; 
etching medium strong ferric chloride. 

Discussion on Hiidsons Paper 113 


Mr. G. A. BoEDDiCKEU (Member of Council), in opening the discus- 
sion, congratulated the author on having first drawn attention to 
the peculiarity of the addition of nickel to alpha brasses retarding 
diflusion or recrystallization. The results given on page 112 of the 
softness in connection with the different times of annealing bore out 
the results obtained in ordinary practice. Annealing from 20 minutes 
to an hour was perfectly sufficient to render the German silver soft 
enough for all purposes. A higher temperature for a shorter time would 
undoubtedly be useful, and was frequently employed where it was a 
question of thin sheets. Where, however, it was a question of a sheet 
of say ^-inch to f-inch thick, a short time at a high temperature was 
impossible, and a longer time at a lower temperature was necessary to 
affect the metal evenly all through. The test of softness applied to one 
thing only, namely, if the metal could be rolled or stamped. Whether 
the metal annealed for a long time, though quite soft, would stand other 
mechanical tests, such as were absolutely necessary at the present time, 
was to him very doubtful. He should say that a metal like that shown 
in Plate III. Fig. 6, which had been annealed for 72 hours, with a very large 
increase in the size of crystal, would not stand the same work as Fig. 2. 
He was exceedingly pleased that German silver was coming to the front 
at present for scientific research. Since the price of tin had gone up so 
enormously, German silver was frequently used in place of Britannia 
metal, and, whereas formerly German silver was hardly used in any 
other way than for stamping or raising, manufacturers had begun to 
work it similarly to Britannia metal by spinning and pressing. It was 
exceedingly difficult to get any German silver to stand those very severe 
demands, and a great many more experiments were necessary. German 
silver could not be simply treated in two lines by calling it an " alpha 
brass where part of the copper has been replaced by nickel." The 
percentage of nickel to start with was very variable, varying from 7 to 
30 per cent., and the effect of the nickel was very great not only in 
colouring, but also in raising the resistance. A 7 j^er cent. German 
silver had a resistance of 18 microhms, and 30 per cent. German silver 
had a resistance of 40 microhms ; in fact, between those limits the 
addition of every 1 per cent, of nickel practically raised the resist- 
ance by 1 microhm. That was so near that it was possible to determine 
beforehand what alloy to make in order to get a certain resistance. 
The percentage of zinc in the alloys seemed to be of very little im- 
portance. Another point of very great interest would be to determine 
the resistance in the different specimens after different amounts of 
annealing. After an ordinary annealing lasting one hour at 700 
degrees, he found the resistance went down about 2 microhms, and 
he thought that, by annealing it until perfect diffusion had taken 
place, the resistance would very likely go down a few more microhms. 
There was one further point which, although it did not really belong 
to the paper, he would like to mention — namely, some peculiarities 


114 Discussion on Hndsons Paper 

of cobalt, which was a very similar metal to nickel, only whiter, and 
which had lately come into more general use as an addition to cobalt 
■steel. They did manufacture metallic cobalt, but hitherto the demand 
had been exceedingly small — perhaps 5 to 10 cwts. a year, but the 
increased demand gave him an opportunity of testing a few cobalt 
copper alloys. He found, first of all, that, though cobalt was so much 
whiter than nickel, it had practically no colouring effect on copjjer alloys. 
While an 80-20 per cent, copper nickel was perfectly white, an 80-20 
per cent, copper cobalt was almost as red as copper. And further, while 
nickel had a very strong effect, as he said before, in raising the resistance, 
cobalt had hardly any effect at all ; for instance 80-20 per cent, copper 
nickel had a resistance of 28 microhms, while an 80-20 per cent, copper 
cobalt had a resistance of only 10 microhms. 

Dr. T. K. Rose (London) said that the paper was a piece of work 
of a kind very well worth doing, and that it had been very well done. 
There were one or two points in it to which he desired to draw attention, 
because they had raised diflSculties in his mind, and he wished the author 
to resolve those difficulties for him. For example, he had no doubt 
that the particular alloy referred to was one in which cores actually did 
occur, but he was not sure that he understood what the author meant 
by cores. His own idea of a core was an onion-like structure in which 
every layer was of a slightly different composition from every other 
layer. Looking at the photographs on Plate III., there was no evidence 
at all of the existence of cores in this sense. The appearances, taking 
them from Fig. 2 onwards, were producible by treating in a similar kind 
of way the very purest gold that could be obtained, and there he thought 
everyone would admit there was no question of cores. The question 
had the importance to him that the author seemed to think it necessary 
to assume (e.g. near the top of p. Ill), that in annealing there was diffusion 
of a metal into the neighbouring region so as to make the alloy of 
uniform chemical composition. He did not believe that the recrystalliza- 
tiou, such as the author showed in Figs. 2 to 6 of Plate III., had anything 
to do with diffusion, but that it was entirely a question of a change 
in the orientation of the particles. Consequently, he did not want that 
case to go entirely by default, and it was for that reason that he 
mentioned it. The author said on page 111 that by annealing for ten 
minutes at 800°, and by annealing for half an hour at 1000°, exactly 
the same result was obtained. That, in his opinion, proved without actual 
trial that all the other intermediate results were correct. 

With regard to the question of the rolling qualities of metals. Professor 
Huntington had asked him last September if, as the result of his ob- 
servations, he could express any opinion on the following point. Were 
the rolling qualities of an annealed metal, consisting of ragged crystals 
set as it were in a sort of matrix, different from those of the same metal 
after further annealing, by which the irregular polygonal structure had 
been set up? He had been obliged at that time to say that he was 
studying the matter, and did not know. However, he was able to answer 

Discjission on Hudson s Paper 115 

the question at the present moment, by saying that he was absolutely 
in accordance with the author in the last sentence in the "Rolling 
Qualities" paragraph of the paper, page 111, where he said, "It thus 
appears that a coarse crystalline structure due to prolonged or drastic 
annealing is in itself no sign of inferior rolling qualities." He (Dr. Rose) 
would add that it was no sign of superior rolling qualities. He could 
find no difference at all any more than Mr. Hudson could. He did not 
wish to go into the question of hardness except to say that he maintained 
the position he took up last September, although he was not prepared 
at the moment to prove it. He hoped to be able to cari-y conviction 
in his arguments where last September he only obtained a certain 
amount of qualified acquiescence, and consequently he did not accept 
what the author said in his paper, although he did not question the 
approximate accuracy of the hardness tests. 

The President inquired on what point Dr. Rose differed from the 

Dr. Rose replied that he differed from the author in the statement that 
prolonged annealing accompanied by pronounced crystal growth did not 
lead to any decrease in hardness beyond that due to the normal anneal- 
ing operation. 

The President asked Dr. Rose if he proposed to read a paper on the 

Dr. Rose said that he intended to deal with the matter in the course 
of a future paper. ]\[eanwhile, he did not want that point to go by 
default either. As for the main thesis of the paper, manufacturers 
ought to want to know, if they wanted to know anything about the 
question at all, whether their practice was the best jDossible practice ; 
they wanted to know the minimum time and temperature required 
for annealing, and the author had not drawn precise conclusions on 
those points. Nevertheless the value of the work was obvious to all, and 
he agreed that the Institute ought to be very grateful to the author for 
having brought the paper forward. 

Mr. G. B. Brook (Sheffield) asked whether the German silver dealt 
with in the paper was prepared from ordinary metal or from perfectly pure 
metals. He also wished to know in Plate IV. Fig. 10 particularly what the 
dark constituent was — the small spots. Was it a segregation of lead, 
because it nearly always appeared on samples of German silver of com- 
mercial manufacture. He would like to know whether it was prepared 
with metals of known purity, so as to eliminate the possibility of lead 
segregating out in that particular way. 

Mr. E. F. Law ( London) said he wished to congratulate the 
author on his paper and also on the photographs, which were really 

IIG Discussion on Hudson s Paper 

excellent in every way. The peculiar persistence of cores referred to 
was not confined to German silver. He did not know whether the author 
had noticed it, but it occurred in the so-called y-steels — steels containing 
nickel and manganese in fairly high percentages. In these it was usually 
missed, because the ordinary etching methods did not show it up ; but if 
the steels were heat-tinted the cores were shown very distinctly. German 
silver was not the only metal evidently in wliich it occurred. That was 
the only point he wished to refer to in the paper itself, beyond making 
one request. He was sorely tempted to digress from the author's paper 
to Mr. Boeddicker's remarks, but he thought that was hardly allowable 
in the discussion ; but he hoped the President, after the meeting, would 
talk very seriously to Mr. Boeddicker, and quietly but firmly insist on 
receiving a paper from him on the subject of German silver. 

Professor T. Turnek, M.Sc. (Honorary Treasurer and Vice-President), 
agreed with Dr. Rose that the author might with advantage have ampli- 
fied the paper. Mr. Hudson had very briefly given the result of a good 
deal of work. Some of those present had the opportunity in the Bir- 
mingham Section a short time ago of hearing, in the form of a prelimi- 
nary canter, some of the matter dealt with in the paper ; but the paper 
was then four times as long as it was at present. If the author had 
given in his present paper all the particulars that some of the members 
had heard before at Birmingham, he did not think there would have been 
any need for criticism. The author was afraid, he supposed, of going into 
too much detail for the Journal, and possibly he had erred on the other 
side. With regard to the question of coring, he could see evidence of 
coring in the photomicrographs ; but the reason for that probably was 
because he had seen the original samples, and the author had pointed 
out the structure to him, and, having seen the samples, he could now 
see it veiy plainly in the photographs. It might be that Dr. Rose, not 
having seen the original samples, did not see the dark areas — the 
smudges, so to speak, on the microphotographs which were indications 
of the continuance of the original cores. 

Mr. E. L. Rhead, M.Sc. Tech. (Manchester), said that he had observed 
something very much akin to the ajtpearances that were present on the 
photographs in the case of pure electrolytically deposited copper ; and in 
that respect he would like to confirm Dr. Rose's opinion in regard to 
pure metals. 

Professor A. K. Huntington, Assoc. R.S.M. (President), said that in 
his Presidential Address he gave an example of a core structure of copper- 
zinc alloy, and he would like to ask the author whether he had ever 
made any comparison of the temperature required to eliminate the cores 
in the two cases. The author's cores did not come up so strongly as 
shown in his (the President's) photograph. Personally, he had never, 
that he could remember, attempted to get them up in that kind of 
material, and he was wondering whether they came up normally very 

Disctission on Hudson s Paper 117 

strongly. To some extent it was a question of the way the metal was 
cast. He noticed that there were a lot of specks all over photograph 
No. 10, and he would like to know what they were. The author spoke 
of etching and then polishing, and he took it that the structure was 
developed mainly in relief. 

Mr. O. F. Hudson, in reply, said he was sorry to find that some 
members considered the paper to be too brief. The first part of the paper 
was the one that he particularly wanted to bring before them ; the other 
part simply contained the results of a few preliminary experiments on 
the effect of annealing on different qualities of the metal. He could not 
say whether it would be of any use to manufacturers ; but it appeared 
to him that if it was shown that an alloy could be annealed at almost any 
temperature and for any time, and that reasonably good results were still 
obtained, that should be a certain amount of use to those who were deal- 
ing with this alloy. Mr. Boeddicker made some very kind remarks about 
the paper. With regard to the resistance of the material, he himself 
had not done any experiments on the point, so that he could not add 
anything to what had been already said. Annealing at higher tempera- 
tures, and the possibility of the loss of zinc taking place under those con- 
ditions, might be a serious matter in a manufacturing operation. Dr. 
Kose had referred to the cores. He understood Dr. Rose did not really 
believe that they were cores. It was partly for that reason that he 
(the author) introduced the figures 7, 8, 9, and 10 on Plate IV. He 
had no doubt that Fig. 7 was the ordinary core structure of the cast 
material. Fig. 8 showed equally well the same type of structure and 
Fig. 9 the same, and then the coring gradually disappeared. It appeared 
to him that that very strongly confirmed the idea that the markings on 
the commercial sample of German silver were simply due to such cores 
resulting from slight differences in composition in different parts of the 
same crystal. 

Mr. BoEDDECKER said he presumed Mr. Hudson meant chemical 

Mr. Hudson replied in the affirmative. He rather thought they agreed 
on the point of diffusion and recrystallization. Recrystallization took 
place regardless of any diffusion that also took place at the same time. 
He thought the photographs showed that quite clearly. With regard to 
the hardness of the specimens under prolonged annealing, he was afraid 
he could only say that the results given were those which he obtained, 
and that, so far as he could tell from the figures, the hardness as measured 
in the scleroscope was no lower with a coarse crystalline structure after 
seventy-two hours than it was with a comparatively fine one after one 
hour. A question was asked as to the nature of the small black spots 
shown so clearly in Plate IV. Fig. 10. If the photographs were carefully 
looked at they would be seen in some of the other photographs too. He 
considered they were due to the presence of small particles of lead. The 


Communications on Hudson's Paper 

alloy was made up with good commercial material. He was not quite 
sure whether the small amount of lead so introduced would account for 
all those black spots, but he came to the conclusion that they were due 
to small particles of lead present in the alloy. Tlie President had referred 
to the question of whether the cores shown were developed normally. 
They were, but the etching method which he described briefly on page 110 
showed the coring very much more distinctly. That was a combination 
of slight polishing with the etching. 


Mr. H. Garland (Cairo) wrote that he was very pleased to read Mr. 
Hudson's remarks (page 1 10) on the persistence of the " cast-cored " struc- 
ture of that alloy after annealing, because it was a conclusion to which he 
was forced some time ago in connection with investigations he was then 
making on ancient Egyptian bronzes. He (Mr. Garland) found, on polish- 
ing sections of old bronze knives, chisels, &c., about 3500 years old, that in 
most instances he obtained a core structure (showing all the usual strains 

Result of cold hammeiing, showing core structure. 
Magnified 18 diameters. 

^ \,' 

Shows same secliun, deeply etched. 
Magnified 270 diameters. 

Figs. 1 and 2. — Section of Egyptian Copper Knife Blade, about 3000 years old. 
(Etched with ammonium persulphate 10 per cent, solution.) 

and deformation due to cold hammering), which was more or less apparent 
on simple polishing because of differences in the hardness of the phases. 
But, according to the present accepted theory, during the extended life- 
time of those articles, recrystallization should have taken place at 
atmospheric temperatures. Upon deep etching this was found to be 
the case. The cores and the surrounding phase were found to be made 
up of very small crystal grains (just visible with a magnification of 60), 
and it seemed to him that a gradual annealing effect had taken place, but 

Communications on Hudson s Paper 119 

the new grains did not appear to have grown, as generally happened in 
practice upon prolonged heating at the temperatures usually adopted for 
annealing processes. He, therefore, concluded that in the case of cold- 
worked metals, recrystallization took place at normal temperatures if 
sufficient time were allowed (as stated by Dr. T. Kirke Rose), but that 
diffusion did not occur at those temperatures, the cores and matrix simply 
breaking up, in situ, into small crystal grains (thus relieving the internal 
strains), and remaining in the same condition, physically and chemically, 
afterwards. He deduced from this, that to bring about diifusion in an 
alloy of that type a more or less elevated temperature was absolutely 
essential. He was keeping these facts for a paper which he hoped to 
present later, but as Mr. Hudson had brought up the question it would 
probably be of interest to him to hear them now, and he would be glad 
to have Mr. Hudson's comments. 

Mr. F. Johnson, M.Sc. (Birmingham), wrote that he was greatly 
interested in the micrographic results in the author's paper, which 
brought out so strikingly the extreme slowness of diffusion in German 
silver. He had had occasion to notice a similar sluggishness, in the case 
of commercial 9-carat alloys, also in the case of an experimental copper- 
arsenic alloy (2 per cent, arsenic) and even of a commercial copper- 
arsenic alloy (4 per cent, arsenic). Although, in these cases, the 
sluggishness of diffusion was not comparable with that of Mr. Hudson's 
alloys, yet the same phenomena presented themselves, after annealing 
of a duration more than sufficient to completely soften the alloys, as 
occurred in the case of German silver and cupro-nickel. 

Mr. Hudson, in reply, thanked Messrs. Garland and Johnson for their 
communications. Mr. Garland's observations on the structure of ancient 
bronze implements were of great interest as affording a further instance 
of recrystallization in metals and alloys apparently quite independent of 
any chemical diffusion. He agreed with Mr. Garland that in the bronzes 
mentioned a temperature much above the normal would be necessary to 
cause any appreciable diffusion. He was glad to notice that Mr. Johnson 
had observed in other alloys a behaviour similar to that which he {Islv. 
Hudson) had observed in the case of German silver. 

120 Gttlliver: Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 


By G. H. GULLIVER, B.Sc, F.R.S.E., A.M.LMech.E. 

I. Introduction. 

The physical properties of an alloy which has solidified 
quickly may differ greatly from those of the same alloy allowed 
to crystallize slowly. The differences produced by varying the 
rate of cooling during the freezing period are correlative with 
a twofold variation in the structure of the alloy, namely, a 
change in the dimensions of the crystal aggregates, and a 
change in the constitution of the mixture. The exact effects 
to be ascribed to each change separately are not yet known, 
but in general an alteration of constitution is more important 
than one of crystal size. The relation between the rate of 
cooling and the structural arrangement of an alloy has been 
determined only in the roughest manner on account of the 
difficulty, when the rate of cooling is not very slow, of speci- 
fying what the rate actually is at any point of the mass of 
metal. The equilibrium diagram for a series of alloys shows 
the constitution of each particular mixture when the rate of 
cooling is excessively slow, but it gives one only a rough idea 
of the constitution of more quickly cooled mixtures. On the 
other hand, as will be shown herein, it contains the data from 
which the constitution of mixtures cooled with excessive 
rapidity may be calculated, if certain assumptions are made, 
so that the limits within which the constitution of a particular 
alloy can vary, for extreme values of the rate of cooling, may 
be regarded as known when the equilibrium diagram for the 
series has been determined. 

In a simple type of alloy of two metals each solid com- 
ponent is capable of holding in solution a certain limited 
proportion of the other, and the two solid solutions when 

* Read at Annual General Meeting, London, March 12, 1913. 

upon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 121 

present together form an eu tactic. The diagram iUustrating 
the physico-chemical conditions of eqiiiUbrium of the series is 
of the form of Fig. 1, where temperatures are represented by 
ordinates, and the composition of the alloys, in percentages of 
the two components A and B, by abscissae. The broken line 
CEB is the liquidiis or freezing-point curve — that is, the locus 
of the temperatures at which the various molten alloys of the 













100 A 90 












8l0 9b~B 100 



Fig. 1. — Typical Equilibrium Diagram for a series of alloys in which the structural 
constituents are two solid solutions, a and /iJ, and an eutectic, E. 

series begin to solidify when cooled ; a point above CBD 
represents a mixture which is wholly liquid, Avhile one im- 
mediately below the line represents a mixture which is partly 
liquid and partly solid. The broken line CHKB is the 
solidus or melting-point curve — that is, the locus of the tem- 
peratures at which the various solid alloys begin to liquefy 
when heated; a point below CHKD represents a mixture 
which is wholly solid, while one immediately above the line 

122 Gulliver : Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

represents a mixture which is partly solid and partly liquid. 
The points H and K represent respectively the limiting com- 
position of the solid solution of B in A, and the limiting 
composition of the solid solution of A in B ; of the first of 
these solutions, called a, the metal A constitutes the greater 
portion, while in the second, called /3, B is in excess of A. 
The lines FIT and BK represent the changes in the limiting 
compositions of the solutions a and (3 at temperatures below 
UK. The point B, at which the two branches of the liquidus 
intersect, represents the eutectic alloy of the series. 

The equilibrium diagram, Fig. 1, is divided by the various 
lines into a number of fields, each having a distinct signification. 
A point in the triangular space CBR, included between the 
liquidus and solidus, indicates a mixture which is partly 
liquid and partly solid ; the solid portion contains more of A 
and less of B than the liquid portion, and consists of crystals 
of the a-solution having a composition which varies with the 
temperature. Similarly a point within the triangular area 
BBK represents a mixture of /3-crystals and liquid. An alloy 
of which the composition lies to the left of H solidifies com- 
pletely at a temperature above HK to a mass of homogeneous 
a-crystals ; one with a composition represented by a point to 
the right of K also becomes completely solid above HK, and 
consists of homogeneous j8-crystals. An alloy having a com- 
position between H and E, when the temperature just reaches 
HK, is formed of saturated a-crystals of composition H and 
liquid of composition B ; the liquid solidifies at the constant 
temperature of the line HK as the eutectic mixture of the 
series, a conglomerate of tiny crystals of the saturated a- 
and /^-solutions. When the composition of the alloy lies 
between B and K, the (^-crystals first formed reach the 
saturation composition K, and the rest of the mass solidifies 
as the eutectic B. Thus all alloys between H and K contain 
both a- and j8-crystals. 

The earlier products of solidification are frequently termed 
primary crystals in order to distinguish them from the secondary 
eutectic or other crystallization. The manner in which the 
composition of a primary crystal changes during the period 
of its formation is important, and has been carefully described 

tipon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 123 

by Roozeboom.* Consider the case of an alloy X, Fig. 2, 
containing a less proportion of the metal B than is necessary 
to saturate the a-solution at the eutectic temperature. Draw 
a vertical line — that is, one of constant composition — through 
X, cutting the liquidus at x' and the solidus at j/'\ When 
the liquid alloy is cooled, x' is the temperature at which it 

Fig. 2. — Part of Equilibrium Diagram, illustrating manner of solidification of 
two alloys, X and Y. 

commences to solidify, and x'" is the temperature of complete 
solidification; or, if the solid alloy be heated, x'" is the tem- 
perature at which melting commences, and x' that of complete 
liquefaction. If attention is confined, for convenience, to the 
process of solidification of the melted alloy, the composition of 
the first tiny crystals is given by x'\ the intersection with the 

* Roozeboom, Zeitschrift physikalische Chemie, 1899, vol. xxx. pp. 385, 413. 

124 Gulliver : Quantitative Ej^ect of Rapid Cooling 

solidus of the horizontal line through x'. At any subsequent 
stage of solidification the compositions of the solid and liquid 
portions of the mass are represented by the intersections with 
the solidus and liquidus, respectively, of a horizontal line drawn 
at the temperature of the mixture in accordance with the 
vertical scale of the diagram. Thus, at the temperature of the 
line pq, the alloy X is a mixture of crystals of composition p 
with liquid of composition q. The total composition of the 
alloy is represented on the line pq by the point o, vertically 
below X, so that, by elementary geometry, the proportion of 
2?-crystals is the fraction oqlpq, and the proportion of g-'liquid 
is po'.pq of the whole alloy. From x' to x/" the proportion of 
liquid steadily decreases and that of the crystals increases. 
At x'" the liquid vanishes, the composition of the last droplets 
being given by x"", the intersection Avith the liquidus of the 
horizontal through x'"-. 

In an alloy represented by a point like Y, lying between 
H and E, the earlier part of the process of solidification is like 
that of X, but the completion is otherwise. When the tem- 
perature has just fallen to that of the line HE the composition 
of the crystals is given by H and that of the liquid by E. The 
liquid E solidifies at constant temperature to form the eutectic, 
while the composition of the primary crystals remains un- 
altered, so that when the temperature commences to fall beloAv 
HE the just solid alloy consists of primary crystals and eutectic 
in the proportion of y'"E to Hy"' ; or y"'ElHE of the whole 
consists of primary crystals and Hy'" jHE is formed of eutectic. 

Returning to the alloy X, the process by which the solid 
portion changes from a few crystals of composition x" to a 
homogeneous mass of composition x'" is of a duplex character. 
If just above the temperature ^^^^ all the crystals were removed 
from the liquid, a slight fall of temperature would bring about 
the generation of tiny crystals of composition p. But when 
the previously formed crystals are not removed and the con- 
ditions are those of equilibrium, the whole of the solid portion 
of the mixture attains the composition p at this temperature. 
There is a mutual action of diffusion between the solid 
and liquid portions, whereby the crystals formed at a higher 
temperature are enabled to assume, at the temperature pq, 

upon the Constitiition of Binary Alloys 125 

the only composition which is consistent with chemical 
equilibrium between solid and liquid at this temperature. If 
the process of solidification be supposed to take place in a series 
of small steps, at each step the crystals already formed change 
their composition, by diffusion, to that consistent with the new 
conditions of equilibrium, and there is also a small growth of 
entirely new material of the correct equilibrium composition. 

In the above it has been supposed that the conditions of 
cooling are such that the alloy is enabled to be in a state of 
perfect physico-chemical equilibrium at the end of each small 
interval of temperature, but this is not so in practice. With 
ordinary rates of cooling, at any temperature within the 
interval of solidification, the composition of the liquid and of 
the most recently formed crystals probably approximate closely 
to those conditional with equilibrium, but such is not the case 
with the whole mass of solid. The process of diffusion, by 
which an alteration is effected in the composition of the 
primary crystals as the temperature falls, is a very slow one. 
It is much hindered also by the fact that the new growth is 
usually deposited around an already existing crystal, and forms 
an envelope which is for the moment in equilibrium with the 
liquid, and therefore more or less eftectually screens the core. 
Thus, when solidification is completed, each crystal grain 
varies in composition from its centre to its external surface, 
giving a common and easily recognized type of structure. 
Further, any lack of equilibrium during solidification of an 
alloy having a composition to the left of H, such as X, causes 
the temperature of complete solidification to be lowered, but 
this does not fall below HE if surfusion be prevented ; in an 
alloy having a composition between H and K, like F, the 
proportion of eutectic is greater when there is imperfect than 
when there is perfect equilibrium. These last two statements 
will be understood by a reference to Fig. 2. Suppose that the 
alloy X cools to -pq^ under conditions of perfect equilibrium. 
Then at this temperature the fraction oq'/pq^ of the whole mass 
is solid. Suppose the crystals to be removed and the liquid 
to be cooled to x"'x"" , again under conditions of perfect 
equilibrium. Then the new crop of crystals is (^'x'"' x"x"" 
of the portion not removed, and x'^'q ixf"x"" of liquid remains. 

126 Gtdliver : Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

Thus the mass is not completely solid at the temperature x , 
but a fraction equal to x"'<i' x"x"' . 'poj'pq^ of the original 
amount is still liquid. The sluggishness of diffusion may be 
conveniently regarded as equivalent to the removal of the 
crystals from the liquid at various stages in the process of 
solidification, so that an effect similar to the above is the 
result. If the rate of cooling of the alloy be very rapid, 
diffusion is almost entirely prevented ; this is equivalent to 
replacing the two large steps of Fig. 2 by a great number of 
small ones. The temperature of complete solidification of an 
alloy to the left of H is then lowered to the eutectic tempera- 
ture, and the proportion of eutectic in an alloy having a 
composition between H and E is increased. It is a useful and 
an interesting problem to determine the proportion of eutectic 
present in an alloy under these conditions. 

II. Determination of the Proportions of Solid and 
Liquid in a Rapidly Cooled Alloy. 

In considering the subject from a mathematical standpoint 
certain assumptions are required for the purpose of removing 
complexities difficult to treat accurately. The first assumption 
is that the manner of cooling is such that diffusion within the 
solid parts of the alloy is entirely prevented except during 
small temperature intervals which may be varied at will, while 
difflision within the liquid portion is always perfect ; conse- 
quently, each tiny crystal has the equilibrium composition 
corresponding with the temperature at the end of the interval 
within which it was formed. In an actual alloy there would 
be some diffusion within the solid portions, and a defective 
diffusion within the liquid portion of the mass. The second 
assumption is that all liquid remaining when the eutectic 
temperature is reached solidifies at this temperature ; in the 
absence of surfusion this would be actually the case. It is 
further assumed, for the present, that both liquidus and 
solidus curves, GE and CH, are straight lines ; for an actual 
series of alloys they are somewhat curved, but any desired 
degree of accuracy may be secured by subdividing the lines 
into sections short enough to be regarded as straight. 

tipon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 127 

Consider an alloy represented by the point X, Fig. 3. Let 
its period of solidification be divided into a number of stages, 
as in the previous paragraph, the crystals being removed at 

Fig. 3. — Part of Equilibrium Diagram ia which the period of solidification of the 
alloy A" is divided into a number of stages. 

the end of each stage. At the end of the first stage the two 
parts of the mixture are in the proportions — 

r of the whole mass. 

Solid = ^ 
Liquid =i— 

At the end of the second stage the proportions are- 

Solid = '^^ 

Liquid = 


of the mass remaining after the removal 
of the first crop of crystals. 

the original mass. 

128 Gulliver: Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

That is, at the end of the second stage, 
Solid = ^-i+9-^?^l 

m ts pq I ^^ 
^ t^ M J 

And so on for subsequent stages. 

If the various steps extend over equal temperature intervals, 

oq = q's = s'u, &c. ^say m, 
lp=p't = t'v, &c. = say n. 


pq = a + m-n ts=n + 2m-2n vu = a + Sm-37i ^ 

2)0 = a - n to' — a- 2n vo"=a - 3n .- 

tq' = a + m-2n rs' = a -\- 2m - 3n J 

And the proportions of solid and liquid may be written — 
At end of first stage. 

Solid = ~ — \ 

a + m — n\ . . . , 

- of original mass. 

Liquid = 

a + m - n J 

At end of second stage, 

m m a — n 


Solid = 
Liquid = 

a + m — n a + 2m — 2n ' a + m - n 
a + m — 2n a — n 

a + 2m — 2n « + 7>i — n 
At end of third stage. 

Solid = 

of original mass. 

a + ra — n a + 2 m — 2n a + m — n 

111 a + »i, — 2n a — n 

Liquid = 

rt + 3»i — 3/1 a+2m-2n a + m-n 
a + 2m — 3?i a + m — 2n a — n 

y of original mass 

a + 3m — 3?i a + 2m ~2u a + m — n 

and so on. 

At end of r-th stage, 

m a — n 

Solid = 

a + m — n 
. . . + 

a + 2m-2n' a+m — n 

m a + (r-2)m — (r-l)n 

a — n 

a + m — n 

a + rm - rn ' a + {r- l)m - (r - 1 )n 
a + {r — \)m-rn a + {r- 2)m — (r - l)n a- n 

a+rm-m ' « + (r- l)m-(r-l)?i " 

of original mass. 

Liquid = 

a+m — n 



2tpon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 129 

It is simpler to determine the proportion of the liquid than 
of the solid portion of a mixture. The expression (2) gives 
the proportional amount of liquid remaining in an alloy at the 
end of a period of rapid cooling; if solidification has been 
completed, (2) gives the amount of liquid present at the 
eutectic temperature — that is, the amount of eutectic present 
in the just solid alloy. The degree of approximation to an 
accurate mathematical result for the case of an indefinitely 
great rapidity of cooling depends upon the number of steps 
taken — that is, upon the value of ;- — and for a reasonably 
accurate result this value must be considerable. A variation 
in the value of r is an artificial manner of representing a 
variation in the rate of cooling, though it is not possible to 
specify the actual rate of cooling which corresponds with a 
particular value of r. 

When r is increased indefinitely, the expression (2) becomes 
an interesting example of a continued product of numbers, 
each less than unity, the value of which is finite. That the 
value is not zero follows from the fact that an increase in the 
value of r is only obtained by subdividing the steps, and each 
subdivision increases the value of the product. Thus, referring 
to Fig. 3, if the interval betAveen x"x' and U be considered a 
single step — that is, if equilibrium conditions prevail through- 
out this period — the amount of liquid at the end of the 
step is 

to' a - 2?i 

is a + 2m — 2n 

of that present at x'. 

If the period be divided into two equal steps by the line pq, 
the first crop of crystals being effectually removed at this 
temperature, the amount of liquid at the end of the second 

step is 

tq' vo a + m — 2n a — n £ j.i . x j. / 

-i- . -t— = . or that present at x . 

ts pq a + 2m — 2n a + 171 — 11 


a-2n _ a — 2n a + m — n_a^ + am-Zan-2mn + 2n^ 
a + 2m-2n a + 2m — 2n ' a + m — n {a + 2m-2n){a+m-n) 


a->rm — 2n a — n _a^ + ain — ^an-mn + 2n^ 
a + 2m-2n' a + m-n {a + 2m — 2n){a + m-n) 

130 Gul/iver : Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

So that the subdivision of the one step into two has increased 
the proportional quantity of liquid by 

^ — ^^ of that present at x'. ... (3) 

(a + 2m-2?z)(a + 7ri,-») ^ ' 

Similarly, any other increase in the number of steps of the 
process causes a further increase in the amount of liquid left 
at the end. The quantity (3) is the amount of liquid necessary 
to convert the crystals of composition 79, removed at the end 
of the first step, to the equilibrium composition t at the end of 
the second step. For, in order that the product shall have the 
composition t, the proportion of 5-liquid which must diffuse 
into the j;-crystals is 

s-liquid _p'i_ n 

_p-crystals ts a + 2m — 2n 
And since the actual amount of ^-crystals is 

S = of the whole alloy, 

po a + m — n 

the liquid necessary for the reaction is 

. of the whole alloy. 

a + m — n a + 2m - 2j(- 

At the end of any subsequent stage the increased propor- 
tion of liquid over that conditional with equilibrium is less 
than the amount necessary to bring the whole of the crystals 
to the equilibrium composition corresponding with this tem- 
perature, since some of the increased liquid has crystallized at 
intermediate stages. 

If the process of solidification were accomplished in one 
step — in other words, if conditions of perfect equilibrium 
prevailed during the whole period of crystallization of the 
solid solution — the proportional amount of liquid left in the 
mixture X (Fig. 3) at the eutectic temperature would be 

Hx'" _ a — rn ,.^^ 

HE a + rm — rn''' • • • • ■ ^ 

Any subdivision of the process results in a greater propor- 
tion of liquid equal to 

a — rn + Q 
a + rvi - rn' 

jipon the Constihition oj Binary Alloys 131 

where ^ is a quantity which depends upon the actual alloy, 
and upon the number of steps into which the period of 
solidification is supposed to be divided — that is, upon the 
extent to which diffusion is operative in the solid parts of 
the alloy. The expression (2) may be Avritten in the above 
form ; the details of the transformation are straightforward 
and uninteresting, and the result is that at the end of the 
r-th step, 

Liquid = a - rn + ^ 

a + r( ?/i - «)L {a + (r - 1 )(m - ?i) } 

'^G^mn{m - 2n) 
{« + (r - 1 ){m - ?i)[{rt+"(r - 2)(m - «)} 


^C',-i7im(m-2?0(2?/t-3n) . . . {(s-3)m-(s-2K 
{a + (r-l)(m-?j)} . . . {a + [r- (s-2)](m- n)} 

TO«(m-2?t)(2m-3n) . . . {(?--2)m — (r— l)?tj 
{a + (r- l)(m-?i)} . . . \a-\-'ni-n\ 

]. . . (5) 

where 'G^^^^'G ^^^^:^^ ^^' 

The expression (5) is usually convergent from the third 
term within the bracket, but the summation of the series is 
difficult ; in certain cases the first few terms give a sensibly 
accurate result, but the form of the expression is inconvenient. 
The advantage in treating the subject in the above manner 
lies partly in its simplicity and clearness, and partly in the 
fact that the expression (2) is the most suitable to apply 
when the curvature of liquidus and solidus is to be taken into 
consideration, provided that the values of m and n proper to 
each point of the curves are inserted in the corresponding 
terms of the product. In order to obtain a more convenient 
expression for purposes of calculation, when liquidus and 
solidus are assumed to be straight, a somewhat different 
method of attack is required. 

In Fig. 4, let the angle ACE be 0, and let ACR be (^. Let 
the diff'erence of temperature between the freezing point C of 
the pure metal A and the freezing point x' of an alloy X be 
2/o ; and let the difference of temperature between the freezing 
point G and some other temperature q^ of the partially solidi- 
fied mixture be y. Let the temperature interval for a small 

132 Gtdliver : Qttantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

step in the process of solidification be hj. Then the former 
notation is related to the new notation as follows — 

a;'a;" = a = T/o(tan ^-taii </>) 
g^s = m = 8i/ . tan Q 
p't = n = 8y . tan </>. 

The proportion of liquid left in a slowly-cooled alloy X at 

Fig. 4. — Similar to Fig. 3, but with notation suitable for infinitesimal steps. 

any temperature q during the period of freezing is easily 
obtained, as — 

Proportion of liquid at temperature q (slow cooling) 

_i/o tan d — y tan (f> 
y{ta,n 6^ — tan <^ 


upon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 133 

If solidification is completed above the eutectic temperature, 
the melting point of the alloy is obtained by equating the 
expression (6) to zero, which gives — 

tan Q 
tan eft 

as the difterence between the freezing point of the pure metal 
and the melting point of the alloy. If the proportion of 
eutectic is required in an eutectiferous alloy, it is obtained 
by inserting in (6) the value of y appropriate to the eutectic 

For excessively rapid cooling the proportion of liquid left 
in the alloy X may be obtained by substitution in the ex- 
pression (2), page 128. 

Proportion of liquid (rapid cooling) 

_i/o(tan ^-tan 4>)-8y tan (f> yo(,tsin ^-tan </>) + Sy(tan 6-2 tan cf)) 
(2/o + %)(tan 6'-tan (p) ' (i/q + 25i/)(tan ^ — tan t^) 

yQ(tan 9 - tan 0) + S^{(r — 1) tan 9 — r tan <^} 

(?/o + J'8i/)(tan 6 - tan <^) 

Writing y\ = yo + ^y, 2/2 = 2/0 + 2<^^, &c., the expression be- 
comes — 

i/Q(tan 6 - tan <^) — hy tan (^ i/j(tan 9 — tan <^) - % tan <^ 
i/i(tan 9 - tan c^) ' :?/2(t'in G - tan <^) 

i/,._i(tan 9 - tan c/)) — 8y tan (/> 
?/r(tan 9 — tan </>) 

Rearranging, and writing c for r — -A—f^ — r, the expression 
becomes — 

i/o(tan 9 - tan ^) - hj tan <^ . f 1 i _ '^•^V I ^ l - ^'^^ ^ 

i/,(tan 9 - tan (/>) L ( Vi } \ Vt > ' ' ' 


Proceeding to the limit, multiplying and collecting the 
terms within the square bracket, gives — ■ 

— l — cdy'2 - + {cdy)'-'Z, (products of - in pairs) 

— (cdijY^ (products of - in threes) + &c. 
y -■ 

134 Gulliver: Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

Now the series within the square bracket is convergent for 
any value of y with which it is necessary to deal as regards 
the present subject, and so long as no great number of terms 
are necessary, the expression may be rewritten, with only a 
slight deviation from perfect accuracy, as — 

Proportion of liquid (rapid cooling) 

if 1 - C loge ^ + ,4fc loge '^V ' f o^" ^^^^ ^'■V+ *<^- 

c log, Tl - (c+1) log, ?''■ - tan 9 _ ,„g^ yr 

.... (7) 

J/o e 3/o _ p yo ^ tan e - tan </) ° Vo 


This result, though mathematically only an approximation, 
is of a much higher order of accuracy than it is possible or 
desirable to obtain in a numerical calculation of the propor- 
tion of liquid. 

III. Example — The Lead-Tin Alloys. 

To illustrate the kind of results obtained by the above 
method the lead-rich alloys of the lead-tin series have been 
chosen. Most of the equilibrium conditions for this series 
have been determined recently with great accuracy by Rosen - 
hain and Tucker.* The liquidus for the lead-rich alloys is 
slightly curved, and is shown as a fine line in Fig. 5 ; the 
eutectic point is at 62-93 per cent, of tin and 183° C The 
corresponding solidus has not been determined exactly; the 
limiting concentration of the lead-rich solution is close to 
16 per cent, of tin. 

For the present purpose both solidus and liquidus have been 
assumed straight, and the intersections of these lines with the 
eutectic line have been taken at 16 and 63 per cent, of tin 
respectively ; the assumed liquidus and solidus are shown as 
thick lines in Fig, 5. The curvature of the liquidus is taken 
into account in a subsequent calculation. The temperature 
interval between the freezing point of lead (328° C.) and that 

* Rosenhain and Tucker, Philosophical Transactions, 1909, vol. ccix. A., p. 89. 


tipori the Constihition of Binary Alloys 135 

of the eutectic (183° C.) has been divided into ten equal parts; 
the corresponding points of division on the liquidus represent 
nine lead-rich alloys, numbered I., II., III., &c., for which the 
calculations have been made. In order to show the effect of 
different rates of cooling, the interval between the freezing 


Fig. 5. — Part of Equilibrium Diagram for Lead-tin Alloys. The fine curved liquidus is 
drawn from the experimental results of Rosenhain and Tucker ; the thick straight 
liquidus is the one assumed for most of the calculations. l"he points with Roman 
numerals attached represent the compositions of the alloys chosen for calculation. 
In the upper part of the diagram an ordinate of the straight sloping line represents 
the proportion of eutectic present in a just solid alloy when in a condition of equili- 
brium, and an ordinate of the curved line represents the proportion of eutectic 
in an alloy cooled with extreme rapidity. 

point of lead and that of the eutectic has been divided into 
10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 steps respectively, and the corre- 
sponding proportions of liquid left at 183° have been calculated 
from the expression (2), p. 128. These are given in Table I., 
together with the proportions of liquid left in the various 
alloys when the rate of cooling is indefinitely rapid, as calculated 

136 Gulliver : Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

from the expression (7), and also the proportions of liquid 
obtained under equilibrium conditions. 

As an example of the method of calculation the case of 
100 steps may be taken. For each alloy the horizontal dis- 
tance between solidus and liquidus at th6 freezing point, 
designated a in the preceding section, is an even multiple of 
the difference between the small horizontal steps m and n ; 
for brevity the letter li is written hereafter for the difference 
(m — n). Then, 

m = 63/100 = 0-63, 

?i = 16/100 = 0-16, 

/(; = ??i-?i = 0-47. 

For alloy I. (Fig. 5), 

Ojj = 10ra = l'6 per cent, of tii 
og = 10m = 6*3 per cent, of ti 
pg = a = 10(7*1 - tc) = lOA; = 4'7. 

And the number of steps between the freezing point j and the 
eutectic temperature is 7*= 90. 
For alloy XL, 

a=:20/(;, and r = 80 steps. 
For alloy III., 

a = 30^, and r- = 70 steps ; 
and so on. 

It is most convenient to begin with alloy IX., for which 
a = 90 A:, and r = 10 steps. Substituting in equation (2) of the 
preceding section, and writing k for {in — n), 
For alloy IX. 

J. .^_a + 9k — n a + 8k — n a + Jc — n a-n 

^^^^ a + lOk ' a + 9k ' ' ' a + 2k~ ' 'a + k 

_ d9k-n 9Sk-n ^^^tz3 ^'^k-J_^ 

100k ' 99/c * ■ * 92k ' 9U 

_ 4637 4.5 -90 42-61 4214 

47-00 ■ 46-53 * ' ' 43-24 ' 42-77 

= 0-86807. 
Under equilibrium conditions, 

T- •-, «-10n 90A;-10n 40-7 
^^^"^^ = ^Tui^=-'l00A;-=47^ 

= 0-86596. 

upon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 137 

For alloy VIIL, 

a=B>Oh, and r = 20 steps. 

T- -A ct+\Qk-n a + \Sk-n a + k-n a — n 

Liquid = — = — . — .— . . . =— , =- 

a + 20A; a+19A; a + 2k a+k 

^99k-n 90k - n 89fc - n 80k -n 

look ' ' ' 9lk ' 90/b ' ' ' ^llT 

_ 46-37 42-14 41-67 37-44 

47-00 ■ * * 42-77 " 42-30 ' ' * 38-07 

= 0-74105. 

The product of the first ten terms for alloy VIII. is equal 
to the result already found for alloy IX., so that the arithmetic 
is not so formidable as it appears. Similarly, with alloy VII., 
it is only necessary to obtain the product of ten fractions and 
to multiply this by the proportion of liquid found for alloy 
VIII., and so on. 

When the rate of cooling is indefinitely rapid the expres- 
sion (7), p. 134, is used in the following manner: 

tan 8 , ?/)• 

_ . . , tau - tan A * "^ j/o 

Liquid = 6 

loge Liquid = . loge — 

"^ ^ tan 6- tan (fi "^ y^ 

Or, more conveniently, 

locf,„ Liquid = - ~ — ^ . locr,n^. 

='^° ^ tan6'-tan(/) "^°i/o 

For alloy III., having its freezing point at 284*5° C, 

1/0 = 328-284-5 = 43-5, 
i/r=328- 183 = 145. 

^^=^;logio 1^=0-5228787, 

tan 6 63 i o^rv-lorrr 

ta^ir^Ta-n^=^63^i6 = ^''^^^'^^' 
-^"^ -logio ^^ = 0-7008798, 

tan ^ — tan (f) y^ 

logio Liquid = -0-7008798=1-2991202, 
Liquid = -1991224. 

It is quite clear from Table I. that for ordinary purposes a 
sufficient degree of approximation to the amount of liquid left 
when cooling is indefinitely rapid is obtained from expression 
(2) when the interval between the freezing points of pure lead 
and the lead-tin eutectic is divided into 100 steps. 

138 Gulliver: Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

Table I. — Liquid Remaining in Various Lead-tin Alloys at the Eutectic 
Temperature after Different Rates of Cooling. (Liquidus and 
Solidus Assumed Straight.) 


ing Tin 
Point, per 
Degrees Cent. 

Proportion of Liquid left at 183 Degrees C. 





















313-5 6-3 
299 12-6 
284-5 18-9 
270-0 25-2 
255-5 31-5 
241-0 37-8 
226-5 44-1 
212 50-4 
197-5 56-7 








The values given in the fourth and last columns of Table I. 
are plotted in the form of a diagram in the upper part of 
Fig. 5, where the proportion of liquid remaining in each alloy 
at 183° C. is set vertically downwards along the line repre- 
senting the composition of the alloy. The straight line from 
16 to 63 per cent, of tin shows the variation in the pro- 
portion of liquid with change in the composition of the alloy 
when the conditions are those of equilibrium ; the curved 
line from pure lead to 63 per cent, of tin indicates the larger 
proportion of liquid found when cooling is rapid. For clear- 
ness the space between the two lines is shown black. Since 
the liquid remaining in any alloy at 183° solidifies at this 
temperature in the form of the lead-tin eutectic, the diagram 
also represents the proportion of eutectic present in the various 
solid alloys under the stated conditions. 

This diagram is of peculiar interest in connection with 
Tammann's method of determining the ends of an eutectic 
line.* The method consists in noting, for a number of alloys 
having compositions between that of the eutectic and that of 
the saturated solid solution, the time during which the tem- 
perature remains stationary at the eutectic freezing point ; if 
the conditions of cooling are identical for all the alloys these 

* Tammann, Zeitschrift anorganische Chemie, 1903, vol. .xxxvii. p. 303 ; 1905, vol. xlv. 
p. 24 ; 1905, vol. xlvii. p. 289. 

upon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 139 

times are proportional to the amounts of eutectic solidifying, 
and when time is plotted against composition the point at 
which the proportion of eutectic is zero — that is, the limit of 
saturation of the solid solution — is found by extrapolation. 
The difficulties in accurately applying this method are con- 
siderable, but the chief objection to the results obtained by 
most of the investigators who have employed it is in the 
small quantities of material they have used, and the common 
accompaniment of rather rapid cooling. As a consequence 
nearly all the published data give curved lines like the curved 
one of Fig. 5. The latter gives the upper limit to the pro- 
portion of eutectic when the cooling is very rapid, while the 
straight line gives the lower limit correspondmg with equi- 
librium. The experimental curves mentioned fall between 
these two limits ; they give too low a saturation point for the 
solid solution, that is, too long an eutectic line. The mere 
fact that they are curved is conclusive evidence either that 
the rate of cooling of the alloys has been too rapid to give 
results consistent with equilibrium, or that there have been 
other sources of error, since for equilibrium the proportion of 
eutectic varies simply with the composition of the alloy, so 
that all curves of this nature should be straight lines. 

The equation to the curve which represents the proportion 
of eutectic in a series of rapidly cooled alloys is obtained 
from (7) by inserting the value of y^ — say y^ — corresponding 
with the eutectic temperature. The expression may also be 
written somewhat more conveniently thus : 

Let E be the proportion of eutectic in a rapidly cooled 

Let X be the percentage of the metal B in the alloy. 

Let X^ be the percentage of the metal B in the A-rich 
solid solution H. 

Let Xj; be the percentage of the metal B in the eutectic. 
Then (Fig. 4), 

X=y^ tan d, 
Xs = yE tan (/), 
XE=yE tan d. 


_ ^' . log ?^ 
E = e ^"-^^ ' ^ (7«) 

140 Gulliver : Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

is the equation to the curve, where E is the ordinate corre- 
sponding with the abscissa X, and the other terms are con- 
stants proper to the series of alloys. 

For the lead-rich alloys of the lead-tin series, 


63 ,„„ 63 

gives the proportion of eutectic in a rapidly cooled alloy X. 

It is clear from Fig. 5 that a much closer approximation 
to the true saturation point is found by extrapolation through 
points obtained from alloys rich in eutectic than from those 
containing only a small proportion of eutectic, whenever the 
rate of cooling falls short of the extreme slowness necessary 
to ensure equilibrium. The same fact is brought out still 
more clearly in Fig. 8, which shows the various apparent 
positions of the saturation point as determined from the 
proportion of eutectic in the rapidly cooled alloys, in the 
manner detailed on p. 147. The real saturation point is at 
-ST, 16 per cent, of tin; the points h^, h^, hy &c., are obtained 
for alloys I., II., III., &c., respectively, when rapidly cooled, 
and correspond with the percentages of tin given in the 
bottom line of Table III. They actually represent the 
average composition of the non-uniform primary crystals of 
each alloy. The horizontal scale of Fig. 8 is more open than 
that of Fig. 5, in order that the various points shall be clearly 

It is interesting to determine what proportion of an alloy 
has crystallized at any instant during its period of solidifica- 
tion. This is easily calculated, by the methods given already, 
both for a rapidly cooled and for a very slowly cooled alloy. 
Table IIa. gives the proportion of solid matter in each of 
the nine chosen alloys at nine equidistant temperatures be- 
tween the freezing point of lead and that of the lead-tin 
eutectic, and also at the eutectic temperature, when the alloys 
are very rapidly cooled ; Table IIb. gives corresponding 
figures for the same alloys when in perfect equilibrium, the 
liquidus and solidus being assumed straight. 

upon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 141 

Table IIa. — Proportion of Primary Crystals in quickly cooled Lead-tin 
Alloys at various Temperatures. (Liquidus and Solidus assuvied 

No. of Alloy 










Tin per Cent. . 








. 313-5 . 



299-0 . 




284-5 . 





270-0 . 






255-5 . 







241 . 








226-5 . 







0-000 1 ... 


2120 . 










197-5 . 










I 183-0 . 










Table IIb. — Proportion of Primary Crystals in Lead-tin Alloys under 
conditions of Equilibrium at various Ternp>eratures. (Liquidus 
and Solidus assumed straight.) 

No. of Alloy- 










Tin per Cent. . 










f 313-5 . 



299 . 




284-5 . 





270-0 . 






255-5 . 







241-0 . 

1 000 







226-5 . 








2120 . 










197-5 . 










^ i 183-0 . 










The above values are represented diagrammatically in Fig. 6. 
From the freezing point of each alloy is drawn to the right 
a short horizontal line, the length of which represents unit 
quantity of the mixture ; verticals are drawn from the ends 
of this line to the eutectic line. From the left-hand vertical 
line, at each of the temperatures given in the first column of 
Table IIa., the corresponding proportion of primary crystals 
of the quickly cooled alloy is set out horizontally, and the 
points so obtained are joined by a curve. The proportion of 

142 Gulliver : Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

liquid present in the mixture at any temperature is obviously 
given by the horizontal distance between this curve and the 
right-hand vertical boundary of the rectangle. The portion 
of each rectangle which represents solid matter is labelled ^, 
and that representing liquid is marked L. In the same way 
as for the rapidly cooled alloys, a curve for each slowly cooled 
alloy is plotted from the data of Table IIb. ; each of the 
latter curves lies to the right of the corresponding one of the 
former series, in accordance with the fact that there is more 
solid and less liquid matter in the slowly cooled alloys. The 

< y 

100 Pa 







Fig. 6.— Part of Equilibrium Diagram for Lead-tin Alloys, showing the relative propor- 
tions of liquid and solid in each of the nine chosen alloys, at all temperatures during 
the period of crystallization, for very slow and for very rapid cooling. 

space between each pair of curves, shown black for clearness, 
exhibits the effect of rapid cooling in reducing the proportion 
of primary crystals. For rapid cooling the spaces marked L 
include the narrow dark areas ; for slow cooling the dark areas 
are to be reckoned as parts of the spaces marked S. The 
alloys I. and II., when slowly cooled, become completely solid 
at temperatures above 183°, and at these temperatures the 
difference between quickly cooled and slowly cooled alloy is 
greatest. In alloys near the eutectic composition, like VIII. 
and IX., the effect of rapid cooling is very small. 

If the curves of Fig. 6 are differentiated, either by a 

ttpon the CoiistitMtion of Binary Alloys 143 

graphical or by a mathematical method, other curves are 
obtained which represent the varying rate of solidification 
during the period of freezing of each alloy. Such curves are 
drawn in Fig. 7 for alloys I,, III,, and VII., the original 
curves, which differ only in scale from those of Fig. 6, being 
shown in full lines and the derived rate curves in dotted 
lines. The initial rate of crystallization is the same for both 
slow and rapid cooling. From the expression (6), page 132, 
it follows that, 

Proportion of solid at any temperature (slow cooling), 

= 1 - Proportion of liquid 

_ , _ 7/,, tan B-y tan (/) _ tan Q y — y^ 

i/(tan 6 — tan <^) tan 6 - tan (^ ' y ' 

Differentiating this with respect to y, 

Rate of solidification (slow cooling) = ^^" ^ . ?^ . . , , (8) 

^ "'^ tan 6 - tan </> y- ^ ' 

At the freezing point, y — y^, so that for both slow and rapid 

tan d 1 

Rate of solidification at freezing point = 

tan f^ — tan (^ " i/q 

— . — , for lead-tin alloys. 

The above rate of solidification is in respect of fall of 
temperature, but it is convenient also to express the rate with 
regard to the composition of the crystals ; this does not alter 
the shape of the curves if the solidus is straight, since the 
composition of the crystals formed at any temperature varies 
directly as the distance of that temperature from the freezing 
point of the pure metal, that is, with y. Hence, 

Rate of solidification with respect to composition (slow cooling), 
_ tan 6 1/,, 1 

tan 6 - tan (f> ' y ' composition of crystals' 
And the rate at freezing point 

= -1; . ■ . ■ , 7-r- ? r-> for lead-tin alloys. 

4v initial composition or crystals 

Thus the rate of solidification at the freezing point of alloy I., 
with respect to composition = -^ , — = 0*83 78. 

144 Gulliver : Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

Or, more simply, using tlie notation of p. 128, 

T> i. c 1-j-x: X- Proportion of solid deposited 

Kate or solidification = ^, -^ . -.-. — ^. — ^, 

Change or composition or solid 

(pre-existing liquid) H r . (pre-existing solid) 

= a + r(m-w) & ^i / a-\-r{m — n) 


a - rn 

= a + r{in — n) ' a-\-r{m-n) a + r{m — n) ' a + r{m — n) 

= ™ ^ ^ (9) 

At the freezing point r = 0, and the rate is 

m l_tan 6 1 
n ' a tan <^ ' a 

That is, for alloy I. the rate is y^ . — , the same as above. 

For alloys containing no eutectic, the rate of solidification 
at the melting point, when the last drop of liquid solidifies, is, 
since, at this point, a = rn, 

n ' {rn + r{m — n)l'^ rm 

Horizontal distance between solidus and liquidus at melting point' 
Thus, the slowly cooled alloy I. becomes completely solid when 

y tan (/> = i/o tan ^ = 6*3. 
The corresponding value of rm is 

tan^(2/-2/,) = ,j,tan^Q^-l) 

^6-3. 1^ 

= 18-51, 

a value which may be measured, of course, upon the equili- 
brium diagram. The final rate of solidification 

: 0-0540. 


The rate of solidification at the melting point of an alloy 

upon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 145 

which contains eutectic, and any intermediate rates, may be 
obtained by substituting suitable values in (9), but in Fig. 7 
the diflferentiation has been performed graphically, except for 
the initial and final points of each curve. 



ALLOY "211. 



Fig. 7. — Diagrams similar to those of Fig. 6, but to a larger scale, for alloys I., III., 
and VII. The dotted curves are obtained by differentiating the full-line curves, 
and represent the varying rate of crystallization. 

For rapidly cooled alloys the rate of solidification with 
respect to fall of temperature is obtained from the expression 
(7), page 134, thus — 

Proportion of solid at any temperature (rapid cooling) 


: 1 — liquid = 1 — 6 

where c is written for 

tan </) 

tan ^ — tan (^ 

Differentiating this with respect to ij gives, 
Rate of solidification (rapid cooling) 


' y 

tan 6 


tan 9 
tan e - tan <|) 

'^^^ k 


tan d'-tan 




146 Gulliver: Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

Or, with regard to composition, as explained above, 

Rate of solidification 

^ tan e (,;+i)iog^^ ^ _. 

tan ^ - tan ^ ^" * Composition of crystals just being formed 

But the proportion of liquid remaining at this temperature is 

-(c+l)log, ^ 

e 3/o' 

Therefore the rate of solidification 

_ tan B Proportion of liquid 

~ tan Q - tan (^ ' Composition of separating crystals 

At the freezing point y = y^. so that (10) reduces to 

tan d 1^ 

tan d - tan </) ' y^ 

which is identical with the result for slow cooling. 

The expression (11) may be obtained very simply, thus- 

.^ . . ,.,.„ ^. Proportion of solid deposited 

Rate of solidification = -- — ^ -. r-. — ^ — rr-. 

Change of composition or solid - 

m T -J 


a + r(m — ?i) ' 




111 tan Q 

n tan <^ 




of separating crystals 



^ -, by simple geometry. 

a + r{m-n) tan 6'-tan </) •' ^ & •' 

Therefore the rate of solidification 

_ tan 6 Proportion of liquid 

tan 6 - tan cf) ' Composition of separating crystals 

as before. 

The final rate of solidification of the primary crystals of the 
rapidly cooled alloy I. is 

63 -04566 

47 * 16 

: 0-0038 

where the proportion of liquid remaining at 183° has been 
taken from Table I. Intermediate values may be obtained 

upon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 147 

by suitable substitution or by graphical means, as in Fig. 7. 
From the rate curves of Fig. 7 it is possible to deduce the 
theoretical forms of cooling curve which correspond with a 
very slow and with a very rapid rate of cooling respectively. 

From the data given in Table IIa. the average composition 
of the primary crystals of each rapidly cooled alloy at a stated 
temperature may be calculated if, as already assumed, the 
composition of the liquid is always that indicated by the 
liquidus. The point which represents the average composition 
of the crystals is a point on the apparent solidus for that par- 
ticular alloy when rapidly cooled. The average composition 
of the primary crystals, by simple arithmetic, is equal to 

(Composition of alloy) — (proportion of liquid . composition of liquid) 
Proportion of solid 

Thus for alloy I., at a temperature of 2 70°, the proportion of 
solid (see Table IIa.) is 844, and the proportion of liquid is 
0"156. The composition of the alloy is 63 per cent, of tin, 
and that of the liquid part of it is 25*2 per cent, of tin. 

Average composition of primary crystals of alloy I. at 270° 

6-3 - (-156 . 2.5-2) ^ „, . p ^.• 

= ^^ 1 = 2'81 per cent, or tm. 

•844 ^ 

For very slow cooling the composition (from Fig. 5) is 6*4 per 
cent, of tin, so that the effect of rapid cooling is to cause a 
very considerable shift of the apparent solidus to the left. 
Values calculated in this manner for the alloys I. to IX. at 
various temperatures are given in Table III., and the corre- 
sponding solidus curves are shown as fine lines in Fig. 8. 
Certain published solidus curves show the same kind of hollow 
curvature as these, but it must not be concluded on that 
account that they are incorrect. 

In order to show the effect of varying the rate of cooling, 
the values given in Table IV. have been obtained in the same 
manner as those above, but with a greater degree of accuracy ; 
they represent the average composition of the primary crystals 
of alloy I. at the eutectic temperature, corresponding with the 
various proportions of liquid left in this alloy as listed in 
Table I. Under conditions of equilibrium the alloy I., of 

148 Gulliver : Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

course, becomes completely solid at a temperature far above 
tbat of the eutectic point. The figures of Table IV. are not 

Table III. — Average Composition of Primary Crystals of Rapidly 
Cooled Lead-tin Alloys at Various Temperatures. 

No. of Alloy 












Tin per Cent. 











r 313-5 . 




299 . 





284-5 . 





270-0 . 






255-5 , 







241-0 . 








226-5 . 










212-0 . 


5-61 [7-36 







197-5 . 


5-84 7-68 








I 1830 . 


5 99 7-94 








valuable in themselves, since the real rates of cooling cannot 
be specified ; but they show the approach towards equilibrium 

Fig. 8. — Part of Equilibrium Diagram for Lead-tin Alloys, showing the apparent forms 
of solidus and the apparent positions of the saturation point obtained from rapidly 
cooled alloys. 

conditions, on account of the greater opportunity for diffusion, 
as the rate of cooling is decreased. 

7tpon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 149 

Table IV. — Apparent Saturation Point for Alloy I. at Different 
Rates of Cooling. 

Rate of Cooling Repre- Average Composition of 

sented by Number of Primary Crystals at 

Steps in Freezing Process. 183° C. Tin per Cent. 

oo 3-587 

200 3-616 

100 3-647 

50 3-709 

20 3-908 

10 4-292 

If the curvature of the liquidus and solidus is to be taken 
into account, it is not possible to make use of so simple an 
expression as (7), but the expression (2) is quite suitable when 
the correct values of m and n, which now vary from point to 
point, are inserted. For the lead-tin alloys the form of the 
liquidus, as determined by Rosenhain and Tucker, is shown as 
a fine line in Fig. 5, but since the form of the solidus is not yet 
known it has been assumed straight as before. The pro- 
portional quantities of liquid have been calculated only for the 
comparatively simple case in which the temperature interval 
between the freezing points of pure lead and of the eutectic is 
divided into ten equal steps. 

The slope of the liquidus, as represented by the value of m, 
first increases from 5 "4 to 7"4, then decreases to 5 '6, and then 
rises again to 6"7 ; with the assumed straight liquidus, m had 
the constant value 6 "3. The slope of the solidus is given, 
as formerly, by n= 16. The details of the calculations are of 
the same kind as those on page 13 6. In Table V. the values 
obtained for the true curved liquidus are compared with the 
corresponding results (10 steps. Table I.) found when the 
liquidus was assumed straight. As the temperatures in both 
cases are the same, the corresponding equilibrium proportions 
of liquid differ in the two cases, and these are tabulated also 
for the purpose of comparison. Now the proportion of eutectic 
present in any alloy under conditions of equilibrium at the 
eutectic temperature depends only upon the composition of 
the alloy, the composition of the eutectic, and the composition 
of the saturated primary crystals; it is quite independent of 
any curvature of the liquidus and solidus. One might expect, 
not unreasonably, therefore, that a similar result should be 

150 Gulliver: Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

found to hold good for more quickly cooled alloys. That this 
is very nearly so may be seen from Fig. 9, in which the 
results of Table V. are shown graphically. The open circles 
represent the values obtained when the liquidus is assumed 
straight, and the black dots when the curvature is taken into 
account ; the termination of the curve at 1*6 per cent, of tin, 
instead of at per cent., is in accordance with the fact that 
only ten steps have been taken. The straight line ending at 

Fig. 9.— Diagram showing the calculated proportion of eutectic in lead-tin alloys cooled 
at a moderate speed : o, when liquidus is assumed straight ; • , when true curved 
form of liquidus is taken. The fine straight line shows the equilibrium proportion 
of eutectic. 

16 per cent, of tin represents the result of cooling under con- 
ditions of equilibrium. The amount of eutectic in a quickly 
cooled alloy can be obtained very closely, therefore, by assuming 
liquidus and solidus straight and making use of the compara- 
tively simple expression (7), much of the labour involved 
by taking a large number of steps, with varying values of m 
and n, and using (2), being thereby avoided. Similarly, the 
proportion of liquid present in a quickly cooled alloy, at a 
temperature between its freezing and melting points, may be 
obtained from (7) if and <^ are the inclinations of straight 
lines drawn from the freezing point of the pure metal to the 

upon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 151 

points representing the actual compositions of liquid and solid 
at the temperature considered. 

Table V. — Comparison of Proportional Amount of Liquid found from 
Assumed Straight Liquidus with that found from Tii-ue Curved 

No. of 



us Assumed Straight. 

True Curved Liquidus. 

Liquid at 183° C. 

Liquid at 183° C. 

Degrees C. 

Tin per 

Tin per 

10 Steps. 


10 Steps. 















11 -0 



























































IV. Reheating of Quickly Cooled Alloys. 

The results of the preceding paragraphs are of interest in 
connection with the method of determination of the solidus by 
reheating various solid alloys of a series to definite tempera- 
tures, and examining them microscopically for signs of 
incipient melting. It is possible in this manner to obtain a 
close approximation to the true melting point of an alloy, 
provided the mixture is in a condition of equilibrium at the 
moment when melting begins. If the alloy is one which 
should contain no eutectic, and if it has had insufficient 
annealing to bring it to a condition of equilibrium, the observed 
melting point will be lower than the true one. An alloy but 
slightly within the saturation limit may contain some eutectic, 
and its melting point will be the eutectic point ; in an alloy 
somewhat less rich than this the external envelope of each 
primary crystal may have a composition only just less than 
that of saturation, and so on. For a series of alloys, which 
have all received a similar and insufficient annealing treat- 
ment, the apparent saturation limit of the primary crystals 
will be reduced, the solidus will be depressed, and will merge 

152 Gulliver: Quantitative Effect of Rapid Cooling 

gradually into the eutectic line instead of meeting the latter 
abruptly; its form will be somewhat like that of the dotted 
curve in Fig. 10. The conditions are probably too complex 

Fig. 10. 

-Sketch showing dotted the shape of sohdus to be expected when determined 
b\' reheating alloys which are in a condition of imperfect equilibrium. 

and uncertain for any useful calculation, but the possibility of 
error of the kind described requires considerable care for its 
complete avoidance. A curve of the form sketched in Fig. 10 
should be certainly received with caution. 

V. Summary. 

From an equilibrium diagram for a series of alloys of which 
the structural constituents are two solid solutions and an 
eutectic, it has been shown possible to determine the constitu- 
tion of a rapidly cooled alloy of the series, if certain simple 
assumptions are made. 

upon the Constitution of Binary Alloys 153 

The method has been applied to the lead-rich alloys of the 
lead-tin series. The proportion of eutectic in a just solid 
alloy, the proportion of liquid and of solid in an alloy at a tem- 
perature between its freezing and melting points, and the rate 
of solidification of an alloy at a given temperature, when slowly 
and when rapidly cooled, have been calculated. The apparent 
form of solidus obtained from a rapidly cooled alloy has been 
shown, together with the variation in the apparent position of 
the saturation point which accompanies variation in the rate 
of cooling. The position of the apparent saturation point 
depends not only upon the rate of cooling, but still more upon 
the composition of the alloy. The proportion of eutectic 
present in a rapidly cooled alloy is sensibly independent of the 
curvature of liquidus or solidus, if this is not excessive. 

The apparent form of solidus obtained from insufficiently 
annealed alloys has been indicated. 

In conclusion, it should be hardly necessary to point out 
that the methods employed herein are not confined to alloys 
in which an eutectic is present, but are equally applicable to 
the numerous cases in which there is a transformation of a 
partly solid mixture, if this transformation proceeds during 
an interval of temperature when the conditions are those of 
equilibrium. The determination of the constitution of an 
alloy cooled with extreme rapidity should be of considerable 
practical interest, since the equilibrium diagram shows at 
sight the constitution of the alloy when cooled with extreme 
slowness, and the constitution of an alloy cooled at some 
intermediate rate, as in all practical operations, must lie 
between the two extreme limits. It is an advantage that 
there is no necessity to wait for the determination of the 
true form of liquidus, solidus, or solubility curves before 
making the necessary calculations, so long as the limiting 
points — eutectic, transformation, and saturation points — are 
known with fair accuracy. Although certain physical influ- 
ences have been ignored in the foregoino^ discussion, it is 
believed that results calculated from accurate data by the 
methods given are not much wide of the truth. 

154 Discussion on Gulliver s Paper 


Professor T. Turner, M.Sc. (Honorary Treasurer and Vice-President), 
said the paper was an extremely useful contribution, as the President had 
stated, but it was one more suitable for studying at home than for discus- 
sion at a meeting. The author's work in connection with various types 
of alloys was well known, and one could not help desiring to compliment 
him on the application of the simple geometrical method in the first part 
of the paper. He took first a typical case, and then worked out by 
geometrical methods the composition of the result of liquid and of crys- 
tallized solid. He was reminded in looking at that method of treatment 
of the subject of Newton's method of doing calculations by simple 
geometry, calculations which otherwise were only to be done by means 
of the calculus. The author was not able to escape the calculus alto- 
gether later on, and he there gave some calculations which those who still 
remembered the calculus would be able to verify quietly at home. He 
was sure the paper would be one of useful reference, and the thanks of 
the Institute were due to the author for contributing it to the Pro- 

Professor A. K. Huntington, Assoc. R.S.M. (President), thought that 
a theoretical paper such as the one under discussion was of great use if 
only it would fit the practice, or the practice would fit the theory. There 
were, however, little differences between them. For instance, with 
regard to the question of cores, they persisted much longer than the 
author gave them credit for very often. The author spoke of the first 
separation and the solutions redistributing themselves, but he was not 
quite sure that they did so as rapidly as he imagined. He had occasion 
a year or two back to deal with a 500 lb. billet of cupro-nickel with some 
12 per cent, of nickel in it. The billet was very slowly cooled down 
from the bottom upwards, and at the end of the operation there were 
some ounces of material squeezed out, which he examined, and he found 
it had from 7 or 8 per cent, of nickel in it instead of the 12 per cent, it 
ought to have had. It evidently never redistributed itself, and there 
was a considerable difference in the composition of the billet at different 
points under the conditions it was made. There was no doubt, from a 
practical point of view, that, however delightful theories were, they were 
sometimes very difficult to fit in with practice. 


Dr. Cecil H. Desch (Glasgow) wrote that Mr. Gulliver's interesting 
communication involved a great deal of careful mathematical work, and 
would be useful in showing clearly the direction and magnitude of some 
of the principal errors in the method of thermal analysis. It must, 
however, be understood that such elaborate mathematical treatment 

Commumcaiions on Gulliver s Paper 155 

would be very rarely applicable to concrete cases. It could only be 
applied to observations wliit:h had been made with a high degree of 
accuracy, and investigators who were capable of making such observa- 
tions were now careful to cool their alloys under such conditions that 
equilibrium was attained as nearly as possible, and in such cases a 
mathematical correction would be unnecessary. On the other hand, the 
method could not be employed for the correction of rough preliminary 
surveys of metallic systems. In the author's own words: "There is no 
necessity to wait for the determination of the true form of liquidus, 
solidus, or solubility curves before making the necessary calculations, 
so long as the limiting points — eutectic, transformation, and saturation 
points — are known with fair accuracy." The accurate determination of 
these points was, however, precisely what was lacking in the ordinary 
rough determinations of the liquidus and solidus. The use of small 
quantities and of insufficiently slow cooling led to eri-oneous values for 
the eutectic composition, eutectic temperature, and limits of saturation. 
If these were determined with sufficient accuracy, it was probable that 
the whole series of observations would be suitable for direct application 
in the construction of a diagram, without mathematical treatment. 

One of the author's conclusions on p. 1-iO was of great interest and 
importance for the proper interpretation of Tammann's " eutectic time " 
curves, namely, that "a much closer approximation to the true saturation 
point is found by extrapolation through points obtained from alloys rich 
in eutectic than from those containing only a small proportion of eutectic, 
whenever the state of cooling falls short of the extreme slowness neces- 
sary to ensure equilibrium." If this principle were applied to the very 
numerous diagrams issued from the Gottingen laboratory, it would be 
found that the eutectic horizontals would be shortened considerably in 
many cases, thus giving a greater range of composition to the solid solu- 
tions than had been originally assumed. Such a conclusion appeared to 
be in accordance with other evidence, particularly that from electrical 

Dr. RosENHAiN, F.R.S. (Member of Council), wrote that he had read 
Mr. Gulliver's paper with very great interest. He felt that it was an 
important contribution to the study of the constitution of alloys in 
general, and that it was particularly valuable because it furnished a means 
of deducing from a properly established equilibrium diagram the approxi- 
mate metastable constitution of rapidly cooled alloys, and vice versa. 
It indicated how observations made on rapidly cooled alloys tended to 
mislead the investigator in regard to the true constitution of the system. 
He was particularly pleased with Mr. Gulliver's development of this 
subject, because in a very general way he had already drawn attention 
to the matter in a paper to which Mr. Gulliver frequently referred, viz., 
An investigation of "The Alloys of Lead and Tin," published in the 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1909. In fact, that 
paper contained a diagram illustrating the manner in which rapid cooling 
may prolong the eutectic line far beyond its proper termination. Mr. 

156 Author's i^eply : Gulliver s Paper 

Gulliver had no doubt seen that diagram, and he (Dr. Rosenhain) hoped 
that perhaps it had served to stimulate Mr. Gulliver's quantitative 
exaniination of the subject. 

Dr. Rosenhain had no criticism to offer on ]\Ir. Gulliver's mathematical 
treatment of the subject, and he hoped that future investigators of alloys 
would not fail to consider the points raised in the present paper. There 
was, however, one point on which he wished to utter a word of caution. 
This referred to the diagram Fig. 10 of the jiresent paper. The danger 
of finding an incorrect solidus curve by quenching experiments on alloys 
insufhciently annealed was no doubt very real ; on the other hand, a 
number of investigations on solidus curves by this method had already 
been made, and had yielded forms of solidus very similar to that shown 
by the dotted line in Mr. Gulliver's Fig. 10. Now in one case, viz., the 
aluminium-zinc solidus investigated by Dr. Rosenhain and Mr. Archbutt, 
very great care indeed had been taken to secure that the alloys before 
reheating should have reached a condition closely approximating to 
complete equilibrium, and microscopic examination of the specimens them- 
selves when quenched just below the solidus, showed their structure to 
be homogeneous. There should, therefore, be no question in that case of 
incomplete equilibrium sutHcient to displace the observed solidus from 
its true position. Yet that system had yielded a solidus which approxi- 
mated fairly closely to the kind of curve shown in Fig. 10. Therefore, 
although the danger of finding an incorrect solidus from alloys not in 
equilibrium had been rightly emphasized by Mr. Gulliver, he would warn 
investigators that they must not conclude that a solidus was necessarily 
incorrect because it approximated to the form of the dotted curve in 
Fig. 10. 

Mr. Gulliver, writing in reply to the discussion, thanked those 
gentlemen who had shown such kind appreciation of his paper, but he 
did not think that his work merited a comparison with that of Newton. 
He was quite in accord with Professor Huntington as to the persistence 
of cores, and could not find any remark in which he (the author) sug- 
gested that the redistribution of material in a non-uniform solid solution 
was a rapid process ; he had, in fact, laid emphasis upon its slowness. 
Professor Huntington's cupro-nickel billet was a very interesting example 
to the author, since he had, only a few weeks ago, worked out at some 
length the constitution of rapidly cooled copper-nickel alloys. In an 
alloy containing 12 per cent, of nickel the first crystals to form would 
contain about 25 per cent, of nickel. At any temperature in the period 
of partial solidification the average composition of the crystals would lie 
between 12 and 25 per cent, of nickel, and the liquid portion would con- 
tain less than 12 percent, of nickel, just as Professor Huntington found. 
In order to obtain an approximately uniform solid solution of the nickel 
in the copper a long period of annealing would be necessary. 

The author thought that Dr. Desch had somewhat misunderstood the 
main object of his work, which was to obtain an accurate idea of the 
constitution of alloys cooled under industrial conditions ; the present 

Author s reply : Gulliver' s Paper 157 

communication was certainly very incomplete in that respect, but it 
formed a step in the right direction. He hoped to advance the subject 
by another step shortly. He thought the matter had been suggested to 
him originally by a remark in one of the admirable papers of Messrs. 
Heycock and Neville, before Dr. Rosenhain's paper on the lead-tin alloys 
was published. When drawing Fig 10 he had in mind not the alumi- 
nium-zinc, but the iron-carbon solidus ; he was much indebted to Dr. 
Rosenhain for such positive information as to the care taken in the de- 
termination of the aluminium-zinc solidus, as this completely set at rest 
the doubts he had formerly entertained as to the accuracy of such a 

158 Messrs. Primrose: Practical Heat Treatment of 


By H. S. primrose (Messrs. G. & J. Weir Ltd., Cathcart) and 
J. S. G. PRIMROSE (Royal Technical College, Glasgow). 

In his paper to the Institute on a former occasion,! one of 
the authors made the suggestion that if gun-metal were sub- 
jected to heat treatment, such as quenching and annealing at 
various temperatures, profound changes would be found to 
take place in the properties of the metal. 

Since then this joint research has been undertaken with 
the object of finding a simple and reliable method of improv- 
ing Admiralty gun-metal so as to obtain the highest possible 
tensile strength without reducing the percentage elongation, 
and at the same time imparting to it a greater soundness 
and homogeneity of structure. So far as the authors are aware 
no previous work has been published dealing with this subject 
as applied to the most commonly used industrial alloy known 
as Admiralty gun-metal, of which the specification is 88 per 
cent, of copper, 10 per cent, of tin, and not more than 2 per 
cent, of zinc, with a maximum variation of 1 per cent, of any 
of its component metals. This composition is readily obtained 
in practice which is under proper metallurgical control, but 
even when the analysis closely agrees with the specification 
it is sometimes difficult to produce castings which fulfil the 
requisite physical tests attaining a tensile strength of 14 tons 
per square inch, and an elongation of 75 per cent, on a 
2 -inch test-bar. Many practical founders and some experi- 
menters have experienced considerable trouble in making 
sound castings with this alloy to stand a high water-pressure ; 
and undoubtedly the internal structure of the metal has a 
great deal to do with this important property, as well as with 
the other characteristics. 

Although blowholes are the commonest known source of 

* Read at Annual General Meeting of the Institute of Metals, London, March 12, 1913. 
+ " Metallography as an Aid to the Brassfounder," by H. S. Primrose, Journal of 
the Institute of Metals, No. 2, 1910, vol. iv. 

Admiralty Gun-metal 159 

unsoundness in gun-metal, these may be entirely absent and 
still tlie castings are not completely satisfactory when sub- 
mitted to the physical tests and hydraulic pressure, owing to 
the imperfect arrangement of the constituents. Even when the 
physical tests are complied with and the structure under the 
microscope is of the interlocking design with uniformly inter- 
mixed primary crystallites and interspacial eutectoid, the metal 
as cast may fail under water pressure owing to the water sweating 
through the microscopical pores formed between the two con- 
stituents. These constituents are of widely different chemical 
composition, and possess different coefficients of contraction. 

When ordinary gun-metal is cast and slowly cooled, the 
first portions to solidify consist of primary crystallites of the 
a-constituent, which is copper containing all the zinc and only 
a small quantity of tin in solution in it. As the crystals con- 
tinue growing and the temperature falls, an increasing amount 
of tin is held in solution by the solidifying a-constituent, and 
at the moment of solidification the interspaces are filled with 
the /3-constituent, which is copper containing still more tin 
in solution. As this /3-solution is only stable through a short 
range of temperature, on cooling it undergoes decomposition 
with the formation of the eutectoid containing the white ^- 
constituent (Cu4Sn) ; and the dark-etching, littoral zones of 
secondary a-constituent. It is between these two latter con- 
stituents that the microscopic crevices occur, and they are 
so small that the fractured surface does not reveal their pre- 
sence. It might appear possible to produce gun-metal cast- 
ings in which the eutectoid areas were so small and uniformly 
distributed that they would not be in a connected meshwork 
throughout the mass. Chilling the metal in the mould has 
this effect by preventing the decomposition of the j8-con- 
stituent, but in actual practice it is not possible to so 
control the rate of solidification and cooling that the eutectoid 
segregations are always prevented from arranging themselves in 
a harmful way. 

Method of Proceduke. 

In carrying out the tests it was deemed advisable to adhere 
to the customary " inch-round " bars 10 inches long, which were 

160 Messrs, Primrose: Practical Heat Treatment of 

cast from gun-metal at a temperature just below 1100° C, 
both into dry-sand moulds and chills, with the object of 
producing either slow or rapid solidification as desired. The 
rate of cooling was dependent upon the arrangement of the 
boxes, and was moderately slow for dry-sand castings, com- 
paratively quick for chills alone, and very slow when the metal 
was cast in chills placed in close proximity to and in connection 
with a large body of metal cast at the same time. Two sets 
of duplicate bars were used in all cases, and these were pre- 
pared for testing and after-treatment, by turning the central 
portion down to a diameter of |^-inch, giving a cross-sectional 
area of 0*306 square inch over a suitable length for a 2 -inch 

In the tensile testing machine employed, only the ultimate 
breaking strain was taken. The elongation was also determined. 
The average value of the results from the four bars have been 
tabulated, correct to the first decimal place. In none of the 
tests recorded did the tensile strength vary by more than 
1 per cent, and the elongation by 5 per cent, between maxi- 
mum and minimum. 

In performing the experimental tests of heat-treatment the 
bars were heated gradually to the required temperature in a 
Heraeus electric resistance furnace, thus minimizing the oxida- 
tion of the metal ; and no appreciable loss of zinc was noticed 
even at the higher temperatures. The bars were maintained 
for a definite time at the fixed temperature as determined 
accurately by a pyrometer, and then either quenched in water 
or cooled off in the furnace, which took about two hours to 
attain normal temperature. The test-bars were not subse- 
quently dressed or burnished, as this was found to interfere 
with the physical condition of the bar ; burnishing especially 
imparted a skin to the metal which materially raised the 
tensile strength. Sections were cut from each bar, and after 
having been polished on the transverse cut and etched in the 
usual way with ferric chloride, they were exauiined micro- 
scopically and typical structures were photographed. 

The plan adopted in marking the specimens was as 
follows : — 

Admiralty G^iu-mctal 161 

First letter.— Series of the tests: E, F, G, H, K. 

Second letter. — Method of casting: In dry-sand (D.), in chills (C). 

Third letter. — Heat treatment: annealed (A.); Normal as cast (N.), 

quenched (Q.). 
First figure.— Temperature of heating: 500° C. (5), 600° C. (6), 650° C. (6^). 
Second figure. — Time of annealing: 5 minutes (V.), 10 minutes (X.), 

(if not stated), 30 minutes (XXX.). 


In view of the excellent results obtained by Guillet * on 
quenching pure bronzes of various composition, from tempera- 
tures between 600° C. and 700° C, it was thought that 
gun-metal would also show an increase in the strength and 
the elongation if similarly treated. This, however, was not 
found to be the case, as there was a considerable reduction in 
the values got on tensile testing, and evidently the presence 
of the small proportion of zinc exercises a profound influence 
on the character of the metal. Thus in Series " E," in which 
the test-bars were cast in dry-sand moulds at a moderate 
temperature of about 1060° C, ensuring both slow solidi- 
fication and slow cooling, and then heated slowly (after turning 
to size) to temperatures ranging from 500° C. to 800° C. 
before quenching, the physical properties were very consider- 
ably poorer than that of the normal cast bars. This is shown 
in Table I., the values of which are given graphically in Fig. 1. 

It is noteworthy that the elongation falls off consistently 
with the rise of quenching temperature, and also that it 
follows the drop in tensile strength almost proportionately. 
The lowest values are got with the quenching temperature of 
700° C, when the tensile strength is only about one-third 
that of the normal bars, and the elongation about one-ninth. 
From this and subsequent tests it is evident that there must 
be some radical change in the constitution of the alloy in the 
vicinity of this temperature. 

The microscope gives interesting evidence of the physical 
changes taking place in the metal as the temperature rises. 
In Fig. 7, Plate V., is seen the normal interlocking structure of 
a sound gun-metal casting, with the eutectoid uniformly dis- 
tributed throughout the interspaces of the primary a-con- 
stituent, and surrounded by the littoral zones of secondary a. 

* L. Guillet, "Quenching of Bronze," Revue de Mitallurgie, February 1905. 


1G2 Messrs. Priinrose : Practical Heat Treatment of 

The contraction cavities in the eiitectoid areas are shoAvn in the 
higher magnification photograph of the same metal in Fig. 8, 
Plate v., the holes being more marked in the larger portions 
of the eutectoid. 

The heating to 500° not only increases the size of the 

Table I.- 

-Influence of Quenching Temperature on Dry-saml Castings. 


Quenched from 
Degrees C. 

Tensile Strength. 
Tons per Sq. In. 

per Cent. 





E.D.Q. 5 
E.D.Q. 6 
E.D.Q. 7 
E.D.Q. 8 



6 -.5 

Series " E'', Graph of Table I. 

^ 20 

2 10 






., -5-.^ 










" N 


5 ^ 


10 ^ 

500 600 700 800 

Temperature, Degrees C. 

Fig. 1. — Influence of Quenching Temperature. 

crystals in the metal, but has caused a slight change in the 
nature of the crystallites. There appears to be a small 
amount of secondary a-constituent assimilated by the primary 
crystallites, although there has been practically no change in 
the amount of separated eutectoid. This is shown in Fig. 9, 
Plate V. 

At 600° a still larger crystal structure is produced, and a 
considerable amount of the eutectoid has been absorbed, form- 

Admiralty Gttii-vietal 163 

ing with the secondary a a large proportion of the /3-con- 
stituent which has been retained in that state by the quenching. 
Fig. 10, Plate V. 

Further heating to 700° completes the solution of the ^- 
constituent of the eutectoid, and the ^ assumes with the a 
a rectangular formation which is most remarkable, and occurs 
throughout all the crystals. These are now extremely large 
and show a tendency to disjunction at the outer edges of the 
specimen. This structure is shown in Fig. 11, Plate V. 

Heating to 800° produces an almost homogeneous structure, 
as here only a crystallites exist together with portions of the 
metal which have undergone incipient fusion. The quenching 
retains these portions chiefly at the boundaries of the crystals, 
as shown in Fig. 12, Plate V. The small dark specks scattered 
through the ground-mass are minute segregations of lead 
formed during^ the reheating. 

It is thus evident that reheating and quenching gun-metal 
castings does not effect any improvement, even if this were 
possible without damaging the shape of the casting. In 
practice it is not feasible to quench the metal immediately 
after it has solidified, although this may have been done with 
test-bars which were quenched direct, Avithout having been 
first cooled to the ordinary temperature, and then reheated, as 
were the bars tested in this series. 


The simple operation of annealing was next tried upon sets 
of test-bars which were cast and cooled in a variety of ways. 
The treatment consisted of a gradual heating up to various 
temperatures, at which they were maintained for various 
periods of time. The subsequent cooling in each case was 
moderately rapid until 400° was attained, after which it was 
comparatively slow. 

Series " F." — In this series the bars were cast in dry-sand 
moulds with the same metal and from the same temperature 
as Series " E." This treatment produced a slow solidification 
of the metal, followed by a moderately slow cooling. This is 
the general type to which most gun-metal castings belong, 

164 Mess7's. P7'imrose : Pi-actical Heat Treatment of 

and it is of interest to note that the subsequent heat treat- 
ment effected a most remarkable improvement in the elon- 
gation of the specimens, without in any way diminishing the 
tensile strength of the material. Table II. gives the average 
results of the tensile testing, and these are represented in 
graph form in Fig. 2. Whilst the ultimate breaking strain 
of the metal is slightly increased as the annealing temperature 
rises to 700°, it falls off most remarkably at 800°. The 

Table FT. — Inflxiou^e 

of Annealimj Temperature on Dri/sand Castingft. 


Annealed at 
Degrees C. 


Tensile Strength. 
Tons pjr Sq. In. 

per Cent. 


F.D.A. 5 

F.D.A. U . . . 
F.D.A. 7 . . . 
F.D.A. 8 






Series " F," Gra2^h of Table 11. 

500 600 700 800 

Temperature, Degrees C. 

Fig. 2. — Influence of Annealing Temperature. 

elongation is very considerably increased up to the temperature 
of 700°, after which it also falls away. 

The microstructures of the series are shown in Plate VII., 
and differ in a most marked degree from those of Series " E." 
Figs. 1 9 and 2 show that the annealing temperatures of 500° 
and 600° respectively have been insufficient during the period 
of half an hour to completely remove the ^-constituent, 
and hence the eutectoid segregations still remain. At 700°, 

Admiralty Gun-metal 165 

however, the reaction is practically complete, and Fig. 21, 
Plate VII., indicates that the cooling from this temperature 
after annealing is not attended by the separation of any 
appreciable quantity of ^-constituent. The small dark 
spots in the photomicrograph evidently represent the small 
proportion of lead which has been thrown out of solution 
at this temperature. The microstructure is very uniform, 
indicating a solid solution, and although the crystals are 
larger than in the normal bar, they are well orientated and in 
a strongly interlocking arrangement. The test-bars annealed 
at 800°, although cooled much more slowly than by quenching, 
show in the microstructure signs of incipient fusion having 
taken place at the small dark spots in the photograph. Fig. 
22, Plate VII. 

Scries " G." — The bars of this set were cast in chills of solid 
metal, so that both the solidification and the cooling were 
rapid. In this case the annealing again produced a remark- 
able increase in the elongation, and this was attended by an 
almost equally striking increase in the tensile strength. The 
maximum results were again obtained by the annealing at 
700° for thirty minutes, and lower results were got with 
bars heated to a point both above and below this temperature. 
Table III. and Fig. 3 give the average results obtained in the 

The microstructure of the metal is not much altered by 
annealing at 500° (see Fig. 23, Plate VII.), but a considerable 
change has taken place at 600°, all the (5- constituent having 
disappeared, and only a and /3 are left in the formation shown 
in Fig. 24, Plate VII. Almost pure a results from the anneal- 
ing at 700°, and the low magnification photograph (Fig. 25, 
Plate VIII.) shows the crystalline structure of a solid solution. 
Fig. 26, Plate VIII., illustrates the similar structure got on 
annealing at 800°, which is, however, much larger in crystal 
formation, as shown by the low magnification. 

Scries " H." — In this, and the following series " K," the bars 
were cast in chills in close proximity to a large body of metal 
which was cast and cooled along with them, so that although 
their solidification was fairly rapid, the cooling afterwards was 
comparatively slow. The very great increase in both the 

166 Messrs. Prwtrose : Practical Heat Treatment oj 

tensile strength and the elongation got by annealing for half 
an hour at 700° is again evident from Table IV. and Fig. 4, 
showing the average results obtained in testing. Intermediate 
points at 650° and 750° were taken, but in each case the 
results were inferior to those obtained at 700°. 

Table III. — Influence of Annealing Temperature on Chilled Castings. 

Mark. Annealedat 
Degrees C. 


Tensile Strength. 
Tons per Sq. In. 

per Cent. 



G.C.A. 5 . . . 500 
G.C.A. 6 . . . 600 
G.C.A. 7 . . . 700 
G.C.A. 8 . . . 800 





7 '5 

Series "G," Graph of Table III. 


2 20 











1 J 












20 V. 

10 s? 

500 600 700 800 

Temperature, Degrees C. 

Fig. 3. — Influence of Annealing Temperature. 

The changes in the microstructure are shown all together 
for the sake of comparison on Plate VI. The normal structure 
is similar to that of bar K.C.N., shown in Fig. 28, Plate VIIL, 
and the annealing to 5 00° produces only a slight change in 
structure, which resembles that of bar G.C.A. 5, shown in 
Fig. 23, Plate VII. The change at 600° is more complete 


Admiralty Gun-metal 


and shown in Fig. 13, Plate VI. The annealing at 650° has 
only completed the change of the ^-constituent in the smaller 
crystals, so that the larger ones still show both /3 and I (see 
Fig. 14, Plate VI.). 

Figs. 15 and 16, Plate VI., are both micrographs of bar 
H.C.A. 7, showing at ditFerent magnifications the well-oriented 

Table IV. — Infiuenee of Annealing Temperature on Chilled Castings. ; 


Annealed at 


Tensile Strength. 


Degrees C. 


Tons per Sq. In. 

per Cent. ' 

H.C.N. .... 



H.C.A. 5 . . . 

500 1 30 



H.C.A. 6 . . . 





H.C.A. 6i . . . 





H.C.A. 7 . . . 





H.C.A. 7i . 

750 30 



H.C.A. 8 . . . 

800 30 



Series " H," Graph of Table IV 

00 ^ 



00 :; 

^ I? 





1 1 

^ / 






/ / 
/ / 
/ / 






^ / ■< 

?' ' 

40 s 

20 X:: 


500 600 700 800 

Temperature, Degrees C. 

Fig. 4. — Influence of Annealing Temperature. 

crystalline structure of the single a-constituent. Figs. 17 
and 18, Plate VI., show the increase in the size of crystal 
growth by the further annealing to temperatures of 750^^ 
and 800° respectively. This is no doubt the reason for 
the falling oft' in both the tensile strength and the elongation. 
Series " K." — The tests in this series were carried out with 
the object of determining the range of time during which the 

168 Messi^s. Primrose: Practical Heat Treatment of 

heating should be continued in order to get the best results 
when annealing was done at the correct temperature of 700°. 
This is naturally dependent upon the thickness of the metal 
under treatment, but for the size of test-bars used (^-inch 
diameter) this was shown to be somewhere about thirty 

Table V. — Injiuence of Time of Annealing on Chilled Castings. 

MnrL- Annealed at 


Tensile Strength. 


Degrees C. 


Tons pe' Sq. In. 

per Cent. 




K.C.A. V. 





K.C.A. X. 





K.C.A. XV. 





K.C.A. XX. 















K.C.A. LX. 





K.C.A. CL. 





Series " K," Graph of Table V. 

a; 25 







r ' ' 

» — 



— ■ 

LT.'VP- ' 





/■ ) 




40 S 


5 10 15 20 25 30 60 150 
Time, Minutes. 

Fig. 5. — Influence of Time of Annealing at 700° C. 

minutes, as seen from the results tabulated in Table V. and 
shown graphically in Fig. 5. The annealing for this period 
shows the maximum results both in tensile strength and elonga- 
tion, but the increase is only slight after annealing has been 
carried on for twenty minutes. Very long continued anneal- 
ing produces a slight diminution in the strength and elonga- 

Admiralty Gun-metal 


tion, but it is evident that if the right temperature of 700° 
be attained the time of annealing at this temperature may be 
varied within fairly wide limits without impairing the im- 
provement effected in the structure and character of the 

The microstructure of the normal cast bar is shown in 
Figs. 27 and 28, Plate VIII., and the lower magnification micro- 
graph taken with oblique illumination clearly indicates the 
oriented structure of this metal. Fig. 29, Plate VIII. , represents 
the effect upon the structure of annealing for fifteen minutes 
at 700°, and the very slight alteration in this got by annealing 
for sixty minutes is shown in Fig. 30, Plate VIII. 

Thermal Analysis. 

The cooling of the metal from fusion is shown at (a) in 
Fig. 6 as an inverse rate curve, and represents the halt points 

Fig. 0. — Inverse Rate Cooling and Heating Curves of Admiralty Gun-metal, 
with Freezing-point Diagram of Copper-tin Alloys for comparison. 

as only very slightly different from those of the correspond- 
ing bronze in the freezing-point diagram of Shepherd and 

170 Messrs. Prhm^ose : Practical Heat Treatment of 

Blough, a portion of which is reproduced for comparison. The 
heating curve shows that the reverse changes are not accom- 
panied by very large absorptions of heat, as evinced by the 
curve (&), Fig. 6. The halt below 700° evidently marks the 
completion of the (5 to /^ change. The inverse rate curve (c), 
Fig. 6, shows the cooling of the metal after annealing for sixty 
minutes at 800°, and indicates that although the /3 inversion 
still exists, there has been a considerable diminution of the 
^ change, as would be expected from the examination of the 
microstructure of the metal after annealing at this tem- 

Peactical Applications. 

The importance of the annealing of gun-metal castings, 
which in service have to stand severe tests, must be abundantly 
evident from the foregoing results. 

One great advantage it possesses lies in making the metal 
capable of complying Avith the most stringent specification as 
regards tensile strength and elongation, although it must be 
clearly pointed out that it cannot be regarded as " faking " 
the metal. Such metal as may be defective due to the 
presence of gas or blowholes, is not materially improved by 
this heat treatment : but when slight defects arise, due to 
the harmful seofresfation of the eutectoid structure, then this is 
completely removed by the proper annealing. 

One of the most frequent tests now applied to important 
gun-metal castings is that of water pressure, and in many 
cases they fail most dismally under even moderate pressure. 
The metal is thus condemned as bad, whereas it is really quite 
good, and it is only a strange characteristic of the metal 
possessing the wrong arrangement of its constituents which 
makes it unsuitable for this purpose when cast and not further 
heat-treated as suggested in this paper. 

Numerous castings of various designs made in the course 
of daily foundry practice have been rejected in this way, and 
these, on being annealed correctly, have in all cases been found 
to withstand the water pressure Avhich previously they had 
failed to do. A large number of micrographs have been 
taken of specimens from such castings before and after anneal- 

Admiralty Gtin-metal 


ing, but owing to the exigencies of space these are unable to 
be reproduced. In each case, after they had been treated, 
they showed similar structures to Fig. 15, Plate VI., and Fig. 
25, Plate YIII. 

Two particular instances are worth recording as showing 
the advantage of annealing material which, although apparently 
sound, has failed to comply with specified tests. They were 
both test-bars cut from large castings, and whilst the first gave 
a tensile strength of 14*4 tons, the elongation was only 5 per 
cent, when normal. On annealing this at 700° for thirty 
minutes the tensile strength was raised to 18 tons and the 
elongation was increased to 25 per cent. In the second case 
both the tensile strength and elongation were low in the 
normal bar, being 11 tons and 8 per cent, respectively. This 
metal was improved by annealing to give the remarkable re- 
sults of 15 tons tensile strength and 26 per cent, elongation. 

In putting this annealing process into practice in the work- 
shop or foundry the chief item required is some type of mufHe 
furnace of a size large enough to hold a number of the cast- 
ings to be treated. For maintaining a uniform temperature 
during the annealing, as also for regulating the rate of heating 
and cooling, it is necessary to employ either gas or oil firing. 
The temperature must be controlled by a pyrometer installa- 
tion, and the workman in charge of the operation should be 
under supervision to ensure that he does not exceed either 
the temperature or time limits found to be needed for each 
class of casting under treatment. 


As it is sometimes of practical value to have an idea of the 
relative hardness of gun-metal under the various treatments 
accorded it, Table VI. has been prepared to show the changes 

Table VI. — Hardness of Heat-treated Gun-metal. 



1||- F.D.A. 
^^Sl U.C.A. 





















172 Messrs. Primrose ; Practical Heat Treatment of 


the values got 

by the Brinell method of determining this 
property. It is noteworthy that the hardening effect of chill- 
ing the metal is even greater than that of quenching, and that 
annealing does not completely remove this difference. 

Graph of Table VI. 

Normal 500 600 700 800 

Temperature, Degrees C. 

Fig. 6a. — Effect of Heat Treatment on Hardness of Gun-metal. 


As the result of recent researches with the brasses and 
bronzes it has been shown that one most serviceable method 
of getting over the trouble of corrosion is to eliminate the 
presence of all eutectoid from the structure. This is accom- 
plished by the addition of other metals in the production of 
proprietary " alloys " ; whereas it would appear that gun-metal 
may be quite as immune from such trouble by the simple 
operation of annealing, whereby the eutectic is destroyed. 

Further tests are in progress with the object of determining 
how far this surmise is realised in actual corrosion tests, and 
the results of these may form the subject of a future paper to 
the Institute. 

The authors take this opportunity of expressing their 
warmest thanks to the firm of Messrs. G. & J. Weir Ltd., of 

Plate V 

Series " E." 

[Etched with Ferric Chloride.) 


-BaiE.D.X. \'. 90. 

Fig. S. — BarE.D.X. V. 300 : 

Fig. 9.— Bar E.D.Q. 5. V. 90 x . 

Fic. 10. — Bar ]':.D.O. (!. V. 90x. 

Fig. 11. — Bar E.D.Q. 7. V. 120 x. 

Fig. 12. — Bar I'.D.ij. s. W 
The photomicrographs have been reduced about one-half i/i reproduction. 

Plate VI 

Series " H." 

(liichcd with Ferric Chloride.) 

Fig. 13.— Bar H.C..A. 6. V. 90 x. 

Fig. 14.— Bar H.C.A. 6i. V. 90x, 



^P"\^J ^ 

Fig, 15.— Bar H.C.-X. 7. V. 30 x. 

.lyr* »' 

Fig. 16. — Bar H.C.A. 7. V. 270 ;< . 

Fig. 17. — Bar H.C.A. 7i. V. OOx. Img. 18. — Bar H.C.A. 8. V. 40 

The photomicrographs have been reduced about one-half in reproduction. 

Plate VII 

Series "F" and "G." 

{/■:t.-':rd'i'ith Ferric Chloride.) 

Fig. 1<I. — Bar F. U.A. 5. \'. 90x. 

^^ ;*-^rSr\^^^ V --^- '^.A ^ 

Fig. 21.— Bar F.D.A. 7. V. 90 x . 

'%Jf :i^^j*'tAJS 

Fig. 22. — Bar F.D.A. 8. V. 90 x. 

Fig. 23. — Bar G.C.A. 5. V. 90; 

Fig. 24. — Bar G.C.A. 6. V. 90x 

The photomicrographs have been reduced about one-half in reproduction. 

Plate VIII 

Series "G" and "K." 

{Etched with Ferric Chloride.) 


Fig. 25. — u.i .A. 7. \'. ■"* 


A. S. \". yu- 

Fiij. L'S.- Um \<.x\ S. V. 'Jo .s , 

Fig. 2it.— Bar K.C.A. 7 (XV.). V. 90x. Fig. 30.— Bar K.C.A. 7 (LX. i. V. 90x. 

The photomicrographs have been reduced about one-half in reproduction. 

Admiralty Gtm-metal 173 

Gathcart, for kindly granting the use of their extensive 
foundry and equipment in carrying out this research, and also 
for so magnanimously granting permission for the publication 
of the results, which the authors hope will have far-reaching 
effects in the practice of gun-metal founding. 


The heat treatment of Admiralty gun-metal has been in- 
vestigated by quenching and annealing bars cast in drj'-sand 
and chill moulds. The treated metal was tested physically 
and examined microscopically. 

1. The tests show that no improvement may be expected 
by quenching, which lowers the strength of the material. 

2. Simple annealing of the metal for 30 minutes very con- 
siderably increases its strength and elongation, the maximum 
results being obtained after annealing at 700" C. 

3. The homogeneity and other physical properties of the 
metal are correspondingly improved, but particularly the 
capability of the castings to withstand hydraulic pressure. 

4. These results are considered to be due to the removal of 
the eutectoid from the microstructure, which after annealing 
shows only the crystals of a solid solution. 

5. It is anticipated that this heat treatment will minimize 
corrosion difficulties. 


The term " eutectoid " is a modified form of the more common term " eutectic," 
and is used to indicate a different origin of the characteristic structure. Thus a 
" eutectic " is formed by the solidification and decomposition of a liquid solution 
of two metals, whereas a "eutectoid" results from the decomposition of a solid 
solution. ' 

174 Discussion on Messrs. Primrose s Paper 


Professor H. C. H. CARrENTER, M.A., Ph.D. (Vice-President), in 
opening the discussion, was sure the members would regret the absence 
of the authors, who had presented a very interesting paper on the heat 
treatment of a particular type of gun -metal, the 88 : 10:2 mixture. It 
was obvious from the diagram in the paper that when the alloy was cast 
the range of freezing extended over at least 200° C, with the result that 
the composition of the crystals, separating at any moment, differed from 
that of the liquid ; and, diffusion not taking place to any great extent, 
there was a core structure in which there were layers of different 
composition. As a consequence, in the alloy as cast there was a mix- 
ture of a which reacted with the liquid at about 790° to form /3, and 
that the /5 at a still lower temperature, rather below 500°, inverted 
to a + 8. 

The President said that in the paper it was spoken of as a eutectic ; 
ought it not to be eutectoid % 

Professor Carpenter said it was neither, as he was about to point 
out. Strictly speaking, it was what was called a peritectic reaction 
between the a crystals and the liquid of a particular composition giving 
the ^. There was only one eutectic in the series, and that was at the 
extreme tin end of the diagram. It was not correct to speak of it as a 
eutectic. Accordingly in the alloy as cast there was, as the authors 
showed, a duplex structure. The whole value of the paper consisted 
in showing that if the alloy was annealed at a suitable temperature — 
700° seemed to be the most suitable — very nearly the whole of the 8 
constituent dissolved in the a, and gave what appeared to be a homo- 
geneous solid solution. For practical purposes he thought that might 
be regarded as an established conclusion. At the same time the curves 
which the authors gave on page 169 showed that, even after an hour's 
heating at 800°, there was still a good deal of 8 left. Taking curve 
(a), on page 169, 1010° was the temperature of the liquidus. Then 765° 
was that of the peritectic reaction, and 455° was the temperature when 
a and S were formed from /3. On heating that, obviously 485° was the 
reverse of the 450° point. Then there came an inversion at 670°, which 
he was going to ask the authors to explain, and, finally, there was an 
inversion at 790°, which was the reverse of that at 765°. Curve (r*) 
was that of a material which the authors said was annealed for sixty 
minutes at 800°. That was fully as long, in fact a little longer, than 
their treatment at 700°. It gave apparently the a crystallization, but 
nevertheless it would be ol)served that there was at 445° an inversion 
which was obviously the same as the 455° inversion in the first curve. 
That, he thought, meant that even so there must be a certain amount 
of the /S constituent which had segregated, and which inverted to a and 
S at that temperature. Those were somewhat scientific points connected 
with the paper. He would particularly like the authors to give their 

Disnission on Messrs. Primrose s Paper 175 

view of the interpretation of the inversion at 670° on heating curve (A), 
because the reason for that was not clear, and they did not themselves 
advance any explanation. He thought the great practical value of the 
paper was that, with the comparatively simple and short-heat treatment 
of the alloy referred to, a material which, from the point of view of 
hydraulic castings, was apt to give unsatisfactory results, even when the 
metal was cpiite good, could be easily remedied. The root of the trouble 
was the long freezing range of over 200°, and theoretically it would be 
better, for that purpose, to use a different alloy with a very much shorter 
liquidus range. That was the reason why, in the research by Mr. 
Edwards and himself on the production of castings to withstand high 
hydraulic pressures, they found the copper-aluminium alloys very much 
better, because the freezing interval was comparatively short, and the 
difficulties due to a long freezing interval and the fact that equilibrium 
between the constituents was not obtained by diffusion were removed. 
Aluminium alloys had their own drawbacks. They were much more 
difficult to cast. From the practical point of view he thought the 
authors had quite established their case, that the very simple heat 
treatment at 700° was quite adequate in removing the difficulties which 
were due originally to the alloy being in a metastable condition. 

Mr. E. F. Law (London) said that Professor Carpenter had raised 
one or two points which were rather more theoretical than practical. 
Personally, he wished to raise one or two practical points and to issue 
a warning if possible. Gun-metal, as everyone knew, was used for a 
very large variety of purposes, and the structure of the gun-metal should 
be modified according to the purpose for which it was to be used. 
Raising the tensile strength and the elongation was not everything by 
any means. In the case stated by the authors, where the metal was 
intended to withstand hydraulic pressure, it was highly desirable that 
it should be uniform and homogeneous in structure. If, however, the 
method were used indiscriminately, and some gun-metal, which was to 
be used for slide valves or otherwise subjected to friction, was treated 
in that way the results would be disastrous. In gun-metal which was 
to be used for any purpose where friction came into play, it was 
necessary that the 8 constituent should separate out. That was the 
essential feature of gun-metal as a bearing metal, and he thought 
it was important that the difference should be noted. They did not 
want the manufacturers to start annealing all their gun-metal castings 
irrespective of the purpose for which tliey were to be used, otherwise 
great trouble would be experienced. 

Mr. Arnold Philip, B.Sc. (Member of Council), thought the paper, 
which he had read with great interest, was an extremely practical one. 
The very marked variations of the properties of the metal at 700° came 
out extremely strongly under the investigations which the authors had 
made, and he was sure the paper would be of very great value to the 
Admiralty engineering officials, who were using so many different articles 

17G Discussion on Messrs. Primrose s Paper 

designed for many different purposes, but all made of that particular 

Mr. Leonard Archbutt (Member of Council) desired to say a few 
words to accentuate what Mr. Law had said. INIany railway companies 
used for slide valves an alloy having not exactly the composition of the 
gun-metal referred to in the paper, but an alloy of copper and tin con- 
taining about 15 per cent, of tin. This alloy occasionally gave trouble 
owing to its brittleness. On the Midland Ivailway the valves were 
sometimes tested by putting them under a falling weight of 112 lb. 
with a blunt edge. The valve was supported on 9-inch centres, and 
the weight was allowed to drop across the middle of the valve. Valves 
cast in sand cracked almost invariably with the first blow from a height 
of 8 feet, and they broke in half with an average of about three blows. 
The effect of quenching them so as to prevent the separation of the 
8 constituent was tried. By that means the valves were toughened 
so much that they were found to withstand about four blows without 
cracking, and an average of about nine blows was required to break 
them. But the results from the i)oint of view of wear were disastrous ; 
they did not last anything like the length of time they did before — in fact, 
they wore away so rapidly that the process had to be given up. That 
showed, as Mr. Law had said, that it was necessary to consider the uses 
to which the metal was going to be put before deciding whether anneal- 
ing was the proper thing to do or not. He had no doubt that for 
certain purposes it would be found extremely useful, and he thought 
they were much indebted to the authors of the paper for communicating 
the results of their experiments to the Institute. 

Professor A. K. Huntington (President) thought the paper was a 
very useful one, as was also the point brought forward by Mr. Law and 
emphasized by ]\Ir. Archbutt, that it was impossible to make the same 
gun-metal equally satisfactory for every purpose. It was a very valu- 
able alloy which would by various treatments become useful for several 
purposes. With regard to the temperature of annealing, 700° was quite 
a reasonable temperature, and one which was not likely to do any harm ; 
at the same time, when higher temperatures than that were used it was 
necessary to be careful. Experiments carried out on a small scale might 
be all right in themselves, but on larger masses of metal the outer 
portions were apt to be affected differently from the portions further 
in, and trouble might thereby be set up. The paper was an exceedingly 
useful one in many ways, and he was sure the members would wish 
to accoi'd a hearty vote of thanks to Messrs. Primrose for it, and also 
to ]\Iessrs. Weir, who had allowed the publication of the various matters 
referred to in the Keport. It was a very healthy sign indeed when 
manufacturers took up that attitude ; it was one the Institute wished to 
encourage in every way — indeed it was one of the purposes for which the 
Institute was formed. 

Communications on Messrs. Primrose s Paper 177 


Mr. G. Beknard Brook (Sheffield) wrote that he would like to 
express his appreciation of Messrs. Primrose's paper. One point of 
considerable interest was noted on page 160, in which it was stated that 
'* the test bars were not subseijuently dressed or burnished, as this was 
found to interfere with the physical condition of the bar : Inm-nishiny 
especially imparted a skin to the metal which materially raised the 
tensile strength." He would be glad if Messrs. Primrose could give 
figures showing the relative strength of the burnished and unburnished 
bars. Was the effect common to all non-ferrous alloys'? If so, would it 
not be wise to suggest a standard method for the preparation of all 
test-bars, so that concordance of results should be thereby assured ? 

Mr. G. BuTTENSHAW (Chorltou-cum-Hardy) wrote that there was 
little doubt that the annealing of castings made in Admiralty gun-metal 
might be said to break new ground in foundry practice as applied to the 
production of that type of casting ; but, before such treatment could be 
universally adojjted as a recognized part of the process of manufacture, 
it appeared necessary that yet further work should be done in that direc- 
tion in order to obtain if possible results which would be sufficiently 
convincing to warrant the adoption of such treatment to castings to 
withstand hydraulic pressure. To make the reason of that statement 
clear one might ask, after carefully following the author's jjaper, what 
was the object of the proposed thermal treatment of Admiralty gun- 
metal? Evidently, from the remark on the first page, it was for the 
purpose of overcoming certain difficulties. With that in mind, he (Mr. 
Buttenshaw) examined section 2 of the summary, which claimed that 
" simple annealing . . . very considerably increases its strength and 
elongation. . . ." Turning to Table II. (page 164), which was the only 
one dealing with sand-cast bars, he did not find any extraordinary im- 
provement due to annealing, except perhaps in the elongation after 
treatment at 700° C. That, of course, might be due to the fact that the 
normal cast bar gave a particularly good test; but he found, on page 171, 
two cases stated where bars, which failed to yield the required test, were 
regenerated into a condition approximately equal to that of the normal 
bar of Table II.; falling short, however, of the elongation obtained with 
bar F.D.A. 7 of that table. From that it appeared that if, for a certain 
reason, the alloy as cast, and before annealing, was not equal to the test 
required of it, it still seemed to retain an inherent deficiency of quality 
throughout subsequent heat treatment, so that, were the thermal treat- 
ment to be specified (as in the case of cast steel) with a proportionally 
raised test specification, such as would be justified by the claims to 
betterment of quality due to annealing as set forth in the paper, 
we should still probably find ourselves where we were. For example, 
the metal (page 171) which only stood 11 tons originally was raised to 
15 tons only, due to annealing treatment. The point of all that was, 
was there not something more to be considered than the mere stepping 


178 Communications on Messrs. Primrose s Paper 

up, as it were, of both tests from their respective original positions l)y 
similar increments ? 

The writer's experience inclines to the view that there was, and as an 
instance he would draw attention to the fact that the tests given by the 
authors on the normal bars of Tables III., IV., and V. varied enor- 
mously (note G.C.N. , H.C.N. , K.C.N.), and it would be interesting to 
have some explanation as to the cause. 

The most marked effect of annealing seemed to be shown in the cases 
where bars had been first cast in chills, and was what miglit have been 
expected, but it could not be supposed that castings were to be so cast ; 
so that, unless it were intended to obtain results on test-bars which could 
not be taken as indicating the quality of the castings, the treatment in 
that form did not help to overcome the difficulties referred to on page 1. 
In fact, it might become necessary to suggest that all test-bars should 
have the inspector's stamp impressed on white metal let into holes 
drilled in the bars at the time of stamping, to insure that such treatment 
be not applied as a misuse. 

Since reading the author's paper, the writer had looked up and selected 
a number of tests taken from bars cast in sand attached to castings for 
Admiralty work with which he had been concerned, the following being 
selected as some amongst the best obtained : — 

Tensile Strength, Elongation, 

Tons per Square Inch. per Cent. 

1704 17 

1744 15 

17-4 15 

18-2 20 

18-4 19 

18-4 20 

The above figures were really as good, as regards tensile strength, 
as the annealed sand-cast bars of Table II., though possessing somewhat 
lower elongations. It might be asked in passing whether higher elonga- 
tions were desirable in view of the variation to be looked for, in such 
cases, of yield point and Brinell hardness number. Referring now to 
No. 3 of the summary, which dealt with improved homogeneity, the 
writer felt compelled to suggest from past experience that such im- 
provement could only be looked for to a very limited extent, although 
more light from the authors on that point would be of considerable 

Considering for a moment the accompanying micrograph, Fig. 1, which 
was that of an Admiralty specified gun-metal containing 13 per cent, 
tin, but typical of similar cases of porosity with 88:10:2 gun-metal. 
That specimen was taken from the wall of a gun-elevating cylinder which 
showed slight leakage at 6000 lb. water pressure. The magnification 
was 240. What had occurred was further brought out in micrograph 
Fig 2, which was an alloy still higher in tin magnified 240 times ; the 
micrograph having been used on a previous occasion by the writer to 
illustrate the porosity due to segregation. Did the authors consider 
that where such holes were produced, due to the action of gravity on 

Communications on Messrs. Primrose' s Paper 179 

a liquid phase which had existed at some period during the slow cooling 
of a massive casting, that a subsequent annealing would produce suffi- 
cient dift'usion to reconstruct the alloy as a homogeneous mass ? 

Fig. 1. — Unetched. Magnified 240 diameters. 

Fig. 2. — Heat-tinted. Magnified 240 diameters. 

It had happened wathin the writer's experience that such a casting 
had been found to have a brittle whitish scale attached to the outside 
skin, the cause being that, during cooling, the casting had shrunk from 

180 Commimications on Messrs. Primrose s Paper 

the sand wall of the mould while still at a temperature at which the 
eutectic internally Avas yet liquid. The eutectic (the i)ortiou shown 
light in Fig. 2) became exuded into the cavity between the casting 
and the sand mould forming the scale mentioned. This being an 
identical case with the first named case of porosity, would annealing 
completely reabsorb the scale? If Jiot, it was reasonable to doubt its 
cure for the other case. Some of those troubles could be minimized by 
attention to pouring temperatures and a consideration of the effect of 
pouring on subsequent rate of cooling, but as a fact the cylinder pre- 
viously referred to had to be made in manganese brass finally 

The writer might add that there was nothing like the difficulty of 
porosity from the above mentioned cause with the mixture used formerly 
more frequently, and composed of copper 87 %, tin 8 %, zinc 5 %, the 
objectionable /^-constituent being almost entirely absent. 

Mr. J. L. Haughton, M.Sc. (Teddington), wrote that he had read 
the paper by Messrs. Primrose with very great interest, and was much 
impressed with the enormous increase, both in tensile strength and in 
elongation, which they had obtained by means of simple heat treatment. 
He considered that Figs. 2 to 4 were most interesting, inasmuch as they 
suggested that the net result obtained was probably a compromise 
between two reactions (as indeed was hinted by the authors on page 167), 
these being the growth of the crystal size and the removal of the a-S 
complex. The first of these reactions tended to weaken the metal, and 
the second to strengthen it. It would be noticed that in all the graphs 
(Figs. 2 to 5) the tensile strength fell as the annealing temperature rose 
to between 500° C. and 600" C. That was to say, owing to the proxi- 
mity of the 490° C. line on the equilibrium diagram, the tendency for 
the change a-\-8->-j3 to take place was small, whereas the crystals were 
permitted to grow. Above that temperature and up to 700° C. the 
a + S was being absorbed by the /3, and, although the continued crystal 
growth tended to weaken the material, yet the removal of the hard and 
brittle 8 far more than outweighed this, and a large net gain of strength 
was the result. When all the 8 was removed, the crystal growth effect 
was free to show itself once more with a resulting Aveakening of the metal. 

Fig. 5, however, he (Mr. Haughton) did not consider quite so satisfac- 
tory. In the first place, the change from 5-minute intervals to a 30-minute, 
and then a 90-minute interval, gave the maximum point at 30 minutes 
a much sharjjer appearance than it should have. Furthermore^, he did 
not consider that, because, when annealing for 30 minutes the best 
results were got if the temperature were 700° C, and when annealing 
at 700° C. the best results followed the use of a 30-minute treatment, 
it Avas a logical deduction that 30 minutes at 700° C. was the best 
possible time and temperature. It was conceivable that, say 20 minutes 
at 800° C, or 40 minutes at 600° C. would give a better result. What 
Avas to be aimed at was the removal of all the 8, A\'hile at the same time 
the crystals Avere given the smallest possible chance of groAAang. 

The writer also found great difficulty in accepting the authors' 

Communications on Messrs. Primrose' s Paper 181 

explanation of the peculiar arrest at 670° C on the heating curve 
(curve h. Fig. 6). Through the courtesy of Mr. F. Johnson, of the 
Birmingham Technical School, he was enabled approximately to confirm 
this arrest (he obtained two arrests at 620° C. and 680° C. respectively), 
but if the a + S-^fS change was not complete at 490° C, there .seemed no 
reason why it should cease absolutely until a temperature of 760° C. was 
reached, and then be completed suddenly. It Avould be of interest to 
see if a similar arrest would be obtained with the corresponding alloy 
made of pure copper and tin only. 

There remained two minor criticisms which he (Mr. Haughton) wished 
to make. The first was that the absence of any analysis of the alloy 
was regrettable, the other was as to the employment of the term eutectic 
for the 8 substance. It certainly was not an eutectic. The term eutectoid 
might be permissible, but he personally preferred Heycock and Neville's 
term " complex." 

Incidentally the jjajjer brought out the fact that the limit of saturation 
of pure a as fixed by Shepherd and Blough was more correct than that 
given by Heycock and Neville. 

Mr. F. Johnson, M.Sc. (Birmingham), wrote that he had taken a 
great deal of interest in reading the paper, which contained information 
of a most valuable character both from the scientific and from the 
23ractical point of view. 

The practical results bore oiit in a remarkable way what a study of 
the equilibrium diagram taught one to expect. 

The influence of such a small proportion of zinc as was contained in 
Admiralty gun-metal in so drastically affecting the quenching properties 
was extraordinary, converting what was otherwise beneficial into a most 
harmful treatment. 

Had the authors considered the question of a more prolonged heat 
treatment between 600° and 700° C. before quenching? 

They did not state how long the bars given in Table I. had been kept 
at the reheating temperature before (Quenching. Judging by the micro- 
graphs, it seemed as if insufficient time had been given for the attainment 
of equilibrium. Possibly the zinc operated in retarding diftusion and 
attainment of crystalline homogeneity ; the results of the half-hour 
annealings seemed to confirm this. 

There was no doubt that zinc remained dissolved in copper at the 
expense of tin ; this being particularly noticeable in a brasses con- 
taining tin, as the writer had pointed out.* 

In comparing Admiralty gun-metal with gun-metal in which copper 
and tin were in the same relative proportions but from which zinc 
was absent, the writer had found a marked difference of structure 
between the two alloys (sand-cast under exactly similar conditions). 
The presence of zinc seemed to produce a more pronounced dendritic 
structure, the primary copper-rich crystallites being more continuously 
linked up than in the zinc-free alloy. In the latter alloy, too, the 

* Journal of the Institute of Metals, No. 1, 1912. vol. vii. p. 201. 

182 Coinmunications on Messrs. Primrose's Papei' 

a-8 complex or eutectoid existed in larger masses, being readily dis- 
tinguishaljle at a magnification which was insufficient to resolve the 
same constituent in the Admiralty alloy. That greater prominence of 
the brittle 8 constituent and its greater intercrystilline continuity would 
explain the greater weakness and general inferiority of the zinc-free 
l)ronze as compared with Admiralty gun-metal. 

Therefore, in alloys of that class it was necessary to aim at producing 
a structure in which the strong, tough constituent (i)rimary a crystallites) 
exhibited continuity and the brittle constituent (6 phase) discontinuity. 
This influence of zinc would be particularly noticeable in such an alloy 
as Admiralty gun-metal, which lay so near the saturation boundary of 
the a phase field. 

The writer regretted that, in view of the importance of the authors' 
results for future reference, they had omitted to give the analysis of their 

Throughout the paper, the authors used the word eutectic to describe 
what he (Mr. Johnson) preferred to regard as eutectoid, since its forma- 
tion had occurred after the alloy had completely solidified and not during 

On page 10 the authors, in describing Fig. 21, Plate VII., referred to 
small dark spots as representing lead which had been thrown out of 
solution at this temperature (700° C). The writer did not agree with 
this view, since the insolubility of lead in bronzes and brasses was 
notorious, and although the process of annealing might lead to a coale- 
scence of the lead particles, it did not throw out of solution a metal 
which had never existed in that state ; moreover, no figures were given 
for the proportion of lead present. 

In conclusion, the writer wished to thank Messrs. Primrose for having 
brought before the Institute a paper of such importance, and he thought, 
with them, that founders would have every reason to appreciate their 

Dr. RosENHAiN, F.R.S. (Member of Council), wrote that he had read 
the paper of Messrs. H. S. and J. S. Glen Primrose with considerable 
interest and pleasure. He was particularly concerned with the question 
of the porosity of metals and alloys, and was very much surprised to find, 
that in the case of gun-metal castings the authors were able to find 
visible shrinkage cavities in the material associated with porosity. He 
felt, however, that a little further proof was required before their con- 
clusions on this point could be fully accepted. In the first place it 
would be necessary to show that the holes observed by Messrs. Primrose 
in their sections really were shrinkage cavities, but that was a matter 
which could only be convincingly shown to a third person by actual 
examination of the specimens themselves. He would therefore accept 
the view that they really were shrinkage cavities. It remained, how- 
ever, to prove that these cavities were sufficiently continuous to permit 
of the percolation of water, while it Avas further surprising to find 
that annealing alone without mechanical working could cause these 


Communications on Messj^s. Primrose s Paper 183 

cavities to close up completely. The proof that these cavities really 
formed the path by which liquid could percolate through the metal 
might perhaps be obtained by forcing a molteu wax, pitch, or some 
similar substance, through the metal under pressure, and on allowing 
it to cool to cut cross sections. If the solidified liquids were found 
in the cavities described by Messrs. Primrose, the matter would be defi- 
nitely settled. As the evidence at present stood, it seemed quite possible 
that the real seat of the percolation might lie elsewhere, and that possibly 
the shrinkage which gave rise to these cavities also gave rise to a certain 
looseness of structure which would allow the liquid to percolate through 
very much finer but more numerous channels between the crystals of the 
alloy. That such finer pores may be closed by the process of annealing 
alone appeared to him more credible than the closing up of a continuous 
system of cavities such as those shown in the micrographs of the present 

Mr. H. J. Young (Wallsend-on-Tyne) wrote that he would like to 
ask whether the authors considered it would be practically successful 
similarly to heat-treat gun-metal containing appreciable quantities of 
lead, say one to three per cent. It seemed probable that the lead would 
" ball up " sufficiently to be a serious consideration, and since commercial 
gun-metals often did contain added lead the point was of considerable 
interest, and the behaviour of the lead during the experiments might 
throw light upon the question. 

The Authors wrote that they were gratified that their paper had evoked 
so much interest, and regretted very much that circumstances had pre- 
vented their presence at the meeting. They had thereby had to forego 
the pleasure of replying verbally to the points raised in the discussion, 
and of thanking the members for their most appreciative criticisms. 
They had taken the liberty of amending one matter in their paper as 
now reproduced, and that was by substituting the term "eutectoid" for 
" eutectic " throughout. Some writers still used the latter term, but un- 
doubtedly the former was the correct one if the definition they had 
appended as a note was accepted. 

To Professor Carpenter they were obliged for the valuable contribu- 
tion to the theoretical side of their paper, which was not intended to do 
more than record the results of practical work. As to the inversion at 
670° which they had observed, they had already advanced the sugges- 
tion which appeared the most probable, viz., that this halt marked the 
completion of the a -i- 8 to ft change. After the sixty minute annealing 
it was evident that the temperature at which the /3 formation com- 
menced was lowered to about 640°, and the recalescence was less power- 
ful than the original inversion at 756° on cooling from fusion. The 
final decomposition to a -}- S was also slight, as indicated by the curve (c). 
All three cooling curves had been obtained with the same mass of metal, 
and the peaks might therefore be taken to represent the relative inten- 
sity of the heat absorptions or evolutions. 

184 Authors reply : Messrs. Primrose s Paper 

They quite agreed with Mr. Law that it would not do to anneal gun- 
metal indiscriminately for every purpose. As a rule it was customary to 
have in gun-metal for bearings a little more tin than was permissible in 
the ordinary Admiralty composition, 88-10-2. A very hard bearing 
surface could be obtained by chilling gun-metal, but this was apt to 
induce a dangerous brittleness, unless the bearing was heavy enough to 
have a backing of comparatively slowly cooled metal. 

Mr. Archbutt had referred to a bronze with 15 per cent, of tin, but 
this was considerably different from Admiralty gun- metal, in so far as 
the eutectoid structure was continuous, forming a ground mass with 
a-crystals embedded in it, whereas in gun metal the eutectoid areas were 
usually surrounded by the a-crystals. Instead of quenching this bronze 
it might have been found serviceable to chill the bearing face of the slide 
valves. It is remarkable that in a paper on " The Wear of the Bronzes " 
presented by MM. Porteviu and Nusbaumer at the International Associa- 
tion for Testing Materials, they show in a graph the diminution of wear 
caused by quenching a O'OIS per cent, phosphor bronze (85-15), and 
they remark that the elimination of 8 marks the minimum wear of the 
bronzes which they have studied. 

Professor Huntington's caution as to the care necessary in annealing 
large masses of gun-metal was correct, as undoubtedly rapid heating of 
these would result in inequalities of structure. However, it was not 
common to have castings of gun-metal in which the thickness was so 
great as to require more than ordinary caution in the rate of heating or 

Mr. Brook had asked for figures in regard to the effect of burnishing 
the test-bars. This, however, was not investigated fully, as it varied 
considerably with the amount of cold work produced on the surface of 
the bar. Thus a small section was more affected than one of greater 
diameter, and when punch marks were used the skin-effect was com- 
pletely annulled, the test-pieces often breaking through the mark where 
the skin had been pierced. This effect would be common to all metals, 
but the question of standardizing was too wide to discuss. 

Mr. Buttenshaw seemed to doubt the advisability of annealing gun- 
metal for hydraulic castings, but the authors were convinced that he 
needed only to give the method a proper trial to find that it certainly 
produced a remarkable improvement in the property of the cast metal, 
especially that of remaining water-tight under considerable pressure. 
The explanation of the variation noted by Mr. Buttenshaw in the 
normal test-bars of series G, H, and K was that these had been cast 
and allowed to solidify under very different conditions as explained in 
the paper. The figures in the tensile tests quoted by Mr. Buttenshaw 
were undoubtedly very good, but many founders found it exceedingly 
difficult to attain these with anything like regularity. The porosity due 
to segregation illustrated by Mr. Buttenshaw was a most interesting- 
case, but only with very exceptionally slow cooling of a very large mass 
could the action of gravity on the different constituents produce such 
cavities. In the ordinary case it was most probable that the primary 

Atithors reply : Messrs. Primrose's Paper 185 

crystals grew rapidly enough to entangle small areas of ft which after- 
wards underwent inversion. The whitish scale was, no doubt, due to 
pouring at too high a temperature, and it was not likely that so excessive 
segregation could be remedied by annealing. The alloy 87-8-5 might 
be all that was claimed for it, but it would not be accepted as Admiralty 

Mr. Haughton had given a most valuable analysis of the authors' 
results, and they were jjleased to note he had confirmed the peculiar 
arrest in the vicinity of 670°. The microstructure certainly showed no 
trace of the ft constituent after annealing to 700°, whereas there was 
some left after annealing to 650°. The halt at 670° on heating was 
much more noticeable than the recalescence at 640° on cooling after 
annealing, and the heat absorption at 790° evidently indicated the 
commencement of incipient fusion at spots of high tin concentration, 
as there was no corresponding halt after a 60 minutes annealing, which 
had brought about diffusion of the tin-rich portions, and produced greater 
homogeneity. Any heating which reached 800° was found to be bad 
for the metal, and the question of longer heating at a lower temperature 
than 700° was not feasible in practice where time was an important 

Mr. Johnson had inquired about the eftect of prolonged annealing 
before quenching, and this point had been investigated. The results 
of the tests were not conclusive, but they showed no marked improve- 
ment on those got after slow heating to the desired temperature in 
about half an hour, followed by quenching. The analyses of gun-metals 
used were only decimally difierent from the specified composition of 
88-10-2, and the total impurity was in no case more than 0'2 per cent. 
This was almost entirely lead, which did not show in the normal micro- 
structure of the metal as cast, but it was clearly seen in the annealed 
specimens. The specks might be due to the coalescence of the lead 
particles, but it was doubtful if sufficient molecular mobility was 
attained to allow of this. The specks were very small and isolated, 
although they appeared to be most numerous in localities where the 
eutectoid areas had been. The perfect structure indicated by Mr. 
Johnson was certainly that which was most desirable in sound castings, 
but under certain conditions of cooling gun-metal could develop a 
structure similar to the corresponding bronze. It was when this had 
taken place and the eutectoid structure showed continuity that defects 
manifested themselves under water pressure, and it was in the elimina- 
tion of this trouble that the annealing process was most valuable. 

Dr. Rosenhain's remarks in regard to the shrinkage cavities were 
most suggestive, and would be followed up with the object of testing 
his theory. Space had })recluded the reproduction of any more photo- 
micrographs, but the unetched microsections clearly showed the black 
specks to be cavities, and also showed the shallow drag markings where 
the lead segregates had been polished out of the metal. Inter-crystalline 
looseness had not been detected by the authors in any of the most 
defective structures, and the most satisfactory castings were those con- 

186 Autho7's reply : Mess7'S. Primrose^ s Paper 

taining isolated eutectoid areas. "Whenever the casting temperature or 
rate of cooling had been such as to produce continuity of the eutectoid, 
then serious porosity was evinced under water pressure. 

To Mr. Young's inquiry the authors could not make any definite 
answer, as in the metal used in their experiments there was less than 
0*2 i)er cent, of lead. No doubt on annealing gun-metal with over 1 
per cent, of lead the trouble he mentioned would be likely to result. 

Fourth Annual Dinner 187 


The Fourth Annual Dinner was held at the Criterion Restaurant, 
Piccadilly, W., on Tuesday evening, March 11, 1913, Professor A. K. 
Huntington, Assoc. R.S.M., President, occupying the chair. 

There was an attendance of guests and members numbering about 
150, amongst whom were : — 

Mr. W. Dixon (President, The West of Scotland Iro?i and Steel Institute). 

Sir H. F. DoxALDSON, K.C.B. [Chief Superintendent, Royal Ordnance Factory, 
Woolwich Arsenal). 

Sir J. Alfred Ewing, K.C.B. , F.R.S. 

Mr. E. HAhL-BROW't^ {President, The Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in 

Colonel H. C. L, Holden, C.B., F.R.S. 

Mr. E. HooVKR, (President, T lie Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 

Dr. Rudolph Messel (Acting- Preside/it, The Society of Chemical Industry). 

The Hon. Sir Charles A. Parsons, K.C.B. [President, North-East Coast Institu- 
tion of Engi?ieers and Shipbuilders). 

Professor W. C. Unwin, F.R.S. 

Sir Gerard A. Muntz, Bart. [Past-President). 

Mr. G. A. Boeddicker ( Vice-President). 

Mr. Summers Hunter (Vice-President). 

Mr. W. H. Johnson ( Vice-President). 

Professor T. Turner, M.Sc. ( Vice-President, Honorary Treasurer). 

Mr. L. Archbutt [Member of Council). 

Mr. T. A. Bayliss [Member of Council). 

Mr. George Hughes [Member of Council). 

Mr. W. Murray Morrison (Member of Council). 

Mr. Arnold Philip (Member of Couticil). 

Mr. L. Sumner [Member of Council). 

The Chairman gave the toast of " His Majesty the King," which was 
drunk with musical honours. 

The late Sir William White. 

The Chairman, before calling on the first speaker, said : I wish to 
refer to the very great loss we have incurred through the death of Sir 
William White. If it had come sooner the loss would have been greater 
still, but fortunately we are now so well established that even the loss of 
Sir William White is not so serious as it would have been at an earlier 
period. He did an immense amount for this Institution, more than 
anybody here, except those associated with him, can very well realize. 
Looking at it from his point of view, probably there is no other death 
he would have preferred himself, because he was a man who was a worker 
from the beginning and never spared himself at all ; and I have not the 

188 Fourth Annual Dinner 

slightest doubt that he would rather have died in harness and in the way 
he did than in any other. That does not, of course, in any way lessen 
our feeling in the matter of our loss. The best memorial we can put up 
to him is to work in the interests of the Institution as he did, and put 
our whole faculties into it in every way we possibly can. The members 
of this Institution have pulled together, and I think there is every sign 
that they will go on doing so, and that the Institution will progress in a 
very rapid way, and become such as Sir William would have wished. 

" The Institute op Metals." 

Sir Alfred Ewing, K.C.B., F.R.S., in proposing the toast of "The 
Institute of Metals," coupled with the name of its President, Professor 
Huntington, said : I find myself tempted to remark that of the making 
of learned societies there is no end. It seems an ungracious reflec- 
tion on the part of a guest at a pleasant banquet like this, but one may 
confess to a certain amount of sympathy with the attitude of the ordinary 
layman, especially the commercial man, towards the scientiflc expert. 
The scientific expert, in one aspect at least, is a confounded nuisance ; 
no sooner does a process of manufacture take a reasonably well stereo- 
typed form, no sooner does the manufacturer settle down comfortably in 
his arm-chair to watch his growing bank balance, than the expert causes the 
process to become obsolete. Then again, he is always from a scientific point 
of view, enlarging the boundaries of knowledge ; and the ordinary person, 
even the man with scientific sympathies who tries to keep up with new 
developments, finds himself panting a long way behind ; he is out of 
touch with the new-fangled ideas of the specialist ; he has to acquire, as 
it were, the alphabet of a new language if he would understand the 
terms which come trippingly from your specialist's tongue. I suppose 
Ave must reckon with this as an inevitable result of that process of extreme 
specialization which we see going on all around us. It makes one scien- 
tific man almost unintelligible to another : it makes all scientific men 
unintelligible to students. Lord Rayleigh was telling a story the other 
day of a highly intelligent student of science who went to attend a 
lecture by a most eminent specialist. He came back and said, " The 
Professor gave us an hour and a half to-day " : his friend said, " What 
was it all about? "and the student repliecl, " He did not say." And 
when you get this expert, he is like the evil spirit in the parable : he 
takes to himself seven others worse than himself, and they form a new 
society. You must join their blessed society or else get left, and then 
you find yourself poorer by a few more annual guineas, and you must 
clear another shelf of your bookcase to receive the volumes of their pro- 
ceedings and transactions, that are dumped on you by a persistent post- 
office. I have done with grumbling now. There is, after all, another 
side to the picture. As Professor Huntington told you to-day in his 
Presidential Address, the members of such a Society as this are kindred 
spirits joined in a common aim. Their combination has a most valuable 
effect in stimulating their study of the subject ; it is immensely helpful 
not only to them individually, but also to the progress of the subject 

Fourth A nmial Dinner 189 

itself. You, gentlemen, as a Society, are the offspring of a science which 
is tremendously ali'se — a science and an industry that is undergoing a 
prodigious growth. Your vitality as a Society reflects the vitality of the 
industry and the science with which you are connected. Let them 
stagnate, and you would dwindle. On the other hand, your corporate 
energy furthers their progress. You are only in your fifth year, and 
what a lusty youngster you are ! You have over 600 members ; you 
have formed provincial branches ; you have appointed various active 
committees, one of Avhich discusses such questions as why the rust doth 
corrupt ; and another tries to formulate the exact terms which are to be 
used in the expression of your new ideas. Your subject is one that 
possesses an extraordinary fascination — a fascination I know well. If I 
may venture on a personal note, it was my own last scientific love ten 
years ago before I suffered what Shakespeare calls a sea change. It may 
interest you perhaps to know how I began the study of metals. It was 
about fifteen years ago that an advanced student came to me — I was 
then a Professor in Cambridge — and he said he wished to carry on some 
work in research. What a Professor has to do in such a case is to look as 
omniscient as possible, and to suggest subjects of research to the student. 
I said : " There is rather a newish subject, which I believe is promising : 
people polish up metals, and look at them in the microscope. I do not 
know anything about it myself, but I should like to leai'u something 
about it; so let us take it up and learn it together, and, I think there 
is a good chance that we will find it open up various roads to discovery." 
Well, we found it was so : that student was one whose name is extremely 
well known in this Society, Dr. Rosenhain, one of your most actively 
productive members, who was recently elected to the Royal Society for 
his researches on metals, whose absence from this gathering we much 
regret to-night. 

You have been extraordinarily fortunate, gentlemen, in your selection 
of Presidents. Who can say what the Society owes to the wide know- 
ledge, the ready tongue and pen, the untiring energy, and the unfailing 
sympathy of its first President, Sir William White. It saddens us to 
think that his genial presence is lost to us and to the many other kindred 
societies which to-day are mourning his death. In your most recent 
President, Professor Gowland, you had a distinguished metallurgist, 
with whom I may perhaps claim to have had a very slight bond ; my 
first appointment as a Professor was to the University of Tokio in Japan, 
and it was my privilege at the end of ench month to receive a roll of the 
most beautifully minted gold coins which I have ever seen anywhere ; 
these coins came from Professor Gowland's mint. In your new Presi- 
dent you have a gentleman who was a metallurgist when for the most 
part we were in what may be called our metallurgical swaddling clothes. 
I think he may fairly claim, as a Professor of Metallurgy, to be a lineal 
descendant of the oldest professor of whom we have any record — I mean, 
of course. Tubal Cain, the seventh from Adam, who, we are told on the 
best authority, was the instructor of every artificer in brass and iron. 
But Professor Huntington is not satisfied with the furnace ; he is not 

190 Fourth Annual Dinner 

even satisfied -with the ashes, for, phoenix-like, he rises from them into 
the air. I had ahnost called him a prince of the power of the air, but 1 
believe that term is used by theologians in a somewhat disagreeable 
connection. Professor Huntington has at least this analogy to the other 
gentleman, that when he does exercise his dominion over the air, he is 
accom])anied by an attendant "gnome." We may safely say that he 
is " in the first flight " of metallurgists. He has taken a house, I am 
told, near Eastchurch, for the purpose of pursuing his practical studies in 
aviation. It was only the other day that he made successful flights 
there in an aeroplane of his own design. We cannot but hugely admire 
his skill and his courage, and we will wish him many happy returns to 
earth. Gentlemen, I give you the toast of " The Institute of Metals," 
coupled with the name of your genial and plucky President, Professor 

Professor A. K. Huntington, Assoc. Pt.S.M. (President), in respond- 
ing to the toast, said: It is very "rough" on your President to have 
to follow on such a })ast-master in after-dinner speaking as Sir Alfred 
Ewing. I do not know any more difficult task, and I think you will all 
agree with me. Personally I always look upon an after-dinner speaker 
as born, and not made, and when I have to make an after-dinner speech 
I always wish I had not been born, or, in the alternative, that the 
speech had been made. I have already occupied your time and your 
patience very much this afternoon, and I do not propose to inflict very 
many words on you this evening. I took you through the past history 
of all the Institutions that ever were, I think, and I hope that we 
received some encouragement at any rate from their performances in 
comparing them with our own, and that we received encouragement as 
to our prospects. I will not bore you with statistics after dinner ; they 
are very indigestible things ; but it is quite clear that we occupy a 
position to-day as good as has been occupied by similar institutions — in 
fact better — and I think that we owe that to the real want that existed 
for this Institute, though that in itself would not account altogether 
for our success, for there might be the want, but we might not be capable 
of properly filling it ; but we have made such a good start in the matter 
under our previous Presidents, that I think it would be a disgrace to us 
now if we did not succeed in a very marked way. 

It only remains for me to thank Professor Ewing for the kind way in 
which he has spoken of the Institute, and incidentally of myself, and to 
hope that we shall see him here again on some future occasion to give us 
such a lively and interesting address as he has just given us. 

" Kindred Societies." 

Sir Gerard Muntz, Bart. (Past-President), in proposing the toast, 
" Kindred Societies," said : When I became Past-President I thought that 
I was going to take a back seat and have a quiet time, and for over 
a year I succeeded in doing so. I was able to sit down and enjoy 

Fourth Annual Dinner 191 

my dinner, and not suffer indigestion from anxiety because I knew I had 
to speak ; but this year unfortunately, at a weak moment, I went to the 
headquarters of the Institute of Metals, and while there the Secretary 
came to me and inveigled me to fall back into my evil ways, and consent 
once again to talk. The toast entrusted to my care to-night is that of 
" Kindred Societies." When I had this toast placed in my hands I was 
not at all sm-e that I was going to do justice to it, and I am less sure 
now, after the remarks of Sir Alfred Ewing, because he began with the 
remark that, "In the making of learned Societies there is no end," and 
that appeared to me to be not altogether propitious to a toast of this 
nature, because we happen to be the last Society, or the last Society of 
any note, and it appears to me to be rather audacious on my part to talk 
about Kindred Societies. In my instructions on the subject the Secre- 
tary was good enough to send me a partial list of Institutions which 
would be represented here to-night. We have represented here at least 
seven Institutions of much older standing, and of much greater im- 
portance, and of much larger membership than ourselves ; and to get up 
and propose "Kindred Societies" makes one feel something like I did in 
my early school days when at Harrow, and I went to Lord's for the cricket 
match, and talked about " We." Sir Frederick Donaldson represents 
one of the Kindred Societies. He is President of the Mechanical 
Engineers, with whom I have the honour of being associated, whose 
membership is more than ten times our membership, and whose years 
are many more than are those of this Institution. There are other 
gentlemen in the room representing the other six Societies whose 
Institutions are far greater than ours, far older than ours, and, therefore, 
I feel, as I said, that there is a certain amount of audacity in getting up 
and talking about Kindred Societies. On the other hand, they are 
Kindred Societies, because although we are new and young, and have 
only five years of life, we are interesting ourselves in the science of 
metallurgy in which many of those Societies are also interested, and one of 
them includes the word " Metallurgy" in its name. Even those who do 
not include it in their name include it in the Papers which are read at 
their Institutions. You may take Marine Engineers and Locomotive 
Engineers — any kind of Engineering Society which exists : it is in- 
terested, and cannot help being interested, in the work of the Institute 
of Metals; and, therefore, I feel that we are to some extent, although 
the latest child of all, kindred to those Societies. Sir Alfred Ewing would 
refer you to the scientific expert. He was not polite in his comments on 
the expert, and I will not go back so far as to remind you of how the 
late Sir Frederick Bramwell described a scientific expert. I daresay 
some of you will remember it, but nevertheless a scientific expert has his 
uses. I am not a scientific expert, but only a manufacturer who suffers 
from a scientific expert. The scientific expert does make a barndoor 
manufacturer think, and occasionally he helps him in so far that he puts 
his spoke in the wheel of the third member of our Institute, the user. 
The user is a very peremptory person ; he is very arbitrary ; he knows 
everything as a rule long before we do ; and, therefore, we have to be 

192 Fourth Annual Dinner 

careful, and our only chance is to get Ijchind the scientific expert, and 
get him to protect us from the wrath and attack of the user ; so the poor 
scientific expert, though often abused, has his advantages to a certain 

To come back to my toast of " Kindred Societies," I feel that we are 
much honoured to-night in haviug such a very strong rei)resentation of 
these Kindred Societies. I will not name the Societies, and I will not 
name the gentlemen present ; I will spare their feelings if I can ; these 
Societies are very well represented by our distinguished guests here, and 
I do feel that this Institute would be grateful for these gentlemen com- 
ing here to-night to support the child of the Institutes, and I can only 
hope that although, as Sir Alfred has said, " To the making of Institutes 
there is no end," that that may not stop other Institutes from starting. 
It is the hope of all small lioys at school and young members of a Society 
that boys and members younger than themselves will come in so that 
they will not be the last in the class ; and so I hope other Societies to 
which we shall wish all success will follow us so that we shall not be the 
junior. Gentlemen, I have the pleasure of giving you the health of the 
Kindred Societies, and I have to couple with it the names of my friends 
Sir H. F. Donaldson and Mr. E. Hall-Brown. 

Sir H. F. Donaldson, K.C.B. (Chief Superintendent, Eoyal Ordnance 
Factory ; President, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers), in re- 
sponding, said : I am feeling extremely honoured that upon me should 
have fallen the task of responding to this toast. I can only wish that it 
had been entrusted to other hands more capable, and to a tongue more 
ready than mine. I see that I am to .share the responsibility of reply 
with another, and that that other comes from the north of the Tweed. 
He will, I am sure, pardon me if, when I ask what really is included by 
Kindred Societies, I quote an incident drawn from Scotland, where rela- 
tionships are comprehensive, to show that it is a very wide area over 
which I might travel. The incident occurred in connection with a rich 
American, who took a large house in Scotland. He took a large family 
party with him, and he took all their household gods with them ; among 
the household gods he took an ape, but the ape did not like the climate 
and so it died, and he instructed the gardener to bury it. The Scotch 
gardener does not take kindly to burying monkeys, and so he chucked 
the corpse on to the peat hag. Two gillies came along and saw some- 
thing lying there, and one said to the other : " What's you % " The 
other said : " Ah dunna ken — he's ower hairy for a Campbell ; he's ower 
short for a MacDonald. Awa' doon to the lodge, and see if it's one of 
them American bodies." The gillies on the Scotch moor thought they 
recognised kindred, though they failed to place the relationship. You 
will, I think, agree that if we are to include in the Kindred Societies, 
whose health you have drunk, the simian tribes — well, I am afraid I 
cannot respond for them ; but I can, and do respond most readily, and 
most thankfully, for the very kind words in which this toast has been 
proposed by Sir Gerard Muntz, who assumes an unduly retiring position 

Fourth Annual Dinner 193 

■when he places himself in the lowest form at Harrow and gazes with 
longing eyes at other societies a few years older than this one. He is 
himself on the highway to high position in other societies, so that he is 
looking forward with — shall we say reasonable hope % — to having days of 
added dignity, if not of ease. He said he does not like speaking, but he 
does it so well that I am sure we can put up with his dislike. Gentle- 
men, I am being discursive to a degree. I really am to respond for the 
toast of the Kindred Societies. I have thanked you for the kind way 
in which you have received and drunk the toast, and I can assure you 
that Kindred Societies regard the growth of this Society with the utmost 
pleasure, as showing the desire there is for specialized study to forward, 
through the discoveries of the present day, the interest and advantage and 
place them in the hands of those people whom Sir Gerard ^Muntz regards 
with such disfavour — the users. Gentlemen, I thank you very much, 
and I should very much like to end up with another little story, but I 
have been told that we are in the middle of Lent, and that if I told 
another story it must be a fish story. Gentlemen, I have not got a 
fish story ; I have always tried to be, and I have regarded myself, and I 
hope with some justice, as a truthful man. I am not, therefore, going 
to tell you another story. I tell you the truth, and I say we of the 
Kindred Societies all thank you for the honour you have done us. 

Mr. E. Hall-Browi^ (President of the Institution of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders in Scotland), who also responded, said : I have to thank Sir 
Gerard Muntz for the very kind way in which he has proposed the toast 
of "Kindred Societies," and you, gentlemen, for the very hearty way in 
which you have honoured that toast. It is at all times a difficult thing 
for a modest man to speak in company, and Sir Gerard Muntz might 
have been expressing my own feelings when he disclaimed any right to 
pose as an after-dinner speaker. I am, nevertheless, very pleased, Mr. 
President, to join in the reply to such a heartily honoured toast. I 
should have been happier, I dare say, had I not been asked to reply to 
any toast at all ; but as it is, I can assure you that we of the Kindred 
Societies, which have been so highly spoken of by the proposer of this 
toast, feel highly honoured in being asked to accept the hospitality of 
your board, and to enjoy witli you the pleasant evening which we have 
spent together. 

Something has been said of the youth of this Society, but youth is not 
always a bad thing. I seem to remember something of a Scotsman who 
was asked how he would like a wife of fifty, and he replied he would 
rather have two of five-and-twenty. In the case of the Institute of 
Metals, youth is no disparagement ; I can think of no other institute 
which for the time it has been in existence has done so much good 
work. I am sure the Kindred Institutions must be proud of this 
youngest relative. We have a song in Scotland entitled " We're a' John 
Tamson's bairns." I do not know that John Tarason was any relative 
of Tubal Cain, that celebrated Professor of Metallurgy of whom we have 
been hearing, and so I am unable to connect the two names ; but the 


194 Fourth A nnual Dinner 

idea expressed in the Scottish song is that which should, and I believe 
does, animate the whole of the Kindred Institutions, and accounts for 
the friendly feeling which prevails amongst them. We may all work on 
different lines, some ferrous and some non-ferrous, and some of us indeed 
may not know whether some of the metals Ave use are ferrous or other- 
wise ; but we are all trying to make the art in which we are engaged, 
and the science by which that art is directed, a little better when we 
stoji than it was when we began. This Society of yours, of which I am 
pleased indeed to be a humble member, if it is young — and it is — at any 
rate has this proud boast, that it is concerned with the making of the 
materials with which the others have to work. It is a fundamental 
Society, and the work that it does must go to the foundation of the 
whole structure. A sound knowledge of the materials with Avhich we 
work is the foundation upon which, and upon which alone, the best 
work can be done. Therefore, I think it would indeed be false modesty 
for this Society to hide its head. It must know of its own importance, 
which is thoroughly recognized by every scientific society in the land — I 
believe by every scientific society in the world. 

I do not know that the last speaker's story about Scotland was very 
flatttering to my national feelings. I have, however, a lingering sus- 
picion that Sir F. H. Donaldson slightly modified the story to save the 
susceptibilities of the audience to which he was delivering it ; but never 
mind, whether the deceased was supposed to be an American or a native 
of the land which is usually described as lying south of the Tweed, it 
does not in any way detract from the humour of the story. 

Gentlemen, in conclusion, I desire to repeat that it has been indeed a 
great pleasure to me to be here, and I am sure that our Institution 
appreciates the invitation which we have had the honour to receive from 
you fully and highly. 

"The Guests." 

Professor T. Turner, M.Sc. (Vice-President and Honorary Treasurer), 
in proposing the toast said : The toast that has been been entrusted to me 
is one which I am quite sure every member of this Institute will drink 
with enthusiasm. It is that of " Our Guests." As you know on an occa- 
sion of this kind we have the advantage of meeting old friends and also 
very often of making new friends ; that is one of the objects of a gather- 
ing such as this. To-night we meet under somewhat chastened circum- 
stances. We have already had reference to the loss which our Institute 
has sustained by the death of our first President, and unfortunately our 
Council to-night is very small in number, for we have apparently an 
epidemic of sickness among the members ; but fortunately I believe in 
every case the indisposition is of a kind from which we may hope the 
members may soon recover. At the same time we do miss to-night the 
faces of members of our own Council who have taken an interest in this 
Institute since its formation. We desire to thank the guests, the dis- 
tinguished guests, who have come to us this evening because we recog- 
nize that their presence is an expression of sympathy with our aims and 

Fourth Annual Dinner 195 

of interest in our work. The guests represent different branches of 
practical work, and especially different branches of engineering. Several 
of these we have already had the opportunity of hearing with much 
pleasure. Among the guests are included Sir H. F. Donaldson, who 
spoke to us but a moment ago, and Mr. Hall-Brown, who represents the 
Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. Also is included 
our old friend Sir Alfred Ewing, whose brilliant May lecture is one to 
which we listened to with great interest, and which the majority of us 
have read with much profit. We have also present to-night Mr. Hooper, 
the President of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, a closely 
allied institution, whose progress we can only envy, and whose work we 
can endeavour to some extent, at all events, to follow. We may hope 
that our Society may in time become as important as theirs. We have 
also a representative of the Iron and Steel Institute in the person of its 
Secretary, Mr. G. C. Lloyd. We have, too, the acting-President of the 
British Foundrymen's Association, Mr. J. Oswald. We are glad to see 
again Dr. Messel, who spoke to us on a previous occasion, and who is 
the acting-President of the Society of Chemical Industry. We have 
also with us Professor Unwin, a Past-President of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers, who, I believe, spoke to us on a previous occasion, and 
whom we are very glad indeed to have as a guest supporting us to-night. 
The two gentlemen who are to respond to this toast are known through- 
out the whole country, and far beyond the limits of the United Kingdom. 
We have on the one hand Colonel Holden, who after serving his country 
in India for some years returned to England, and for a number of years 
occupied the important position of head of the Iloyal Gun and Carriage 
Factory at Woolwich. I do not know that he is not better known in our 
country, however, as the designer of the Brooklands track, which we had 
an opportunity of visiting last autumn ; many of us, I have no doubt, had 
been there many times before, and a few of us had an opportunity of 
going round that track, and we enjoyed the trip very much. He is now 
connected with the Ordnance Board, which, of course, is a very large 
user of non-ferrous metals, and a director of certain companies, including, 
amongst others, one of which the Midlands is proud, the well known 
B.S.A., which again is a user of metals in all shapes and forms, includ- 
ing, of course, the non-ferrous metals. We appreciate his presence, and 
we welcome him among us, and hope that we may see him on very many 
future occasions. Then we have to respond to the toast also the Hon. 
Sir Charles A. Parsons. I cannot gather whether we should regard him 
as a visitor or not. He is one of the members of our own Society, one 
of our earliest members ; and those of us who were present at the New- 
castle Meeting about two years ago will remember how successful that 
meeting was, and how admirable all the arrangements were that were 
made for our comfort and for our pleasure. Sir Charles Parsons on that 
occasion acted, I believe, as Chairman of the Local Committee, and took 
a very active part in connection with those arrangements of which I have 
spoken. But he comes to us to-night as representing the North-East 
Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders, and we are glad, there- 

196 Fourth Annual Dinner 

fore, to welcome him as a guest. For me to endeavour to tell you of the 
achievements of Sir Charles Parsons would be only to tell you what all 
the world knows. The turbine, with its wonderful applications, will 
always be associated with the name of Parsons. I believe he is interested, 
and has been interested for a long time, too, with other subjects of a 
scientific character, including even the production of the diamond. But 
these are only a part of a very full life and of the work of one who is 
essentially a hard worker, one who can turn the night into day, and do 
twice as much in the day as the average man can do. I am sure to-night 
we all welcome these guests not only On account of their own eminence 
in their particular professions, but because we feel that their presence is 
an incentive to the younger men amongst us, and that it is an advantage 
to our Institute to have them amongst us that we may have their support 
and their help. I, thex'efore, have very much pleasure in proposing to 
you the toast of our guests, coupling with that toast the names of Colonel 
Holden and the Hon. Sir Charles Parsons. 

Colonel H. C. L. Holdex, C.B., F.R.S., in responding, said : There 
is a very old saying that there is more pleasure in giving than receiving. 
To-night I think that there is perhaps an exception to that old saying, an 
exception to the rule, and that is in the case of the guests ; they are more 
pleased in receiving your hospitality, or at any rate quite as much pleased 
in receiving your hospitality, as you are in giving it. Several allusions 
have been made this evening to the Society being a young one, but I can 
tell you that many people, workers in other sj^heres perhaps outside this 
Society's work, have been from the first very much interested in it. The 
Institution has done a great deal already, but there is a great deal of work 
in front of it. To take only one section — one that at the present moment 
is uppermost at any rate in the newspapers, if not in the minds of the 
people — that is aeronautics, a subject in which we have already heard 
that your President is intensely interested. People who are interested in 
aeronautics are looking to you to provide something better in the way of 
materials than they have now. They are using at the present moment 
wood, iron, steel, and aluminium, in the construction of aeroplanes. 
What they are looking to you for, gentlemen, is to provide them with a 
metal which is as light, or even lighter than magnesium, as strong as 
steel, absolutely unbreakable, and absolutely unoxidizable. I can tell 
you, gentlemen, that the aeronautical people are not going to be satisfied 
until they get it from you. That is one of the problems you have to face, 
and the sooner you provide that the better for the country, and the better 
for yourselves. I feel that if I inflicted a long speech upon you this 
evening I should be entirely wrong. After me comes a gentleman who is 
justly celebrated not only in this country but throughout the world for 
his inventions, and for me to take up the time that would otherwise be 
occupied by him would be a mere impertinence on my part. I, therefore, 
beg to thank you on behalf of the guests who will again offer their thanks 
to you through Sir Charles Parsons. I beg to thank you for your hospi- 
tality and kindness to us to-night. 

Fourth A nnual Dinner 197 

The Hon. Sir Charles A. Parsons, K.C.B., F.R.S., who also replied, 
said : I scarcely know in \Yhicli capacity to address you, Avhether as a 
guest, or whether as a member of this Institution. As a guest, I must 
thank you on behalf of the other guests and myself, for you have treated 
us royally to-night, and not only for the inner man, but you have pro- 
vided a most admirable and interesting selection of Papers for to-morrow. 
One of the great advantages that has been mentioned to-night of this 
Institution is the sweeping away of the cobwebs which have surrounded 
for so many generations the non-ferrous metals and their treatment. If 
this Society succeeds in elucidating the treatment of these metals, and 
enables engineers to deal with them more successfully, it will have done 
a great work, and more than justified its existence. But the members 
have a further sphere, and a most wonderful sphere, before them. I was 
speaking to my neighbour j\Ir. Johnson to-night, and I was saying what 
a grand time people had in the time of Stephenson ; they had all the 
engineering field before them ; there had been little done ; everything 
was new and fresh. This Institute has started in a similar position. I 
have before me a list of the guests here to-night. Mr. Hall-Brown, 
President of the Scotch Institution, who is interested in gas and oil 
engines, would, I have no doubt, like you to provide him with a metal 
which would stand gaseous explosions. The President would, I have no 
doubt, like a very strong metal for his flying machines. Mr. Siemens 
would like a tungsten wire that would stand a test of an enormous 
number of tons per square inch. Sir Frederick Donaldson would like 
you to provide him with a steel for guns which will not corrode or erode. 
I could go through the desires of many of the other guests. Personally 
I should desire if you could provide a metal for turbines which is 
non-corrosive and which has no coefficient of expansion. You have also 
a most interesting and important field in the rare metals, of which we 
know comparatively little. There seems to be an immense future for 
this Institution, and you ought to have a really grand time, like the 
engineers of old. Thank you, gentlemen, for the reception you have 
given us this evening. 

198 Birmingham Local Section 


A Meeting of the Birmingham Local Section of the Institute was 
held on February 18, 1913, when Mr. C. H. Wall read a paper on 
"Annealing Muffles," Professor T. Turner, M.Sc, being in the Chair. 

The following notes constitute a resume of Mr. Wall's paper : — 

Reference was made to the old pattern of furnaces, with large fire- 
boxes, and the flame passing over a counter arch, across the metal to be 
heated, and away through side flues to the stack. The combustion in 
such furnaces was very incomplete, and the furnaces were consequently 

During the last ten to fifteen years annealing muffles, Mr. Wall said, 
had undergone great changes. The fireboxes had been reduced in size, 
the flues arranged along the sides and underneath the bed of the 
furnace, the heat thus circulating all round the muffle. 

End fired muffles were still often used, but it was more usual, and 
generally better, to have them cross fired ; two or three fireboxes being 
arranged along one side of the muffle, it being possible to build such 
muffles 50 feet in length. The flues were led backwards and forwards 
underneath the bed two or three times before reaching the stack. 

Closed annealing muffles were suitable for certain classes of work, but 
the fuel consumption was rather greater than in the open type. 

Gas-fired muffles were, when properly constructed, very eflficient. It 
was possible to make such a furnace consuming only 1"7 to 2 cwts. of 
coal in the producer to heat 1 ton of metal. It was theoretically pos- 
sible to use 1 cwt. fuel to 36 cwts. of iron heated to welding heat. 

The efiSciency of muffles was increased by heating the air for com- 

In arriving at the efficiency of a muffle, a test .should last at least a 
week or even two, and it should be conducted under ordinary working 

For working muffles to the best advantage, pyrometers should be 
employed, a record being kept for each day's work. 

( 199 ) 


Arthur Crosier Claudet died on January 17, 1913, at Hampstead, at 
the age of fifty-seven. He was educated privately, and at the Royal School 
of Mines. He became Assayer to the Bank of England and to the 
Royal Mint Refinery, and succeeded his father on his death in the busi- 
ness of A. C. Claudet, of Coleman Street, E.G. He was Honorary Trea- 
surer since its foundation, and President in 1906, of the Institution of 
Mining and Metallurgy, and was an original Member of the Institute of 

Engineer Rear-Admiral John Thomas Corner died suddenly at Bad 
Neuheim, Germany, on August 4, 1912, aged seventy-three. Born at Sheer- 
ness in 1849, he entered for a special course of training at the Royal School 
of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, South Kensington, in 
1868, where he took his fellowship degree in 1872. He joined the Royal 
Navy as an assistant-engineer in 1871, became an engineer in 1876, 
chief engineer in 1884, staff engineer in 1888, and fleet engineer in 1892. 
He was promoted to the post of Inspector of Machinery in 1899, and 
was made an Engineer Rear- Admiral in 1902. Admiral Corner was a 
member of the Admiralty Committee of Reference for Machinery Designs, 
1891-1904, and of Admiral Buller's Machinery Committee, 1892-93. He 
invented a Whitehead torpedo dropping gear in 1875, whilst serving in 
the Mediterranean Sea as an Engineer, for which he received the Admir- 
alty's commendation and a gratuity of £100. He was made a C.B. in 
1907. In 1909 he retired from the Navy, and commenced practice as an 
engineer in Victoria Street, Westminster, besides serving as a Director 
of Bull's Metal and Metalloid Company, Limited, and of the Argyll 
Motor Company, Limited. Admiral Corner was elected a member of the 
Institute of Metals in 1910, and read a Paper on "Some Practical Ex- 
perience with Corrosion of Metals " at the Annual General Meeting of 
the Institute in January 1911. 

George Matthey died at his residence, Cheyne House, Chelsea Em- 
bankment, on February 14, 1913. He was a Member of the Legion of 
Honour of France, and of the Austrian Order of Francis Joseph, and 
received the Prussian Gold Medal for art and science. Mr. Matthey 
was a Vice-President of the Royal Institution from 1896-97, and a Fellow 
of the Royal Society. He had the added distinction of being the first 
Honorary Member of the Institute of Metals. 

200 Obihiary 

William Henky White. 

By the death of Sir William Henry White on February 27, 1913, in his 
sixty-eighth year, the Institute of Metals lost one of its most striking 
and brilliant personalities. 

Sir William was foremost among those who were identified with the 
inception of the Institute. He became its first President in 1909 and 
was elected its first Fellow. Gifted Avith a facile pen and a trenchant 
and persuasive eloquence, his contributions to the Institute, as to other 
scientific and technical societies, were marked by a lucidity of expression 
and breadth of knowledge which placed them in the front rank of con- 
temporary achievements ; but Sir William's career as a Naval Architect 
necessarily makes the strongest appeal to all interested in technical 

He entered his Majesty's Dockyard, Devonport, by open competition 
in 1859, as a Dockyard apprentice, and if genius can be regai-ded as an 
infinite capacity for taking pains then he undoubtedly had genius. At a 
time when there were no technical schools, he as a youth culled information 
from all available sources. His industry and attainments won him an 
Admiralty Scholarship after serving as an apprentice for four years, and in 
1864, after obtaining the first position in a competitive examination, he 
proceeded to the Royal School of Naval Architecture and Marine En- 
gineering, South Kensington. 

Here he stood foremost amongst his contemporaries, his originality 
and capacity for work marking him as one whose probable destiny it was 
to have a prominent future in the profession of Naval Architecture. On 
completion of his studies he was the recipient of the Diploma of Fellow- 
ship (first class) of the Royal School of Naval Architecture, and then pro- 
ceeded (at the age of twenty-two) to the Admiralty, the Constructive De- 
partment of which was at this time under the direction of Sir Edward Reed. 
During this period of his career White showed that he was no pedant, 
and was always seeking to put to practical use ideas springing from the 
work of his earlier training. He may be said to have first come promin- 
ently into notice in the Department by his detailed work in connection 
with the Committee on Designs in 1871 and onward when he assisted 
that body, and more particularly Sir Nathaniel Barnaby, in making the 
detailed calculations involved in new ship designs especially as regarded 
stability. This work was characterized by such thoroughness that the 
Department quickly recognized in him one whose energy, knowledge, and 
resource promised early distinction. 

In the year 1877 he published his "Manual of Naval Architecture," 
which, by its wealth of principles and facts, and easy literary style, has 
become a classic among text books, and has done more to raise the study 
of this science to its present high level than any previous work on the 
subject. In this book (revised in later years) White gave unstintingly of 
his laboriously acquired knowledge, and for this it may be said that every 
student of Naval Architecture is his debtor. 

White's intimate association with two naval architects of such repute 

Obituary 201 

as Sir Edward Reed and Sir Nathaniel Barnaby was no doubt of great 
advantage to him, and promotion came rapidly, for at the early age of 
thirty-six he attained the rank of Chief Constructor. The recognition 
of his ability was not confined to Service circles, for two years later he 
entered upon a most important stage in his career, by accepting the 
invitation of Sir William Armstrong to organize and direct the now 
world famous shipbuilding establishment at Elswick which was just 
being formed. 

Here White had to contend with conditions which were largely 
different from those to which he was accustomed at the Admiralty, the 
demands of a private shipyard requiring the addition of commercial 
qualities to sound professional abilities. At the Admiralty he would 
be judged chiefly by his designing ability and by his capacity to secure 
that the Crown obtained the best value possible, within the limits 
imposed by the Board of Admiralty, in the designs he initiated or 
assisted in completing. At Elswick, in addition to being responsible 
for satisfactory designs, he would be required to make the building of 
ships a commercial success, and his abilities as an organizer Avould 
thereby be severely tested. That he rose to the height expected of him 
by Sir William Armstrong (afterwards Lord Armstrong) is evidenced by 
the strong reluctance of the latter to dispense with his services after he 
had been with the firm only two years and a half (from 1883 to 1885). 

In 1885 Sir Nathaniel Barnaby was forced to relinquish his post of 
Director of Naval Construction at the Admiralty through continued ill- 
health ; Lord George Hamilton was then First Lord of the Admiralty, 
and big changes being contemplated in the Fleet, he, with a discernment 
Avhich nmst be placed to his credit, considered White to be the man of 
the moment capable of performing what can be said to have been, in 
the light of later events, a Herculean task. All his aspirations at the 
time were centred in the advancement of Elswick Shipyard, and the 
remuneration offered by the Admiralty was on a much less generous 
scale than he could expect to attain at Elswick ; yet, when he found 
that his firm was willing, though reluctantly, to yield to the pressing 
inquiries of the First Lord of the Admiralty, he returned once more 
to the Public Service, this time as Director of Naval Construction, 
becoming in addition at a later period Assistant Controller of the Navy. 

From this time it can be truly said his personality and abilities 
became of high national importance. Looking retrospectively at the 
sequence of events we see how first his youthful abilities attracted the 
notice of the chiefs of his profession at the Admiralty, how his ability 
and energy there placed his reputation on a surer footing, and attracted 
the notice of Sir William Armstrong, one of the pioneers of industry, 
and how he increased the range of his experience and duties at Elswick 
to finally give his acquirements to the nation through the Admiralty. 
Four years after his rejoining the Admiralty (in 1889) came the Naval 
Defence Act, involving an expenditure of 22| millions sterling, and pro- 
viding for the construction of seventy vessels. It is on record that Lord 
George Hamilton would not have consented to the spending of such 

202 Obituary 

a large sum of money unless he had had the highest confidence in his 
Director of Naval Construction. 

The years that followed were strenuous ones for both the Constructive 
and Engineering Departments, as many now serving at the Admiralty 
can remember. The strain in preparing the various designs, almost 
wholly new departures, was enormous, and Sir William was ever in the 
forefront inspiring both his superiors, colleagues, and subordinates with 
his unbounded faith and optimism, and by none was he more respected 
than by his colleagues in the engineering branch of the Admiralty. It 
is unnecessary in this short appreciation to recapitulate the types of 
ships for which he was responsible both at this and at later stages. 
Some strong criticisms were levelled at certain of the designs, but these 
were only to be expected where new departures were made, and the 
brilliant Director of Naval Construction was a doughty champion who 
was ever ready to enter the lists of controversy and offer efficient 
defence of his proposals. There can be no doubt that the majority 
of his designs called forth the eulogy of naval constructors of all 
countries, and in many important features were largely copied by foreign 
nations. In 1891 he was awarded a C.B., and in 1895 a K.C.B. and 
a special grant by Parliament for his exceptional services to the Navy. 

Sir WilUam's discernment was shown later on in the matter of the 
introduction of water-tube boilers in his Majesty's fleet, a course 
strongly supported by him. Much controversy followed the action of 
the Admiralty, and in this controversy Sir William joined and strenu- 
ously upheld the Admiralty Engineering Department. 

Sir William's activities through his whole life were widely distributed, 
and were evidenced in many fields of mechanical science. For many 
years he was Instructor in Naval Architecture at South Kensington and 
the Koyal Naval College, and most of his professional papers he con- 
tributed to the Institution of Naval Architects, of which he was Honorary 
Vice-President (the highest position a professional member can attain 
in that body). Other Societies of which he was elected President were 
the Institute of Marine Engineers, the Junior Institution of Engineers, 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and the Institution of Civil 
Engineers. He was also President-Elect of the British Association, of 
which he had already been President of the Mechanical Science Section. 
He was a Fellow of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh, 
the recipient of many honorary degrees from various Universities, includ- 
ing LL.D. (Glasgow and Bristol), Sc.D. (Cambridge), D.Sc. (Durham and 
Columbia), D.Eng. (Sheffield). 

He was an Honorary Member of many foreign scientific bodies, among 
which may be mentioned the Royal Academy of Science, Sweden ; the 
Assoc. Technique Maritime ; the American Societies of Civil Engineers ; 
Mechanical Engineers, and Naval Architects, and the Canadian Society 
of Civil Engineers. His literary abilities greatly added to his power 
of conveying technical principles and knowledge to his readers and 
audiences. He was keen in debate, and ever ready to stenuously main- 
tain his opinions, but always courteous to his opponents. 

Obituary 203 

Sir "William's strenuous application to duty rendered it necessary 
for him on several occasions to take prolonged absences on sick leave, 
and in 1902 his health became so unsatisfactory that he deemed it his 
duty to retire from the public sei'vice. That he did so full of honours 
is admitted by all. 

On retirement he was given a special Parliamentary grant in recogni- 
tion of his distinguished services, and in view of the fact that his health 
had broken down during an extended period of very severe pressure 
consequent on the enlarged shipbuilding programme of preceding years. 

After a period of rest when he regained his health, Sir William 
renewed his activities in his profession by becoming associated with 
prominent shipbuilding and engineering firms, and, from time to time, 
contributed many valuable papers on Naval Architecture and kindred 
subjects — notably one on the principles of Submarine Design. His 
special interest in the inauguration of the Institute of Metals is too well 
known to be specially dilated upon. He was its inspiration, and was 
respected and beloved by all its members. H. J. O. 






Properties of Metals and Alloys 207 

Electro-Metallurgy 235 

Analysis, Testing, and Pyrometry 238 

Furnaces and Foundry Methods 246 

Statistics 249 

Bibliography 254 

( 207 ) 




I. Common Metals 207 

II. Rare Metals 211 

III. Alloys 212 

IV. Physical Properties 220 


Boronized Copper. — Particulars of the preparation and uses of 
this material are given by E. Weintraub, * who claims that copper, when 
properly deoxidized by " boron flux," can be cast as easily as brass, 
whilst it is said to be impossible to boronize copper or overheat the 
metal in melting up if it be properly treated with the boron suboxide 
subsequently. The cast metal has good mechanical properties and an 
electrical conductivity of 90-97 per cent, of that of the Mathiesson 
standard. The chief practical application which the metal has so far 
found is in the manufacture of electrical fittings. 

Coating Aluminium with other Metals. — Two articles by F. 

Regelsberger | describe the attempts that have been made to render 
aluminium vessels more resistant to corrosion by coating them with a thin 
layer of some other metal. The patents reviewed are very numerous, 
but it is not clear how far success has been attained. Copper, silver, 
and zinc have been used for the coating, and the methods employed 
include electrolytic deposition, amalgamation, and wet chemical treatment. 

Copper and its Oxide. — Mixtures of copper with cuprous oxide 
have been investigated thermally by R. E. Slade and F. D. Farrow, + who 
find that at temperatures above 1195° the mixtures separate into two 
liquid layers, containing respectively 20 and 95 per cent, of cuprous oxide. 
The oxide itself melts at 1200°, and it is uncertain how far the mutual 

* Metal Industry, 1912, vol. iv. p. 496. 

t Elektrochemische Zeitschrift, 1912. vol. xix. pp. 181, 213. 

+ Proceedings of the Royal Society , 1912, vol. Ixxxvii-A. p. 524. 

208 A bs tracts of Papers 

miscibility increases with increase of temperature. Cuprous oxide is 
distinctly volatile (apart from dissociation and re-combination) at 1300°. 
The dissociation pressures of the system were also determined at 
temperatures from 1205° to 1324°. 

Electro-Metallurgy of Aluminium. — An important physico- 
chemical study of the process of manufacture of aluminium has been 
made by P. P. Fedoteef and W. Iljinsky * using a laboratory furnace. 
The first factor studied was the composition of the electrolyte. Pure 
cryolite melts at 1000°. It forms a eutectic with sodium fluoride, melt- 
ing at 885°. Addition of aluminium fluoride lowers the melting point, 
and a compound 5NaF, AIF3, identical with the mineral chiolite, is 
formed, with a transformation point of 725°. There is a second eutectic 
point at 685°. The change of monoclinic into regular cryolite takes place 
at 565°. 

Fused cryolite dissolves 21 per cent, of alumina, forming a complete 
series of solid solutions, the freezing-point curve passing through 
a minimum at 935°. The eutectic of sodium fluoride and cryolite has 
a still greater solubility for alumina, but further addition of sodium 
fluoride again greatly lessens the solubility. Aluminium fluoride again 
lessens the solubility, but a mixture of the composition of chiolite has 
decided advantages, as its melting point is low and the specific gravity 
is also low, so diminishing the loss of metal. The quantity of alumina 
in the bath at 900° should then be kept at about 7| per cent. There is 
no advantage in adding alkali fluorides, and sodium chloride is harmful, 
as it causes loss by volatilization, as well as a formation of chlorine. 
Calcium fluoride, the addition of which is sometimes recommended, 
lowers the melting point, forming a eutectic at 815-820°, but its solvent 
power for alumina is very small, and the specific gravity is actually higher 
than that of aluminium. 

The potential difference required is 2'l-2'2 volts, and the current 
efficiency on the small scale is about 70 per cent. A reaction is 
observed at 1'3 volt, due to the formation of carbide. 

The loss of aluminium by "dissolving" in the bath has also been studied. 
This is largely due to the formation of carbide. Agitation of the bath 
is of advantage, and the use of a rotating anode, which has been 
proposed, may be found practicable. The quantity of aluminium which 
becomes emulsified in the bath may be considerable. 

A sudden rise of potential is sometimes observed, and may often 
be checked by breaking through the solid crust and mixing in the 
alumina uniformly. It may also be due to too great concentration of 
alumina, leading to an accumulation of alumina round the anode, 
increasing the resistance. 

Lead-Coating Process. — The Sherard Cowper-Coles process! is 
a rapid electrolytic method of covering steel and iron with lead. It 
is said to be very economical and to give a very smooth surface. 

* Zeitschrift fiir anorganische Chemie, 1913, vol. Ixxx. p. 113. 
t Metal Industry, 1912, vol. iv. p. 308. 

The Properties of Metals a7id Alloys 209 

Pipes and vessels for use with corrosive liquids may be advanta- 
geously made by this process, which is also applicable for coating 
earthenware and wood. 

Notes on Copper- — Specifications controlling the sale of various 
brands of copper are discussed.* The effect of impurities on the metal 
is considered in some detail, and a large number of photomicrographs 
are included. 

The influence of oxygen on copper is of especial importance. For 
conductivity copper this impurity should be as low as possible con- 
sistent with good metal, but less than 0-4 per cent, of oxide has no 
effect on the other physical properties ; 0"45 per cent, causes a slight 
loss in toughness, whilst with over 2 per cent, of oxide present there 
is a marked loss in ductibility even when the metal is hot. 

The effect of small quantities of cuprous oxide on the microstructure 
is to elongate the crystal grains and to make the grain boundaries 
irregular in shape. On these and other efi'ects the author bases a 
rapid microscopical method for estimating oxygen in copper. A series 
of standards was obtained, each containing a known amount of cuprous 
oxide, and a microscope specimen of each standard was prepared. 
A test ingot, cast from a melt, is polished and etched in exactly the 
same way as were the standards, and its oxygen content compared with 
the standard, using a microscope fitted with a micrometer eyepiece. 
The time required for such an estimation is stated to be about ten 

No comment is made on the previous mechanical and heat treat- 
ment of the standards and of the test, although it is to be supposed that 
this is a consideration of some importance. 

The influence of other common impurities f on the electrical and 
mechanical properties are also discussed, but it is to be regretted that 
the percentage of impurity present is not given for all of the photomicro- 

Production of Metallic Coatings. — Recent advances in the spray 
process are described by M. A. Schoop.J Coatings of copper, iron, plati- 
num, &c., as well as of easily fusible metals such as tin and lead can be 
made by the process. 

Certain defects and difficulties in the process of spraying liquid 
metal have been overcome by employing as container for the molten 
metal a closed armoured crucible, the interior of which may be readily 
subjected either to pressure or to a partial vacuum. The stream of metal 
can thus be started or stopped at any time. The conditions of opera- 
tion, degree of pressure or vacuum, design of spray nozzle, &c., vary for 
each metal. A characteristic feature of the metallic coatings obtained 
by spraying liquid metal seems to be that the metal increases in hard- 

* Metal Industry, 1912, vol. iv. pp. 300-308, 367-368, 481-482. 

t See also Johnson [Journal of the histitute of Metals, No. 2, 1912, vol. viii. p. 192), 
Greaves [ibid.. No. 1, 1912, vol. vii. p. 218). 

X Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, 1913, vol. xi. pp. 89-91. 


210 Absh'acts of Papers 

ness and loses in ductility. Spraying with non -oxidizing gases such as 
hydrogen and nitrogen does not affect the result. Coatings may also be 
made by spraying metal in the form of powder or dust. The process is 
aided by heating the powder, gas, or surface to be coated, but this is 
unnecessary with certain metals provided the kinetic energy of the 
particles is sufficient. Very promising results have been obtained so far 
especially with tin and zinc, and the process is in use on a large scale in 
Belgium and France. 

In the latest development of the spray process the metal in the form 
of strip or wire is fed at a uniform rate into an oxy-hydrogen or other 
flame (or even an arc) sufficient to readily melt it. As fast as the 
metal melts a stream of compressed gas directed on to it carries it away 
in a state of fine subdivision on to the surface to be coated. This method 
enables very compact apparatus of comparatively simple design to be 
used, and a " metal spray pistol " is shown in which the melting flame 
and the compressed gas are arranged concentrically in the " barrel," 
and the metal strip is fed up to the nozzle by a small turbine driven 
by the compressed gas in the " butt" of the " pistol." 

Coatings of brass, copper, nickel, iron, gold, and even platinum, can 
be made on any surface whatever, e.g.^ wood, paper, celluloid, lace 
fabric, &c. 

Balloon fabric is at present being experimented with which has been 
coated on one side with a film of brass 0002 millimetre thick. 

Shock Tests of Copper. — The results of some shock tests of notched 
bars of copper are given by H. Baucke.* Fremont's method was used, 
with a registering method of measuring the energy absorbed. The 
specimens were cast in 6 centimetre cubes, forged hot, and then, if neces- 
sary, cold to 10 millimetres thickness, and then annealed. The cast 
copper has a very low resilience. (low energy absorbed in fracture), which 
improves with forging, reaching a maximum when the thickness is reduced 
to one-fifth, and then remaining constant. The presence of even 0*06 
per cent, oxygen as oxide greatly lowers the resilience. Bismuth has 
a bad effect, 0"025 per cent, rendering the copper brittle. 0'6 per cent. 
of arsenic has no bad effect, and antimony only becomes dangerous 
beyond 0'3 per cent.. Nickel, tin, zinc, manganese, and aluminium 
increase the resilience. Overheating lowers the value, even although the 
quantity of oxygen absorbed may be very minute. In the absence of 
oxide hydrogen has no effect on the metal. The best annealing tem- 
perature is 700°, and partial annealing of cold-worked copper takes place 
even at 200°. 

Silicon in the Cast State, — Silicon was first produced commercially 
by the Carborundum Company.! Great advances have been made in 
the last few years, and castings of this element can now be obtained 

* Internationale Zeitschrift fiir Metallograpliie , 1912, vol. iii. p. 19.5. 
t Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, 1913, vol. xi. pp. 102-103. 

7 he Properties of Metals and A Hoys 211 

of all ordinary shapes and sizes. Some of the properties of this cast 
silicon are as follows : — 

Melting point 1430° C. 

Density 2-5-2-6 

Coefficient of expansion (100-200° C.) . . . 5-39x10-6 

(less than glass or platinum). 

Tensile strength, approx 1000 lbs. per square inch 

(exceeds that of stone ware). 

The cast material is highly resistant to sulphuric and nitric acids, and is 
used in the form of pipes for the conveyance of acid gases from stills 
to condensers, and as a lining in centrifugal pumps, acid valves, etc. 

Cast silicon ware is produced in practically all shapes required by 
chemical industry. 

Corrosion of Sherardized Iron. — Experiments by F. Halla* 

show that wrought iron coated with zinc by the sherardizing process 
stands corrosion well. Experiments with sulphuric acid give little 
information as to the behaviour on rusting, the latter being essentially 
a local process, starting at a few centres and gradually spreading. 


A Possible new Platinum Metal. — From analysis of platinum 
minerals of the Urals, H. C Holtz f has inferred the presence of a new 
metal, which forms an oxide insoluble in acids, including aqua regia, but 
soluble in alkalies to form a yellow solution, which remains clear on 
acidifying. The acid solution is decolorized by stannous chloride. The 
metal is soluble in nitric and hydrochloric acids, and its chloride does 
not yield a precipitate with ammonium chloride. It does not form an 
insoluble ba.sic sulphate. 

Platinum. — Facts concerning the extraction and purification of this 
metal are given by H. F. Keller.:}: The crude platinum or platinum ore 
of commerce is exclusively derived from alluvial deposits by methods of 
washing and concentrating similar to those used for gold. The metal so 
obtained contains various impurities which render it unworkable until 

Many attempts to render platinum malleable and ductile w^ere made 
during the latter part of the eighteenth century, but it was not until the 
early years of the nineteenth century that the platinum industry was 
really founded by Englishmen. 

Charles Knight in 1800 devised a process consisting in dissolving the 
crude metal in aqua regia, precipitating with sal almoniac, packing the 
dried precipate into conical moulds of fireclay and strongly heating. It 

* Zeitschriflfur Elektrochetnie, 1913, vol. xix. p. 221. 

t Annates de Chiniie et de Physique, 1912, Series VIII. vol. xxvii. p. 559. 

X Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering , 1912, vol. x. pp. 788-789. 

212 A bstracts of Papers 

is said that the metal was thus obtained as a coherent mass which could 
be hanamered and worked into various forms. This process was further 
improved by a relative of a member of the firm of Johnson Matthey. 

Robert Hare in 1847 demonstrated that the difficult and tedious 
process of consolidating platinum sponge could be replaced by the simple 
operation of melting the metal in the oxy-hydrogen flame. He melted 
as much as two pounds of the metal at a time. 

His process was greatly improved by Deville and Debray. The furnace 
consists of two well-fitting pieces of quick-lime hollowed out to form 
a crucible or hearth. An opening at the side serves as a spout for the 
molten metal and for carrying off the fumes and products of combustion. 
The nozzle of the .oxy-hydrogen blowpipe is introduced through an 
opening in the cover. This process was seen at work by the author at 
the works of Heraeus at Hanau. 

The preparation of chemically pure platinum is extremely difficult and 
tedious, and is not described. 

Vanadium. — It is found by W. Prandtl and H. Manz * that metallic 
vanadium is best prepared by the aluminothermic reduction of vanadium 
pentoxide, but that even then the product does not contain more than 
96 per cent, of vanadium. The reduction of the trioxide by carbon in 
a vacuum electric furnace, or of the trichloride by a slight excess of 
sodium, does not give a pure product. The addition of calcium fluoride 
to the aluminothermic mixture is not essential. The specific gravity of 
96 per cent, vanadium is 5'8-5'9. 

\\\.— ALLOYS. 
Alloys for Motor-Bus Construction. — Analyses of the various 

metals and alloys employed by the Daimler Co., Limited, of Coventry, 
in making motor-omnibus parts are given f along with photomicrographs 
of the materials. The base-chamber and gear cases are made of a copper- 
aluminium-ziuc alloy as below— 

Per Cent. 

Copper 1-9-2-2 

Aluminium 86-9-89-1 

Zinc 9-0-11-0 

which has a tensile strength of 8-10 tons per square inch. 

The radiator consists of castings of an alloy containing 86-88 per cent, 
of aluminium and 14-12 per cent, of copper. 
The bearing brasses are made of — 

Per Cent. 
Copper ........ 76 

Tin 3 

Lead ......... 1 

Zinc 20 

* Zeitschrift fiir anorganische Chetnie, 1912, vol. Ixxix. p. 209. 
t Engineering, 1913, vol. xcv. p. 99. 

The Properties of Metals and Alloys 213 

A white metal alloy as below — 

Per Cent. 
Copper ........ 10 

Tin 78 

Antimony ........ 12 

is used for lining the bearings of crank shafts and connecting rods 
Great care is taken to avoid overheating of this alloy, and pouring is 
always performed at the same fixed temperature, thus ensuring a uniform 

Alloys of Bismuth and Antimony with Selenium. — The 

selenides of bismuth and antimony have been examined by the thermal 
method by X. Parravano. * In each case the freezing-point curve shows 
a gap of miscibility in the liquid state, and a very sharp maximum 
corresponding with the compounds Bi.-.Seg and Sb2Se3 respectively. 
There is also a compound BiSe, decomposing below its melting point, 
but a similar compound is not found in the antimony series. A micro- 
graphic study accompanies the curves, and confirms their indications. 

Alloys of Copper, Zinc and Nickel. — ^A microscopical study by 

L. Guillet t shows that the coefficient of equivalence of nickel, when added 
to copper-zinc alloys is r2, that is, its presence diminishes the apparent 
proportion of zinc in that ratio. The mechanical qualities of the alloys 
are improved by the addition of nickel. 

Alloys of Nickel, Manganese and Copper. — This ternary system, 

according to N. Parravano % has a single liquidus surface, and the alloys 
should thus consist, in a state of equilibrium, of homogeneous solid 
solutions. The actual heterogeneous structures observed are due to 
imperfect diffusion. 

The same author § has investigated the alloys of iron, manganese, and 
copper. This case is somewhat more complicated, owing to the existence 
of a gap in the miscibility of solid iron and copper. Hence the liquidus 
surface has a more complex form, and two distinct constituents are 
observed in micro-sections of many of the alloys. 

The ternary alloys of iron, nickel, and manganese H give a single 
liquidus surface, and solid solutions throughout. 

Alloys of Platinum and Aluminium.— M. Chouriguine^ gives 

an account of an investigation of these alloys in fuller detail than in 
Comptes Rendus, 1912, vol. civ. p. 156, an abstract of which article 
appeared in the Journal, No. II., 1912, vol. viii. p. 323. 

* Gaszetta chimica italiana, 1913, vol. .\liii. i. pp. 201, 210. 

t Comptes Rendus, 1912, vol. civ. p. 1512. 

X Gazzetta chimica italiana, 1912, vol. xlii. ii. p. 385. 

§ Ibid., p. 513. 

II Ibid. , p. 367. 

IT Revue de Mitallurgie, 1912, vol. ix. pp. 874-883. 

214 Abstracts of Papers 

Alloys of Silver and Zinc. — A study of this system by H. C. H. 

Carpenter and W. Whiteley * shows that it is less complicated than had 
been supposed. The former diagram was due to Petrenko, and Avas 
in many respects contrary to the phase rule. The error in this case was 
probably due to the author's practice of melting the zinc, and adding 
solid silver, a procedure by means of which it is hardly possible to obtain 
homogeneous alloys. 

In the present research zinc was added to molten silver, and the alloys 
were cast in chill moulds, 300 grammes being used for each charge. 
Quenching and annealing expsriments were carried out on quantities of 
2 grammes, heated in a vacuum in quartz vessels. 

The diagram resembles that of the copper-zinc alloys. The a-range at 
220° is from to 25 per cent, of zinc by weight, annealing being con- 
tinued for six weeks. The hardness increases with the proportion of 
zinc. The /i-constituent is only stable above 264°, at which temperature 
it undergoes a eutectoid transformation into a and y. The segregation 
of these two phases from " apparent (S" only takes place slowly. At 
48 per cent, of zinc the structure becomes homogeneous, the y-constituent 
being essentially the compound Ag2Zn3. The next constituent, S, has a 
composition approximating to AgoZn^, and forms solid solutions on the 
zinc side only. Beyond this there is an c-coustituent, stable only at high 
temperatures, and breaking up at lower temperatures into S and 7;. Zinc 
does not retain more than 1 per cent, of silver in solid solution. 

Aluminium-Zinc Alloys. — The results of an extended research 
into the constitution and mechanical properties of these alloys are pre- 
sented in the Tenth Report to the Alloys Research Committee of the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers by W. Rosenhain and S. L. Arch- 
butt. I The work was carried out at the National Physical Laboratory. 
The results of the investigation of the equilibrium diagram have already 
been communicated {^Journal of the Institute of Metals, No. 2, vol. vi. 1911, 
pp. 236-2-58). The report deals chiefly with the mechanical properties and 
microstructure, and contains 56 tables of results, 24 diagrams, and 66 
photomicrographs. The materials used in making the alloys were the 
purest available (aluminium 99*63, zinc 99'98 per cent, purity). Sand 
and chill castings, and billets and slabs for rolling and drawing into bar, 
wire, and sheet, were prepared. The mechanical tests described are of 
an exhaustive nature, and include tensile tests at ordinary and elevated 
temperatures ; compression, torsion, and hardness tests ; determination 
of elastic modulus and elastic limit ; alternating stress, single blow and 
alternate bending and repeated blow impact tests, and Arnold's alternate 
bending test. The effect of work on the cast alloys is very marked, and 
it has been found possible to roll into bar, and draw into wire an alloy 
containing as much as 25 per cent, zinc, although the alloy in the cast 
condition has practically no ductility. This alloy attains its maximum 
tensile strength (27'5 tons per square inch) in the form of Ij-inch hot- 

* Internationale Zeitschrift fiir Metallographie, 1912, vol. iii. p. 145. 
t Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1912, Parts I. and II., pp. 

The Properties of Metals and Alloys 215 

rolled bar. Rolling down further to |-inch brings about a reduction 
of nearly 4 tons. Results indicate that there is a limit to the amount 
of useful work which can be put on alloys containing more than 15 per 
cent. zinc. Whereas the yield points of castings are very uncertain, in 
the case of the wrought material they are in general definite and unmis- 
takable. Tests under shock and alternating stress show that the alloys 
are not abnormally weak in this respect. Perhaps the most serious 
defect is great sensitiveness to rise of temperature. Thus the alloy con- 
taining 25 per cent, of zinc whose tensile strength at the ordinary 
temperature is 2 7 "5 tons per square inch, at 100° C. has a tensile strength 
of only 18'5 tons. By addition of a small percentage of copper the 
tensile strength of the hot-rolled material may be raised to over 30 tons 
per square inch. An alloy (described in the appendix to the report) 
containing 25 per cent, zinc and 3 per cent, copper has in the form of 
|-inch hot-rolled bar a maximum tensile strength of 30"9 tons per square 
inch with an elongation of nearly 17 per cent. Rolling temperatures 
need to be carefully chosen in order to obtain success with such alloys 
as the above. The " Specific Tenacity " is introduced in the report to 
denote a quantity proportional to tensile strength and inversely to 
specific gravity. This has been calculated by dividing maximum stress 
in tons per square inch by weight per cubic inch in pounds, and repre- 
sents the breaking load in tons of a bar whose cross section is such as 
to make the weight of the bar 1 lb. per inch run. From the point of 
view of tensile strength alone, this figure may be regarded as represent- 
ing the value of any structural material, and allows of comparisons on a 
correct basis between materials of widely dilferent specific gravity. The 
best of the binary alloys described in the report has a specific tenacity 
of 231, and if we compare this with a mild steel having a tensile strength 
of 30 tons per square inch and a specific gravity of 7'85 which has a 
specific tenacity of only 105 "3, it is seen that the alloy is equivalent in this 
respect to a steel of approximately the same specific gravity, but having 
a tensile strength of over 60 tons per square inch. The aluminium-zinc- 
copper alloy described in the appendix has a specific tenacity of 279 in 
the form of §-inch cold-drawn bar. 

Aluminium-Vanadium Alloys. — Alloys of aluminium and vana- 
dium have been prepared by N. Czako * by the alumino-thermic process. 
Even with 1 per cent, of vanadium a new constituent appears, forming 
brilliant crystals, which fill the whole field at 34*5 per cent., and appear 
to be a compound AlgV. This compound is hard, and may be isolated 
chemically. The chemical and microscopical tests also appear to indicate 
two other compounds, AlV and AIY.,. 

Carbides of Manganese and Nickel. — Manganese carbide, ac- 
cording to O. RuS" and E. Gersten, f is prepared by saturating manganese 
with carbon at 1600° under 20 mm. pressure. After crushing, it is 

* Comptes Rendus, 1913, vol. clvi. p. 140. 

t Berichte dcr deutschen chcinischen Gesellschaft, 1913, vol. xlvi. p. 400. 

216 A bstracts of Papers 

separated from graphite by washing with acetylene tetrabromide, and 
then has the exact composition, MngC. It is very soft (H between 1 
and 2), and has the density 6"89. Its heat of formation is + 12*9 Cal. 

Nickel carbide, NigC, has not been isolated in a pure condition, as it 
readily decomposes during cooling, and the great toughness of the 
quenched alloys makes it impossible to separate the carbide by washing. 
Its molecular heat of formation is about —390 caloi"ies. 

Chemical Method for the Study of Alloys. — The value of 

chemical methods, as applied to the isolation of compounds, in the 
study of the constitution of alloys is discussed by A. Porte vin.* The 
sources of error usually recognized are included under the following 
heads : — - 

1. The crystals isolated by chemical means may have a composition 
which depends on the reagent employed, e.r/., acid of varying concen- 

2. A residue may be obtained of a definite composition from a 
mixture of solid solutions. 

3. In contact with reagents compounds may be formed which are not 
the same as the compounds present in the alloys. 

In addition to these there are two other sources of error due to want 
of homogeneity of the crystals isolated. These which are discussed at 
greater length are caused by — 

(a) The inclusion of liquid in primary crystals. Primary crystals of 
more or less regular outward form may during growth enclose more or 
less completely some of the liquid alloy. Such enclosures are not or 
only partially dissolved by the reagent which dissolves the matrix. This 
practically is a general rule in many cases, such as compounds of copper 
with aluminium, tin, and antimony, and also certain carbides of iron. 

{h) The envelopment of existing crystals by a definite compound, 
formed by reaction between these crystals and the surrounding matrix. 
In this case thermal analysis also is unreliable, and micrographic exami- 
nation is necessary in order to show the heterogeneous character of the 
crystals. The author emphasizes the importance of micrographic work, 
which in many cases is the only method of avoiding serious error, at 
the same time being quicker than other, such as chemical, methods. 

Copper-Zinc Alloys. — The tensile strength of the alloys of copper 
and zinc has been studied by J. M. Lohr. | The alloys were melted in 
a granular carbon electric resistance furnace, using graphite crucibles, 
and were cast in graphite moulds, the latter being heated to redness 
before pouring. In order to avoid the carrying of particles of oxide into 
the metal, the crucibles were poured from the bottom by means of a 
hole closed by a graphite plug. The bars were removed from the mould 
while hot, and quenched in water. Each bar was analysed. 

The a-brasses in the quenched condition have an almost constant 
tensile strength, and the appearance of the ^-phase coincides with an 

* Revue de Mitallurgie, 1912, vol. ix. p. 884. 

t Journal of Physical Chemistty, 1913, vol. xvii. p. 1. 

The Properties of Metals and Alloys 217 

increase of strength. The maximum is found |in the /^-region, at 45 per 
cent, of zinc, and is then about 31 "7 tons per square inch. As the 
percentage of zinc in the /3-alloys increases, the strength falls off rapidly, 
and becomes very low with the appearance of the y-phase. The elongation 
reaches a maximum at 35 per cent, of zinc, and then falls oft", reaching 
zero at 52 '5 per cent, of zinc. 

The best pouring temperature is between 100° and 200° above the 
liquidus. A higher temperature always gives an oxidized casting. 

The quenched alloys are always porous. Slow cooling gives sound 
alloys, but the structure is coarser and the strength less. It appears 
that quenching forms a thin shell of hard metal on the outside, through 
which the gases cannot escape. 

Copper-Zinc, Silver-Zinc, and Silver-Cadmium Equilibria. — 

H. C. H. Carpenter * has called attention to the remarkable resemblance 
between the alloys formed by these three pairs of metals. The most 
important alloys in each case are those containing the a- and /3-phases, 
and in each series the character of these phases is determined by the 
y-constituent, which has the formula CuoZug, AgoZug, and AgoCdg in 
the three cases considered. The /3-phase is only stable above a certain 
limiting temperature, below which it is resolved into a and y, the form 
of the solubility curves and of the eutectoid horizontal being essentially 
the same in all three series. The ^-areas are grouped about composi- 
tions corresponding approximately with CuZn, AgZn, and AgCd respec- 
tively, but there is no proof of the actual existence of such compounds. 
The resemblance is very close, the /3-coustituents in the CuZn and AgZn 
series having the same colour, whilst all three y constituents are highly 

The copper-cadmium series is different in character, but Guertler has 
suggested that the gold-mercury series may show an analogy. 

Effect of Heating Brass in Hydrogen. — As a result of heating 

brass in jture dry hydrogen E. A. Lewis f has found that with a very 
pure brass most of the zinc is lost by volatilization, but complete 
separation could not be effected. The temperature attained was about 
750° C, and the heats lasted from one to twelve hours. 

It was found that any tin present remained with the copper, but 
the extraction of lead by volatilization was complete. The brass did 
not show any tendency to become brittle as the result of annealing in 
hydrogen, whereas it is well known that copper is soon rendered very 
brittle by such treatment. It is concluded that chemically combined 
oxygen is not an essential constituent of alloys of copper and zinc. 
T. Turner, + on the other hand, supposes that oxygen in brass is present 
as oxide of zinc mechanically entangled in the alloy, and quotes the 
pitting observed in brass when examined under the microscope as evi- 
dence supporting this hypothesis. 

* Internationale Zeitschriftfur Metallographie, 1912, vol. iii. p. 170. 

t Proceedings of Chemical Society , 1912, vol. xxviii. p. 290. 

X Journal of the Institute of Metals, 1912, No. 2, vol. viii. p. 249. 

218 Abstracts of Papers 

Etching at High Temperatures. — The method of etching alloys 

at high temperatures is criticized by H. Hancmaun.* In an ordinary 
section etched cold the crystals are cut through by the plane of the 
section. When a solid solution undergoes change any segregate which 
forms appears first at the bounding surface of the crystal grain, and this 
is revealed by the ordinary method of etching. On the other hand, when 
a specimen is etched at a high temperature, the surface is necessarily 
a bounding surface of the crystals, and not a section through them. 
Any transformation occurring after the preparation of the specimen 
and before etching is thus not revealed if the segregate forms at the 
boundaries. Further, as structural changes are very rapid at high tem- 
peratures, the structure may alter very appreciably during the etching 

Molecular Weights of Solid and Liquid Metals. — Cryoscopic 

measurements by M. Padoa and F. Bovini f show that silicon is mona- 
tomic in both liquid and solid copper. It is also found that the mole- 
cular complexity of cadmium is the same in both liquid and solid tin. 

Monel Metal. — The physical properties and chemical composition of 
this alloy are discussed. \ 

It is largely used in the United States for battleship propellers, whilst 
in Germany it has been adopted for locomotive fireboxes, since its 
strength is l3ut little impaired by high temperatures (1000° F.). 

Pump rods and ore dressing screens are also often made of monel 

The U.S. Government have specified the following composition for 
monel metal for propeller manufacture : — 

Per Cent. 

Nickel 60 

Copper ......... 33 

Iron 6-5 

Aluminium . . . . . . . . 0"5 

Lead nil 

The physical and mechanical properties of monel metal of above 
composition are given below : — 



Tenacity . 
Elastic limit . 
Melting point . 
Specific gravity 
Electrical conductivity 
Hardness (Shore) . 

82,500 lbs. per square inch. 

37,500 lbs. per square inch. 

44 per cent. 

13(50° C. 


4 (Cu = 100). 

\ inch per foot. 


86,900 lbs. per square inch. 

58,870 lbs. per square inch. 

40 per cent. 


* Internationale Zeitschrift fiir Metallographie , 1912, vol. iii. p. 176. 

■]■ Atti delta R. Accademia del Lincei, 1912, Series V., vol. xxi. ii. p. 708. 

:J: Engineering, 1912, vol. xciv. p. 690. 

The Properties of Metals and Alloys 219 

Monel metal is prepared by direct reduction from nickel-copper matte, 
and the metal prepared by alloying the constituent metals together is 
said not to possess the same physical properties as monel metal proper. 
Experiments on the corrodibility of monel metal indicate that it is at 
least comparable with the best manganese bronze in this respect. 

It is said that in casting this alloy an addition of 2 oz. magnesium 
per 100 lbs. remedies difficulties due to oxide and dissolved gases. 

New Alloys. — An alloy of silver and aluminium under the name 
of " Argental " is said* to possess good casting properties and a tine 
white colour ; it rolls and machines well and takes a fine polish. It is 
suggested that it could be employed in making fittings for instruments, 
table silver, and ornamental hardware. 

A new copper alloy, saidf to offer great resistance to chemical 
corrosion has been made by alloying 80-95 per cent, of copper with 
20-5 per cent, of a cobalt tin alloy (containing 40 per cent, cobalt and 
60 per cent. tin). 

Spongy Metals. — An article by F. Laur J describes the method 
recently introduced of obtaining spongy metals, such as spongy lead 
for accumulators, by centrifuging an alloy, say of lead and antimony, 
before complete solidification, so expelling the eutectic. The metal is 
supported in the centrifugal machine by a suitable wire netting. 

UnderCOOled Solid Solutions.— A paper by H. IIanemann,§ 
dealing more especially with austenite and martensite in steels, contains 
important conclusions as to the nature of the solid phases in undercooled 
solid solutions in metallic alloys in general. A eutectoid, the formation 
of which has been suppressed by undercooling, is not necessarily formed 
when the alloy is tempered. The prolongation of solubility curves into 
the metastable region may cause an overlapping of homogeneous and 
heterogeneous regions. In such a case several different crystallizations 
may occur, and it depends on the relative rate of formation of the differ- 
ent solid phases which of them will make its appearance. Some phases 
may only exist in the metastable region, and although this case may be 
exceptional, it is clear that it is not legitimate to infer the structure of 
undercooled alloys from a knowledge of the stable system alone. 

Quaternary Alloys of Iron, Nickel, Manganese, and Copper. 

— This quaternary system has been investigated by N. Parravano,|| and 
a number of ternary sections of the tetrahedral model have been 
constructed. The system is of the type that might be expected from a 
consideration of the component ternary systems. Photomicrographs of 
alloys composed of two solid solutions are given. 

* Metal Industry, 1912, vol. iv. p. 368. 

t Ibid., 1913, vol. V. p. 11. 

% Mitatix et Alliages, 1913, vol. vi. p. 1. 

§ Internationale Zeitschrift fiir Metallographie, 1912, vol. iii. p. 127- 

II Gazetta chimica italiana, 1912, vol. xlii. ii. p. 589. 

220 A bstracts of Papers 

Annealing of Cold- Worked Metals and Alloys. — The effect 

of annealing on the tensile strength of hard-drawn wires of nickel, 
mild and high carbon steels, 67-33 brass and 60-40 brass has been 
studied by L. Guillet,* the elastic limit (for nickel and steel), maximum 
stress, and percentage elongation being given in a large number of 
tests. The results of these tests show that in all cases the tempera- 
ture of complete annealing, as indicated by a rapid fall in maximum 
strength and elastic limit and a rapid increase in percentage elonga- 
tion, is practically independent of the amount of cold work. These 
temperatures are 700° to 750° 0. for nickel, 750° to 800° C. for mild 
steel, 700° to 750° C. for high carbon steel, and 350° to 400° C. for brass. 

Brown Gold. — The properties of brown gold have been further 
studied by M. Hanriot and F. Raoult.t Brown gold is fairly rapidly 
attacked by nitric acid, the presence of nitrous acid diminishing the 
action. Chloroauric acid dissolves it when warmed, and the dark solu- 
tions deposit crystalline gold on cooling. 

Crystallized gold, as far as measurements of the magnetic susceptibility 
indicate, consists largely of the /8-variety. Chloroauric acid serves to 
separate the two modifications. 

Changes in Electrical Resistance of a Metal on Melting.— 

The results of an investigation of the electrical resistance of metals, both 
when solid and liquid, are given by E. F. Northrup and V. A. Suydam,J 
in a preliminary paper which does not contain any description of the 
methods employed. It would appear, however, that the resistivity was 
estimated by the potentiometer method, using a Kelvin double bridge, 
the temperature being measured simultaneously by a thermocouple. The 
metals tested up to the present include lead, cadmium, zinc, tin, bis- 
muth, and antimony, with mercury as a standard. The tests were taken 
from 0° C, to 750° C. (or to the boiling point of the metal if below this), 
and, in the case of antimony, up to 950° C. In general the charac- 
teristic results comprise a gradual increase in resistance up to the melting 
point, when the increase becomes much more rapid, slowing down again 
very abruptly when all the metal is in the liquid state. Bismuth is 
exceptional, the resistance showing a sudden decrease during the solid- 
liquid change. Molten zinc is shown to have a negative temperature 

Cold Working. — A series of tests of cold-rolled plates, by M. 
Hauriot,§ indicate that when the amount of cold work is small, great 
differences in hardness may occur with very slight differences in breaking 

* Revue de MHallurgie, 1913, vol. x. pp. 665-676. 

t Comptes Rendus, 1912, vol. civ. p. 1085. 

X Journal of the Franklin Institute, 1913, vol. clxxy. p. 153. 

§ Comptes Rendus, 1913, vol. civ. p. 971. 

The Properties of Metals and Alloys 221 

strength and elongation, but the latter properties change suddenly when 
the cold work exceeds a certain value. 

The progress made within recent years in our knowledge of the 
mechanical hardening or cold working of metals (I'ecrouissage) is re- 
viewed by P. Galy-Ache,* and present views on the subject are dis- 
cussed. Mechanical hardening does not take place until the elastic limit 
has been exceeded and the metal has suffered permanent deformation. 
A characteristic effect of mechanical hardening is the raising of the 
elastic limit, and the elastic limit acquired by a metal when deformed 
by cold working is equal to the force producing the deformation. This 
is given as the fundamental law of mechanical hardening. The hardness 
decreases when the temperature rises and when the temperature of anneal- 
ing is increased ; it tends to reach a minimum at a temperature which 
may be called the temperature of complete annealing of the metal. 

The hypothesis of the existence of an amorphous modification of 
metals and the work of E^^'ing and Rosenhain on the plastic deformation 
of metals are referred to. In the fully annealed condition, what is called 
a mechanically perfect metal consists of an aggregate of crystals im- 
bedded in a very strong and flexible amorphous cement. The elastic 
deformations of such a metal are referred to the amorphous cement which 
surrounds the crystals, while the permanent deformations are due (follow- 
ing Ewing and Rosenhain) to slip along cleavage planes of the crystals 

Hirn's experiment of subjecting a known mass of a metal to the blow 
of a steel hammer and measuring the quantity of heat produced leads to 
a theoretical definition of mechanical hardening. That part of the work 
due to the fall of the hammer — or work otherwise done on the metal — 
which is not recovered in the form of heat is a measure of the mechanical 
hardening of the metal caused by such work. In the case of lead — a 
plastic metal incapable of being mechanically hardened — all the work 
which it receives is recovered in the form of heat, while in the case of 
copper and other metals which are mechanically hardened a portion only 
of this work is recoverable in the form of heat, the other part being used 
in modifying the properties of the metal which has suffered deformation. 
Mechanical hardening is thus a form of work, and such work is pro- 
portional to the square of the acquired limit of elasticity of the metal. 

The author also refers to the singularities in the behaviour of iron 
and steel, and discusses the close relation between hardening by temper- 
ing and mechanical hardening. 

Colloidal Gold. — An historical account of colloidal gold is given by 
A. Connejo.t 

Conductivity and the Dispersoid Theory. — An application of 

colloidal chemistry to metallography has been made by P. P. von 
Weimarn,J who examines the electrical conductivity of alloys from the 

* Revue de Mitallurgie, 1913, vol. x. pp. 585-594. 

t Kolloid-Zeitschrift, 1913, vol. xii. p. 1. 

X Internationale Zeitschriftfiir Metallographie, 1912, vol. iii. p. 65. 

222 A bs tracts of Papers 

point of view of disperse systems. The degree of dispersion of a system 
is defined by the ratio -, where to is the surface area of that phase 

which is dispersed through the other, and v is its volume. The energy- 
content of a phase increases with its degree of dispersion, and the 
physical properties are correspondingly altered. 

With increase of the internal surface the electrical conductivity, and 
also its temperature coefficient, must diminish, so that even in a pure 
metal the conductivity should be less, the finer the grain. This result 
is claimed to be in accordance with experience. The illustration quoted, 
that of thin films, is not conclusive, as into this case much more complex 
factors are known to enter. 

The same conditions are considered to prevail in alloys, and the high 
resistance and low temperature-coefficient of solid solutions are attri- 
buted to their high degree of dispersion. In this form the theory is 
similar to that of Liebenow, to which weighty objections have been 
advanced on several grounds. 

Conductivity of Alloys. — A. P. Schleicher * has made experiments 
to determine the influence of the mechanical arrangement of the con- 
stituents in a conglomerate on the electrical conductivity. In one series 
amalgamated copper wires were threaded through a glass tube and the 
spaces between them filled with mercury. In such a composite mass the 
conductivity is a linear function of the composition by volume. In the 
second series short lengths of amalgamated copper wire were placed in a 
tube and this was filled up with mercury. In this case the resistance of 
the mass is a linear function of the composition by volume. The latter 
condition approaches more nearly to the state of things occurring in 
alloys which consist of conglomerates. 

Crystallization of Bismuth and Antimony. — The connection 

between crystal size and rapidity of cooling has been investigated by 
E. Bekier f in the cases of bismuth and antimony, by pouring the molten 
metal into a bath of liquid paraffin or into an iron mould, the tempera- 
tures used lying between - 70° and 600°. Generally, the number of cry- 
stallites per unit area increases with the degree of under-cooling, but 
antimony shows an increase of crystal size at low temperatures owing to 
diminishing crystallizing power. It is suggested that at a sufticiently low 
temperature the power of forming crystal centres might vanish in the 
case of antimony, giving rise to the known amorphous modification. 
The size of the crystallites depends on two factors, the facility with 
which crystal centres are formed, and the linear velocity of crystallization. 

Disintegration of Heated Platinum. — J. H. T. Roberts J has 

studied the cause of the volatilization of platinum and other similar 

* Zeitschrift fiir Elektrochemie, 1912, vol. xviii. p. 998. 

t Zeitschrift fiir anor^aniscke Cliemie, 1912, vol. Ixxviii. p. 178. 

X Philosophical Magazine, 1913, Series VI., vol. xxv. p. 270. 

The Properties of Metals and Alloys 223 

metals. This has often been attributed to oxidation, but Brookes regards 
it as being due to true sublimation. In the present research the vapour 
condensation method of detecting minute nuclei has been employed. It 
is found that platinum gives off recognizable nuclei as low as 500°, but 
the loss only becomes weighable above 1000°. The loss only occurs in 
oxygen, not in a vacuum or in an indifferent gas, and the rate of loss of 
weight is roughly proportional to the oxygen pressure, pointing to the 
formation of an endothermic oxide. The other platinum metals behave 
similarly, but palladium undergoes true volatilization in a vacuum 
without forming nuclei. 

Effect of Temperature on Internal Friction of Metals. — 

Further results of oscillatory torsion tests on wires of various metals are 
published by C. E. Guye.* In this series of tests higher temperatures 
were employed than in the earlier work, and results have been obtained 
from which the author deduces some important facts concerning the 
elastic straining of metals and solids generally. The metals experi- 
mented with include copper, silver, gold, aluminium, iron, steel, zinc, 
and magnesium. 

Wires of these metals were annealed for some time to secure homo- 
geneity of structure, and then tested in a form of torsion dynamometer 
working in vacuo. Only small deflections (2°-3°) were used, thus avoid- 
ing any possibility of exceeding the elastic limit. Tests were made on 
both rising and falling temperatures and no appreciable thermal hysteresis 
was noted. It was found that, whilst alteration of the load on the free 
end of the wire caused considerable variations in the damping of the 
oscillations, particularly at the higher temperatures (150°-400° C), 
nevertheless the velocity of the oscillation does not affect its logarithmic 
decrement, neither does change in temperature produce any measurable 
effect in the time of vibration. 

The internal friction was measured in each case by the value of the 
logarithmic decrement of the angle of swing at various temperatures, and 
by plotting the decrement as a function of temperature. 

For observations above atmospheric temperature the wire was heated 
in a small electric furnace, and for low temperature work another form of 
apparatus was devised, capable of immersion in the cold bath. This was 
fitted with photographic apparatus for recording the oscillations. 

As a result of a number of experiments, it was found that the internal 
friction increases with rise in temperature, and decreases for the lower 
temperatures, and it is therefore suggested that at absolute zero bodies 
should be perfectly elastic. 

In discussing the results of the experiments the internal friction is 
compared with magnetic induction, both of which function similarly with 
respect to temperature. Also, since magnetism was found to have a very 
definite effect on the oscillations of an iron wire, the question of internal 
friction is considered to be partly dependent on molecular orientation. 

In this connection an experiment is described in which, by using two 

* Journal de Physique, 1912, vol. ii. p. 620. 

224 Abstracts of Pape7's 

frames, one oscillating and one stationary, each containing a large 
number of small compass needles, it is shown that the mere fact of the 
oscillation will cause a rearrangement of the needles at the end of every 
swing. Imagining the compass needles to be molecules the author draws 
some interesting conclusions regarding the dissipation of energy during 
the elastic straining of metals. 

Deductions are also drawn from the kinetic theory of gases from 
which it is concluded that the molecular heat energy of a metal is largely 
responsible for its internal friction. 

The paper is illustrated by a number of diagrams and curves. 

Electrical Conductivity of Copper-Arsenic Alloys. — Alloys 

containing up to 45 per cent, of arsenic have been studied by N. Puschin 
and E. Dischler.* The resistance of copper is greatly increased by 
alloying with arsenic up to 6 per cent., this marking the limit of the 
solid solution, and another break in the curve is found at 32 per cent, 
of arsenic, corresponding with the compound CugAs. From this point 
onwards the resistance diminishes slightly, without indicating whether a 
compound CugAs^ is formed or not. Solid solutions do not exist in this 
part of the series. The alloys rich in arsenic change their conductivity 
considerably on annealing, indicating the occurrence of reactions in the 
solid state. 

Electrical Resistance of Stretched and Twisted Wires. — 

Extensive experiments by F. Creduer f show that the resistance of a 
freshly stretched gold, silver, or copper wire falls at constant temperature, 
the more rapidly the higher the temperature. By successive warming, 
the resistance being measured cold, it is found that a minimum resistance 
is obtained at a definite temperature, which is independent of the size 
of the wire. This temperature is 480° for gold and silver, and 450° for 
copper, and is that at which coarse crystallization sets in. At higher 
temperatures cavities appear in the metal, and the resistance increases. 
The resistance of nickel falls to a minimum by heating to 550°, and then 
remains constant for 300°. The minimum for iron is at 600°. 

The stretching produces slipping over cleavage planes, producing an 
oriented structure, which disappears on warming. Torsion on bending 
produces cavities, and the increased resistance due to these does not 
disappear on heating. 

With falling temperature the resistance of a stretched wire falls more 
slowly in a direction parallel with its length than in a transverse 
direction. The increased resistance of a stretched wire is due essentially 
to the orientation of lamellae. There is no evidence for the formation 
of an amorphous phase. 

Electrolytic Potential of Tantalum. — Measurements of the 

electrolytic potential of tantalum have been made by G. von Hevesey 

* Zeitschrift fiir anorganische Chemie, 1913, vol. Ixxx. p. 65. 
t Zeitschrift fiir physikalische Chemie, 1913, vol. Ixxxii. p. 457. 

The Properties of Metals and Alloys 225 

and R. E. Slade,* using a dilute solution of tantalum pentafluoride as 
the electrolyte. It is found that active tantalum has a potential near 
to tliat of copper, whilst passive tantalum has a potential about 1 volt 
different from that of silver, being nobler than the latter. 

Electrolytic Silver. — " Black silver," prepared by the reduction of 
silver salts, has been studied by V. Kohlschiitter and T. Toropoff.f This 
material does not exhibit any obvious crystalline characters, but rapidly 
passes into the crystalline modification. It is a transitional form 
between the true colloidal silver and the crystalline metal. When silver 
is deposited electrolytically, using high current density and dilute 
electrolyte, the initial deposit is greyish-white, but almost immediately 
a black or dark brown mossy deposit is formed, which collects as a black 
slime, but is seen to be crystalline under the microscope. The black 
material is best obtained from an acid solution of the nitrate. If the 
process be watched under the microscope a brown colloidal stream is 
seen to form, out of which the minute crystals are deposited. Trans- 
formation into stable larger crystals, accompanied by contraction, takes 
place readily, propagating itself in an acid solution with almost explosive 
rapidity. The potential difference at the terminals is a maximum at the 
moment at which the black deposit gives place to white. It is during 
the period of rapid exhaustion of the electrolyte in the neighbourhood 
of the small cathode that the black silver is formed. An increase in 
viscosity favours the black form. 

The forms of silver precipitated by metals have been studied by 
V. Kohlschtitter, T. Toropoff, and W. Pfander.J The form which the 
silver takes is determined by the velocity of reaction, and this is again 
influenced by the nature of the metal used, the nature and concentration 
of the electrolyte, and the presence of foreign substances. Thus zinc, 
which acts rapidly, produces a blacker and less crystalline metal than 

The effect of foreign substances has been studied in more detail by 
V. Kohlschiitter and H. Schacht.§ The appearance of the deposit is 
influenced in a characteristic manner by the addition of many salts, such 
as the nitrates of copper, zinc, lead, &c. The influence is dependent on 
the formation of colloidal hydroxides, which are adsorbed, and influence 
the distribution of the nuclei. 

V. Kohlschiitter || has also investigated the electrolysis of complex 
silver salts, and fiinds that compounds of the " subhaloid " type are 
formed as intermediate products. A thin colloidal layer is formed on 
the cathode, above which the silver is deposited. 

Foam-Structure of Metals. — In two articles, G. Quincke ^ has 
summarized his work since 1858, which bears on his hypothesis of the 
foam-structure of metals, an hypothesis which is now under investiga- 

* Zeitschrift fur Elektrochemie , 1912, vol. xviii. p. 1001. 
+ Ibid., 1913, vol. xix. p. 161. X Ibid., p. 169. 

§ Ibid., p. 172. II Ibid., p. 181. 

\ Internationale Zeitschrift fUr Metallographie, 1912, vol. iii. p. 23. 



Abstracts of Papers 

tion by a committee of this Institute. The author's researches in 
this direction are very extensive, and the range of subjects dealt with 
from this point of view is wide, including the formation of crystals, the 
effect of cold-working and annealing, the velocity of crystallization, the 
structure of electro-dejiosited metals and of thin films, the nature of 
allotropy, electrical conductivity, and the hardening of steel. 

Hall Effect in Antimony. — The Hall effect in antimony, according 
to J. Becquerel, L. Matout, and W. Wright,* is positive, and is greatest 
at low temperatures. It depends on the orientation. The curves 
showing the variation of the E.M.F. with the magnetic field consist of 
two intersecting straight lines. 

Hardening without Deformation. — A further paper by M. 

Hanriot f shows that when a silver cylinder, 1 5 millimetres high and 
50 millimetres in diameter, is placed in a cavity which it exactly fits, 
in a steel block, and is set between two tightly fitting pistons, it may be 
compressed 0'65 per cent, by hammering, but the increase in hardness is 
as much as from 23-5 to 39"5, or in the ratio 1 : 1"68. The hardness 
is increased equally throughout, as is found on cutting through the 
specimen. The elongation and breaking load are altered in nearly the 
same proportion. Zinc gives similar, but less uniform, results. 

Lastly, cubes of metal were compressed uniformly by enclosing 
vaseline and applying a pressure of 10,000 kilogrammes per square 
centimetre. The following results have been obtained : — 

Metal. before 






Silver .... 
Copper .... 
Aluminium . 
Iron .... 
Zinc .... 
Brass .... 










Heusler Alloys. — Three papers dealing with the magnetic properties 
of these alloys were presented at a general discussion. F. Heusler and 
E. Take % discuss in detail the hypothesis put forward by them in 1 909, 
that the magnetism of the Heusler alloys is to be explained by the 
occurrence in them of ternary compounds of Cu, Al, and Mn, having the 
general formula Alj.(Mn, Cu3,,.)3,,. Assuming this hypothesis to be true, an 
attempt is made to explain some of the effects observed on subjecting the 
alloys to annealing and quenching. 

Magnetometric, thermometric, and metallographic evidence is given by 

* ComptesRendus, 1913, vol. clvi. p. 463. f Ibid., 1912, vol. civ. p. 1502. 

X Transactions of the Faraday Society, 1912, vol. viii. pp. 169-184. 

The P^'Operties of Metals and Alloys 227 

A. D. Ross * in support of his theory that the magnetic Heusler alloys 
consist of solid solutions of the binary compounds CugAl and MugAl, 
and that the magnetic properties depend on the presence of these solid 
solutions. The variation of magnetic properties of the alloys with 
constitution and thermal treatment is studied, and the general magnetic 
properties of alloys of copper and manganese with tin, antimony, and 
bismuth, of copper-manganese, copper-aluminium, manganese-antimony, 
and manganese-boron alloys are dealt with. 

A. A. Knowlton and D. C. Clifibrd f discuss the Heusler alloys with 
regard to the best methods of preparation and heat treatment for 
obtaining high magnetic permeability, their tests point to the alloys 
being of the nature of solid solutions. 

In the subsequent discussion "W. Rosenhain gave some details of the 
work done at the National Physical Laboratory on the Cu-Al-Mn and 
Al-Mn alloys. His observations were confined to a range of 11 per cent, 
aluminium and 10 per cent, manganese. In that range there was no 
evidence of the existence of a ternary compound. Quite apart from 
copper the alloys of aluminium and manganese were strongly magnetic, 
particularly near the manganese end of the series, where a definite 
compound of the two metals appeared to exist. His view was that the 
Heusler alloys owed their magnetic properties to the presence in them of 
this aluminium-manganese compound. 

Hysteresis of Magnetic Substances. — A paper by G. Vallauri + 

discusses Weiss's theory of ferromagnetism, and applies it to the case 
of the hysteresis of iron. 

Latent Heat of Evaporation of Metals. — Measurements by 

A. Wehnelt and C. Musceleanu, § using a method in which the metal 
studied became the anode in a tube with a Wehnelt cathode and the 
radiated energy was measured, give the following results for the latent 
heat of evaporation of some metals : 

Per Cent. 

Mercury 63-6 

Cadmium 181 '0 

Zinc 365-8 

Magnesium 1700-0 

Bismuth 161-5 

The only metal for which the latent heat has been measured directly 
previously is mercury. The result is in good agreement, and the method 
may be applied to any other metals. 

Calculations by E. van Aubel|| show that Trouton's law is fulfilled 
for mercury, cadmium, zinc, and bismuth, previous experimental results 
being employed for the purpose. 

* Transactions of the Faraday Society, 1912, vol. viii. pp. 185-194 

t Ibid., pp. 195-20r.. 

X Physikalische Zeitschrift, 1913, vol. xiv. p. 118. 

§ Berichte der deutschenphvsikalischen Gesellschaft, 1912, vol. xiv. p 1032 

II Cotnptes Rendus, 1913, vol. clvi. p. 456. 

228 A bstrads of Papers 

Long-focus Microscope— Study of Oxidation and Other 
Phenomena shown by Metals under the Influence of Heat. — By 

iuterjjosing a double concave lens (in the tube of the microscope) just 
outside the focus of the objective, F. Robin * has devised a microscope 
which permits of a greater distance between the object to be examined 
and the objective, whilst still giving reasonably high magnifications. 
With the surface of the specimen as much as 5 centimetres from the 
objective, magnifications of 200 diameters were obtained. 

The instrument has enabled the phenomena occurring on heating 
polished surfaces of specimens of various metals and alloys to be observed. 
The rate of oxidation of the constituents of steel and other alloys at 
various temperatures has been studied. Whereas at lower temperatures 
oxidation is characterized by the formation of more or less uniform 
coloured pellicles, at higher temperatures the action becomes local and 
" corrosive." The crystal boundaries of solid solutions and pure metals 
are developed quite sharply at certain more or less definite temperatures, 
and at higher temperatures the large grains may frequently be observed 
to split up into smaller ones. The paper is illustrated with diagrams 
and photomicrographs. ' 

Mechanical Hardening. — The subject of mechanical hardening of 
metals is dealt with by AI. Hanriot.f who proposes to give numerical 
expression to this property based on the results of hardness determina- 
tions. The author points out that the definitions of mechanical harden- 
ing usually given are very vague, the most precise being that of Charbonnier 
and Galy-Ache, viz. " the property of elevation of elastic limit which is 
given to metals by mechanical treatment." It is universally held that 
mechanical hardening is the result of deformation of the metal, but the 
only proposed figure is that due to Grard, who gives the following 
expression for rolling : — 

^ S-i 

where S and s are the sections before and after rolling. The author 
proposes as a definition of mechanical hardening the following : — A 
metal is mechanically (or work-) hardened, which by a suitable annealing 
undergoes a modification of its physical (or mechanical) properties — apart 
altogether from chemical tranformations. Of the mechanical properties 
that of hardness is the most sensitive and the easiest to measure. 

Determination of Hardness. — Tiie author employs a modified Brinell 
test, using a small ball of 3 millimetres diameter and a load of 30 
kilogrammes. The apparatus is in the form of a balance, the ball being 
carried on the underside of the balance pan, and the specimen suitably 
supported beneath. The hardness thus obtained is generally considerably 
smaller than that given when a 10-millimetre ball is used with a load of 
1000 kilogrammes. The difference is probably due, as suggested by Meyer, 
to the hardening caused by the indentation of the metal by the ball. 

* Bulletin de la Sociiti d' Encouragement, 1912, vol. cxviii, pp. 204-231. 
t Revxie de Mdtallurgie, 1913, vol. x. pp. 595-607. 

The Properties of Metals and Alloys 


Lead, which is not capable of being mechanically hardened, gives the 
same results irrespective of the load and the size of the ball. In the 
case of metals and alloys, which can be hardened by mechanical means, 
the following experiments were carried out in order to eliminate as far 
possible the inaccuracy due to the hardening which results from forcing 
the ball into the metal. The test was carried out in the ordinary way, 
and the diameter of the impression measured, the material tested being 
a sample of aluminium bronze in the annealed condition. The alloy was 
then annealed again and the ball forced again into the same spot, the 
increased diameter of the impression being measured. These operations 
were repeated until the diameter of the impression showed no further 
increase. With the load of 1000 kilogrammes the hardness number, D, 
was decreased gradually from 94 to 35, at which figure it remained 
constant. With a load of 30 kilogrammes, the hardness number, d, 
decreased similarly from 61 to 24. The hardness numbers obtained 
with large bail and large load were never the same as with a small ball 

and small load, but the ratio — was practically constant at 1*45 through- 


out the two series of tests. Similar tests were carried out, using other 
metals and alloys, and the following figures for the ratio — were found : — 

Aluminium bronze (8 per cent. Al), 1-45; nickel, 1*33; silver coinage 
alloy (835 fine), M9 ; gold (999 fine), 1-02 ; lead, I'O. It is concluded 
from these experiments that the actual hardness numbers given by 
the Brinell test are generally too high, e.g. in the case of aluminium 
bronze it is less than 24, although the number usually obtained is 94. 

Hardness Tests as a Meamre of Meclianiral Hardening. — Although 
there is no method for measuring the hardness independent of the instru- 
ment used, it was found that for the same metal the figures given by 
different apparatus are in constant proportion. The author, therefore, 
proposes to express mechanical hardening by the ratio of the hardness 
numbers of the metal as tested and of the same metal completely 
annealed. This ratio is independent of the apparatus. In order to 
compare the hardness and cold-work numbers with the other mechanical 
properties plates of silver were cut from the same ingot, reheated 
together, and then rolled, each plate a different number of times. Hard- 
ness and tensile tests were then made. The following table gives the 
results obtained : — 


Cold- Work 

Maximum Stress. 

Kilogrammes per 

Sq. Millimetre. 

Per Cent. 

Annealed metal . 

















Abstracts of Papers 

From this it is concluded that of the three constants studied, the 
hardness figures are the only ones which detect a small amount of 
mechanical work. 

Mechanical Hardening hy Compression. — It is generally held that 
there is a close connection between mechanical iiardening and deforma- 
tion, but the author has observed that in striking medals in a coinage 
press the deformation is produced almost entirely by the first blow, 
although it is this which hardens the metal least. Experiments were 
then made to harden metals without deformation. Cubes of silver, 
copper, iron, brass, aluminium, and zinc were immersed in vaseline in 
in steel cylinders and subjected to compression of about 65 tons per 
square inch by means of hydraulic pressure. In all cases pronounced 
hardening was found to have taken place without any apparent deforma- 
tion, and in the case of brass, which was examined microscopically, 
no internal crystalline deformation was observed. 

Mechanical Hardening by Means of Tensile Stress. — A number of plates 
were cut from the same ingot of steel, annealed together, and then cold 
rolled to diff"erent extents. Test-pieces of the same section were then 
cut from the rolled plates and tested in tension, the hardness numbers 
being obtained before and after test. The following table gives the 
results obtained : — 









Elongation Hardness Increase in 
per Cent. after Test. Hai'dness. 


;{1 40 +15 

30 3(5 +8 

27 39 +10 

12 38 

4 49 - 2 

6 62 -3 

4 57 -11 

Similar results with brass and aluminium, showing that metals which 
have been greatly hardened by severe cold rolling are actually softened 
after being subjected to tensile tests. 

It is also shown that when annealed metals and alloys (aluminium, 
silver, brass, aluminium bronze) are tested in tension the hardness re- 
mains unchanged until a permanent extension takes place. Tests, how- 
ever, on cold rolled brass (06 per cent, copper) indicate that when metals 
and alloys have been severely worked, the hardness decreases before any 
permanent extension takes place. 

Melting" Points of Metals. — A list is given * containing the most 
recent values for the melting points of 75 of the chemical elements. 
Most of the values have been reduced to the thermodynamic scale. 

Amongst the commoner metals included in this list are — 

* Journal of the Franklin Institute, 1912, vol. clxxiv. p. 227. 

The Properties of Metals and Alloys 231 

Degrees F, 


Tin . 


Lead . 

Zinc . 



Silver . 

Gold . 




Palladium . 


















Degrees C. 
















The above values are used at the American Bureau of Standards for 
calibration purposes. 

Passivity of Uranium. — The anodic behaviour of uranium has been 
investigated by U. Sborgi.* The metal was prepared by Moissan's 
method, and contained both carbon and nitrogen. The metal dissolves 
as anode in sulphuric, hydrochloric and nitric acids, probably with the 
valency 4. It becomes covered -with an insulating layer in phosphates 
or alkalies, but true passivity is not observed, uranium being thus dis- 
tinguished from all other metals of the sixth group. 

Plastic Deformation and Annealing. — Very large crystals have 

been obtained by A. Portevin.f by prolonging the period of cooling of 
alloys from the liquid state over three days. Thus -with an alloy of 
97*8 per cent, of copper with 2*2 per cent, of aluminium, such large 
crystals were obtained that it was possible to cut a test-piece 17 milli- 
metres high and of cross-section tapering from 12"8 x 7 millimetres to 
9-5x7 millimetres. This was proved by etching to be a single crystal, 
with uniform orientation throughout. When compressed under a load of 
600 kilograms, the first slip-bands appeared at an angle of 33° to the 
normal to the base. The plane thus developed is one of the cleavage 
planes of the grain used. The elastic limit varies with the direction 
of the stress. On each face the slip-bands follow sensibly the bisectrices 
of the dendritic axes. The elastic limit of an ordinary metal is thus 
a mere average. Annealing the specimen at 800° after testing produced 
numerous crystals, abundantly twinned, the nmnber of grains being 
greatest where the pressure was greatest — that is, in the narrower portion 
of the specimen. 

Solubility of Sulphur Dioxide in Fused Copper Alloys — A 

further study of the solubility of gases in metals is due to A. Sieverts 

* Zeitschrift fiir Elektrochemie, 1913, vol. xix. p. 115. 
t Comptes Rendus, 1913, vol. clvi. p. 320. 

232 Abstracts of Papers 

and E. Bergner,* the alloys used being those of copper with gold, silver, 
platinum, oxygen and sulphur. In all cases, as with pure fused copper, 
the solubility of sulphur dioxide increases with rise of temperature, and 
is proportional to the square root of the gas pressure. Oxygen and 
sulphur lessen the solubility, and the results may be accounted for by a 
partial reaction of the form 80,, + 6Cu '^ Cu^^S+SCuoO. 

Specific Heat of Alloys. — The specific heats of bismuth-tin and 
bismuth-lead alloys, according to 0. Richter,t are somewhat greater than 
the values calculated from the rule of mixtures, the differences being 
greater in the latter series. The electrical and thermal conductivities are 
smaller than those calculated from the rule of mixtures, but the ratio of 
electrical to thermal conductivity remains the same throughout. The 
evidence does not favour the view that free electrons are responsible for 
any appreciable fraction of the total heat capacity of the alloys. 

Specific Heats at High Temperatures. — A method of determin- 
ing specific heats of solids at high temperatures is described by M. von 
Pirani. \ It depends on heating the substance electrically in a high 
vacuum, and suddenly increasing for a short time the supply of energy. 
The rise of temperature then depends on the specific heat. The specific 
heats of iron, tantalum and tungsten wires have thus been determined 
between 340° and 1400°. Iron has a well-defined minimum at 790°. 

Strain-Disease in Metals. — Cohen's views on the so-called " strain- 
disease of metals " are criticized by E. B. WolflF.§ The view that cold- 
worked metals are in a metastable condition is an old one. It is not 
correct to assume that the metastable metal is converted into the stable 
modification by etching. All that the etching reagent does is to remove 
the superficial deformed layer. Thus, tinfoil does not exhibit any 
crystalline structure on etching ; but if laid on glass, heated to fusion, 
and then etched, a crystalline structure is developed. Cohen's experi- 
ment, in which a cross, developed by etching, is transferred by contact 
at a high temperature to a polished surface of the same metal, is regarded 
as inconclusive, as the cross does not spread on the original sheet, as might 
be expected if the case were one of true infection ; whilst the transfer is 
more easily accounted for as mechanical, and connected with the soften- 
ing of the metal by heat. A sheet of tinfoil, laid on glass and heated 
until one corner fuses, is etched. It is found to make no difference if 
the tin is heated for some hours to 140° before etching, and etched tinfoil 
is not capable of infecting ordinary tinfoil at 140°. 

In a short reply, E. Cohen || considers his conclusions to be confirmed 
by experiments with copper, to be published shortly, and promises to 
discuss the question in detail. Neither author refers to the work of 
Beilby, which contains an explanation of most of the observed facts. 

* Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, 1913, vol. Ixxxii. p. 257. 

t Annalen der Physik, 1912 [iv.], vol. xxxix. p. 1590. 

X Berichte der deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft, 1913, vol. xiv. p. 1037. 

§ Zeitschriftfiir Elektrochemie, 1913, vol. xix. p. 19. || Ibid., p. 23. 

The Properties of Metals and Alloys 233 

Structure of Electrolytic Copper. — According to O. Faust,* 

the crystallites of electrolytic copper arrange themselves parallel with 
the lines of the current. The greater the current density and the 
smaller the concentration of copper in the electrolyte, the smaller are the 
crystallites. The crystallites are said not to continue the growth of the 
crystals present in the original cathode, whether this be of copper or of 
any other metal. The layer at first deposited consists of very numerous 
small crystals, but only a few of these continue to grow. The annealing 
of electrolytic copper has been followed by means of the microscope, and 
the orientation is revealed by straining until slip-bands appear. Electro- 
lytic copper, like worked copper, develops twinning planes when an- 
nealed, indicating the presence of an internal stress, the existence of 
which is rendered probable by the known properties of thin electro- 
lytically deposited films. 

Structure of Electrolytic Deposits. — B. Wiiser and E. H. 

Schulz t have continued their photographic examination of electro- 
deposited metals, including mercury, brass, and an alloy of nickel and 
magnesium. The photographs do not convey much novel information. 

Surface Tension of Amalgams. — The surface tension of dilute 

amalgams has been measured by F. Schmidt, J using a method which 
depends on the alteration of the wave-form when a jet of mercury 
escapes from an elliptical aperture, produced by the addition of other 
metals. The jets are photographed and measured by means of a micro- 
meter. Up to 2 per cent, zinc, cadmium, thallium, gold, tin, and lead 
produce very little alteration in the surface tension of mercury ; whilst 
even traces of lithium, barium, and calcium increase the surface tension 
largely. Sodium, potassium, rubidium, and caesium reduce the surface 
tension. The effect is found to be a periodic function of the atomic 
weight, and in any periodic group the surface tension of the amalgam 
increases with the melting point of the dissolved metal. 

It may also be pointed out that the metals which either raise or depress 
the surface tension are those which form compounds with mercury, whilst 
the indifferent metals do not combine. A similar distinction has been 
observed in relation to the viscosity. 

Thin Films of Platinum. — Very thin films of platinum, deposited 
in a high vacuum on quartz, have been studied by J. Robinson. § It is 
found that the photo-electric properties undergo a sudden change at a 
thickness of 10-' centimetres, and that this limiting thickness is the 
same for either fast- or slow-moving electrons. 

Twin Crystals and Hardness.— Experiments with copper-alumi- 
nium alloys by C. A. Edwards || show that the acicular structure of 

* Zeitschrift fiir anorganische Chemie, 1912, vol. Ixxviii. p. 201. 

t Elektrochemische Zeitschrift, 1913, vol. xix. p. 304. 

X AnnaUn der Physik, 1912 [iv.], vol. xxxix. p. 1108. 

§ Philosophical Magazine, 1913 [vi.], vol. xxv. p. 115. 

II Internationale Zeitschrift fiir Metallographie, 1912, vol. iii. p. 179. 

234 Abstracts of Papers 

quenched alloys containing 10 to 13 per cent, of aluminium is essentially 
due to twinning. The twinning is not caused by the polishing process, 
as a polished specimen heated to 900° and quenched shows the same 
structure without etching. E.xaminatiou under oblique illumination 
shows clearly that the acicular appearance is due to repeated twinning. 
Slip-bands, transverse to the twinning lines, also become evident. The 
hardening of such alloys by quenching is then explained as due to the 
formation of Beilby's vitreous phase by intercrystalline motion during 
the short period of cooling. The quenched alloy is found in one case to 
be very slightly denser than the same alloy in an annealed state. 

Zinc and Cadmium Volatilization— Influence of Temperature 

and Pressure. — Practical tests by T. K. Nair and Thomas Turner * show 
that a small residual pressure considerably raises the distillation tem- 
perature of zinc. The rate of volatilization has therefore been determined, 
the method being to observe the loss with unit weight in fixed time 
(thirty minutes). Experiments were conducted with zinc in air, hy- 
drogen, and carbon monoxide at selected pressures, and also with cad- 
mium in air. Curves have been obtained showing the percentage of 
metal volatilized at temperatures and pressures covering a wide range. 

The whole of the curves are parallel straight lines throughout the 
greater portion of their length, and it is found that : — 

1. A certain definite temperature is required in order to give readily 
appreciable volatilization. 

2. This critical temperature is raised by gaseous pressure, the efi"ect of 
small additions being most marked. 

3. When this critical temperature has once been reached, the rate of 
volatilization is independent of the initial pressure, or the nature of the 
gas, but it varies directly as the increase of temperature. If the initial 
rate be represented by II and the rate at any higher temperature by R^ 
we have 

Ri = R + a/. 

4. Carbon monoxide raises the initial temperature slightly less than 
air, and hydrogen less than carbon monoxide, although at low pressures 
the differences are too small to be of much practical importance. 

5. The pressure temperature curve for equal rate of volatilization is 
steep from to 50 millimetres ; after an abrupt change in direction, at 
50 millimetres, it becomes a straight line from 80 millimetres, and much 
less steeply inclined. The straight lines for zinc and cadmium in this 
case are not parallel. 

6. The last millimetre of pressure has seventy times the effect in 
lowering the temperature of effective distillation as compared with the 
removal of 1 millimetre, when starting from any pressure above 50 

* Proceedings of the Chemical Society , 1913, vol. xxix. p. 151. 

( 235 ) 




I. Electric Furnaces 235 

II. Electric Smelting 236 

Granular Chromium Resistances. — It is proposed by O. Dony- 

Henault * to use crushed metallic chromium as a heating material. For 
a crucible, a block of magnesia is hollowed out, so as to leave a space of 
2 to 4 millimetres between the crucible and the outer wall. A ring of 
powdered graphite is added, and two carbon electrodes are plunged into 
the metal. A 100 cubic centimetres crucible is heated to the softening 
point of quartz by 15 amperes. The potential difference during working 
is 8 to 10 volts, but a high tension, say 110 volts, is required to start 
the current. A tube furnace may be constructed in similar manner. 

Vacuum Electric Furnace. — A laboratory form of vacuum fur- 
nace is described by R. E. Slade,! and has been employed by him in his 
study of copper and cuprous oxide (p. 207). The heater is a platinum 
tube with walls 1 millimetre thick, 17'5 cubic millimetres long, provided 
with water-cooled brass terminals, and placed horizontally. It is packed 
in magnesia, and one end is left free to move under expansion. The 
interior is exhausted by means of a silver tube soldered to the plate closing 
one end ; this is fixed gas-tight into a thick glass tube. In order to 
prevent the collapse of the platinum tube when exhausted, the whole 
furnace is enclosed under a cast-ii'on dome fastened to a cast-iron base, 
the enclosed space being exhausted by means of filter-pumps. The 
exhaust tube, thermo-couple leads, &c., pass out through holes in the 
iron base, joints being made by means of rubber stoppers. When 
exhausted, 350 amperes are required at 3 volts in order to heat to 1400°. 

* Comptes Rendus, 1913, vol. clvi. p. 66. 

■\ Proceedings of the Royal Society , 1912, vol. lx.\xvii-A, p. 519. 

236 Abstracts of Papers 

Electric Smelting of Copper and Nickel— At the first meeting 

of the recently formed " Geselischaft Deutscher Mctallhiitten und Berg- 
loute " (essentially restricted in its scope to non-ferrous metallurgy), 
M. Stephan gave an account of experiments at the Girod electric steel 
works in Ugine, on the electric smelting of copper and nickel.* 

Copper. — The ore came from the Belgian Congo. Five separate 
analyses gave CuO, 21-3-5-73 ; SiO,, 28-48-78-55 ; Al.Og, 4-13; Fe.p,, 
4—16, and besides smaller impurities, from 2—7 per cent. CoO. Such 
ores are difficult to smelt in the water-jacketed copper blast furnaces, 
but do not offer any difficulty in the electric furnace. Furnaces similar 
to the Girod steel furnace were used. 

Charcoal, coke, and anthracite, were used successfully as reducing 
agents with a limestone flux. Power used was not more than 200 
kilowatts at from 30-150 volts. 
Slag of the composition : 

Per Cent. 

SiO 51-9 

AI2O3 11-13 

CaO 16-83 

MgO 13-71 

FcOs 3-65 

MnO 0-94 

CuO 0-46 

CoO 0-87 

begins to melt at 1250°C and is liquid enough at 1400° to allow the 
globules of copper to settle. At 1550° the slag flowed off freely. The 
pig copper produced in six different runs gave on analysis : 

Per Cent. 

Copper 65-95 

Iron 1-21 

Cobalt 1-11 

A lower temperature of working gave a purer product but a decreased 
yield owing to retention of copper by the slag. 

A continuous run for several days aiming at slags of the above 
composition required 1000-1200 kilowatts per ton of ore. With an 
easily fusible ore the power consumption was only about 500 kilowatt- 

Nickel. — A small 220 kilowatt furnace treated 3 tons of ore in 28 
hours, producing 350 kilos of a ferro-nickel having the following com- 
position : 

Per Cent. 

Nickel 41-5 

Iron 51-61 

Silicon 4-33 

Aluminium O'Sl 

Carbon 1*34 

Sulphur 0-04 

* Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, 1913, vol. xi. pp. 22-23. 

Electro- Metallurgy 237 

Electric Smelting of Nickel. — E. F. Gray,* British Consul at 
Christiania, sends information respecting a new type of electric furnace 
for reducing nickel from garnierite. This furnace has been designed by 
Raeder, acting for the Christiansand Nickel Refining Works, after 
considerable research and testing work. 

Electric Zinc Smelting. — The fact that electrical methods for 
smelting zinc ores have so far not been commercially successful is 
attributed by F. Louvrier f to the excessive amount of carbon dioxide 
produced in contact with the zinc vapour previous to its condensation. 
Oxidation of the zinc by the carbon dioxide takes place, leading to 
the production of "blue powder" and resulting in a poor yield of 

Considering the two equations : 

(1) ZnO + CO = Zn + COo 

(2) C0.2 + C = 2CO 

the presence of carbon dioxide along with the zinc vapour in the 
condenser is to be ascribed to the incompleteness of the reaction ex- 
pressed by equation (2). In the case of electric smelting, this results 
from the too rapid production of carbon dioxide in the limited space 
of the heated zone, with the consequence that a considerable proportion 
escapes reduction either by passing too quickly to cooler portions of 
the furnace or, in the case of small furnaces, by meeting an insufficient 
cjuantity of carbon as well as too high a temperature. The conditions, 
chiefly with regard to the zone of reduction, which must obtain in 
smelting furnaces to ensure complete reduction of the carbon dioxide are 

* Board of Trade Journal, 1912, vol. Ixxix. p. 516. 

t Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, 1912, vol. x. pp. 747-749. 

( 238 ) 




I. Analysis 238 

II. Testing 240 

III. Pyrometry 241 


Assay of Impure Mattes. — In assaying impure mattes, P. S. 
Harrison * finds that the iodide assay for copper is more suitable and 
gives more reliable results than the electrolytic assay. It is also 

Detection of Nickel in Alloys.— According to V. Fortini,f a 
polished surface of an alloy containing nickel may be tested by oxidizing 
the surface lightly with a small oxidizing flame, cleaning with ether, and 
applying a drop of the testing solution. This is prepared by dissolving 
0"5 gram of dimethyl-glyoxime in 5 cubic centimetres of alcohol by 
adding 5 cubic centimetres of concentrated ammonia. This solution, 
which keeps well, reacts quickly with nickel oxide, and the red 
precipitate becomes visible before the solution has time to become 
appreciably darkened by copper. 

Separation of Arsenic from Tungsten. — The estimation of 

arsenic in presence of tungsten, according to S. Hilpert and T. Dieckmann,f 
is exceptionally difficult, owing to the formation of complex acids. The 
distillation method for arsenic has been tried, using cuprous chloride as the 
reducing agent, but the arsenic found is always low, the error increasing 
with the proportion of tungsten. The arsenic is retained by the 
tuugstic acid by adsorption, and not as a definite compound. The 
error is remedied by carrying out the distillation in two parts, and 
adding solid potassium hydroxide to the residue in the flask after 
the first distillation, until alkaline, and then adding hydrochloric acid and 

* Engineering and Mining Journal, 1913, vol. xcv. p. 283. 

t Chemiker-Zeitung, 1912, vol. xxxvi. p. 1461. 

J Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 1913, vol. xlvi. p. 152. 

Analysis, Testing, and Pyrometry 239 

again distilling. The surface of the tungstic acid is in this way 
destroyed and the arsenic liberated. 

Variation in Assaying Gold Ores. — An account of the variations 

found in assays at the Alaska Treadwell mill is given by W. P. Lass.* 
The results are summarized of a number of special assays of three 
different grades of ore, viz., the mine samples and mill feed, the con- 
centrates and the tailings. The following examples illustrate the 
character of the variations observed : — 

1. Concentrates. — Ten different samples, all unknown to the assayer, 
were crushed to pass through a 120-mesh sieve, and duplicate assays 
made, J A.T. being taken in each case. The average of the 20 separate 
assays was 868-79 per ton, and the average variation in duplicate assays 
was S5'21 per ton or 7'6 per cent. 

2. Mine and Mill iSamjjles. — Twenty-eight different samples, all 
unknown to the assayer, were crushed to pass through a 100-mesh 
screen, and duplicate assays made, 1 A.T. being taken in each case. 
The average of the 56 separate assays was S3"46 per ton, and the 
average variation in duplicate assays was ST 43 per ton or 41*3 per 

3. Tailings from the Mill. — Ten different samples, all unknown to 
the assayer, were crushed to pass through a 100-mesh screen and dupli- 
cate assays made, 2| A.T. being taken in each case. The average of 
the 20 separate assays was 32 -7 cents per ton, and the average variation 
in duplicate assays was 6'7 cents per ton or 20*6 per cent. 

In explanation of the variations met with, the author makes some 
calculations to show the effect of a single particle of gold on the assay 
value. Thus in 1 A.T. of cubic particles of the same dimensions as the 
openings of a 100-mesh screen there are at least 5,348,811 particles. If 
one of these particles happened to be fine gold, it would increase the 
assay result by $1-12 per ton. The greater the variation in value 
between the particles, the greater is the error, a $1 particle in the mill 
feed having a greater effect than in the concentrates. The variations in 
assays on the mine samples and mill feed is greater than the variation 
in assays on the tailings samples, and this is accounted for by the fact 
that the free gold is high in the former and is to a great extent removed 
in the latter. It is, however, pointed out that, although the average 
variation may be great, the average value of the samples remains approxi- 
mately the same. 

Volumetric Estimation of Zinc. — According to V. Senher and 
C. C. Meloche,! the presence of lead is without influence on the titra- 
tion of zinc by ferrocyanide solution, as usually carried out — that is, 
in hydrochloric acid solution. Lead itself can only be titrated with 
ferrocyanide in acetic acid solution, a small quantity of mineral acid 
being sufficient to prevent precipitation. 

* Mining Rfa^^azine, 1913, vol. viii. p. 57. 

t Journal of the American Chemical Society , 1913, vol. xxxv. p. 134. 

240 Abstracts of Papers 


Notched-Bar Impact Tests- — A number of i)apers presented to 
tlie Sixth International Congress for Testing Materials held in New 
York in September last were specially devoted to the question of 
notched-bar impact tests ; an account of them and of some of the ideas 
advanced in the discussions is given by W. Kosenhain.* 

At the previous Congress held in Copenhagen in 1909, a proposal 
that one particular tyi)e of machine should be adopted as international 
standard was negatived. Standard dimensions of 10x10 millimetres and 
30 X 30 millimetres in cross section were, however, decided upon for the 
test-pieces, the other dimensions being based on the assumption that the 
law of similarity held good and that the same " specific work of rupture " 
would be found for a given material if the total work of rupture were 
referred to unit of ruptured area, so long as the test-pieces were geo- 
metrically similar. A committee appointed to further investigate the 
question of impact tests presented to the Congress in New York a 
report prepared by G. Charpy. The results of experiments by members 
of this committee are quoted as leading to the conclusion that "the 
resilience or specific work of rupture when referred to one square centi- 
metre of the section of rupture varies for one and the same metal 
according as the value is determined on a test-piece measuring 30 x 30 
millimetres or one measuring 10 x 10 millimetres." The smaller test- 
piece always gave a value lower than the larger one. 

With regard to the machine itself, the view is expressed in the 
report that the exact manner of applying the impact is not vital to 
the results. Accuracy, reliability, and manner of handling are of 
principal importance — frictional and vibrational losses of energy are 
serious sources of error, and methods of standardizing and calibrating 
impact testing machines should be established. 

The committee finally urges the need of systematic correlation 
between the results of impact tests and behaviour in practice, and 
proposes that a large amount of such information should be collected 
by the general use of a form of return giving full particulars as to the 
nature and circumstances of each failure, the composition, mode of 
manufacture, and micro-structure, &c., of the material. 

Papers following this report dealt rather with the report and resolu- 
tions passed upon this subject at the previous Congress in Copenhagen. 
C. Fremont in his paper deprecates the use of the heavy pendulum type 
of machine, and criticizes the size of test-piece and character of the 
notch. Important evidence in favour of the use of the Fremont test 
was given by M. Derihon. Other papers contributed by A. Gessner 
(Pilsen), the Testing Laboratory of the Paris-Lyons-Meditteranean 
Railway and N. Davidenkoff (St. Petersburg) dealt with the influence of 
varying types of fracture, &c., a recording half-hammer apparatus, and 
direct tensile impact machines in which the specimen falls with two tups. 

* Engineer, 1913, vol. cxv. pp. 110-112. 

Analysis, Testing, and Py7^ometry 241 

T. E. Stanton in his paper describes the various types of testing 
apparatus devised by him at the National Physical Laboratory, in- 
cluding the machine for direct alternations of stress, the rolling fatigue 
test, the single blow impact and the repeated blow impact test on 
notched bars. Finally, a paper by Prince A. Gagarin described a series 
of attempts to obtain autograph stress -strain diagrams for impact tests. ; 

In conclusion, the general feeling expressed at the Congress was that 
although it would as yet be difficult to introduce impact tests into speci- 
fications, owing to the difficulty of obtaining consistent results from dif- 
ferent machines and sizes of test-pieces, enough had been done to show 
that some such form of " brittleness test" over and above the ordinary 
tensile or static test was required in order to secure satisfactory qualities 
of material. 

The special committee entrusted with the matter was requested to 
present to the next Congress definite proposals upon the following 
points : — 

Height of drop, weight of anvil, method of calibration, form of 
supports for test-bars, and dimensions of the notch for small test-bars. 


Calibration of Optical Pyrometers. — A simple "black body" 

for use in calibrating optical pyrometers is described by P. D. Foote.* 
The arrangement consists of a tall cylindrical graphite crucible 20 centi- 
metres high, by rather more than 5 centimetres internal diameter, closed 
by a lid (kept in position by a screw thread), the central portion of which 
is continued as a hollow cone passing down into the interior of the 
crucible, and having at its apex a small cylindrical chamber 2 centi- 
metres diameter by 2 centimetres deep, which acts as the " black body." 
The bottom of the small chamber is about 16 centimetres from the top 
of the crucible. The internal diameter of the cone at its base in the lid 
is about 1"25 centimetres, and at the entrance to the small chamber 0"5 
centimetres. The crucible being filled with metal which thus surrounds 
the hollow cone and small chamber, melting and freezing points are 
readily obtained, the pyrometer being focussed ou to the entrance to the 
small chamber at the apex of the cone. 

The arrangement is particularly intended for use with the Holborn- 
Kurlbaum instrument, but may be used with other types, provided the 
cone of rays coming from the black body entrance is not intercepted by 
the walls of the cone, and that the aperture is large enough to fill the 
optical system of the instrument. 

Fixed Points for High Temperature Measurements. — A 

description is given by A. Day and R. Sosman f of research work con- 

* Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, 1913, vol. xi. pp. 97-98. 
t Journal de Physique, 1912, vol. ii. (5th Series), pp. 727, 831, 899. 


242 Abstracts of Papers 

ducted to determine fixed points between 1100° C. and 1600° C, which 
shall be useful for accurate calibration of theriuo-electric couples. 

The work comprises the making of a suitable gas thermometer and the 
standardization of a number of platinum, platinum-rhodium thermo- 
couples against this thermometer ; finally, the temperatures of a number 
of very useful fixed points were obtained, using the couples already 
standarized against the gas thermometer. 

The authors used two constant- volume nitrogen gas thermometers for 
this purpose with a capacity of 200 cubic centimetres, the bulb being of 
platinum-iridium (10 per cent.), or platinum-rhodium (10 per cent.), the 
latter material being found to wear better. 

The electric furnace in which the couples were standardized against this 
thermometer was wound with a resistor of platinum wire, and the pressure 
of air inside the furnace was regulated so as to be always approximately 
equal to that in the gas thermometer, thus avoiding undue strain on the 
metal bulb. The winding is laid on the inside of the furnace tube in three 
independent sections, an arrangement which secures even heating of the 
central portion. 

The furnace is water cooled, and, working on vertical guides, it is raised 
or lowered as required, the gas thermometer itself remaining fixed during 
a series of tests. 

The bulb of the gas thermometer was connected by a platinum capil- 
lary to a mercury manometer, a special feature of which was the method 
of closing the short arm of the U-tube, which red viced the volume of cold 
gas to a minimum. A very careful series of determinations of the ex- 
pansion of the platinum alloys used for the reservoir was made, so that 
accurate corrections could be introduced up to the highest temperatures 
attained in the work. The thermo-electric apparatus is fully described, 
and the results of contamination of the couple wires by metallic vapours 
was experimentally investigated. This contamination constitutes the 
most likely source of error, and it is obviated by testing the working 
couples against a standard immediately after each series of readings with 
the gas thermometer. Results are given of a very careful investigation 
to discover which are the best positions for the three couples used in 
conjunction with the gas thermometer. 

The method of taking readings is described, and results obtained in 
standardizing the couples against gas thermometers both of platinum 
rhodium and of platinum-iridium are given. The last part of the work 
relating to the determination of fixed points, discusses the best materials 
and most suitable conditions for ensuring accurate repetition of the fixed 
point temperatures. 

Two silicates, diopside and anorthite, are included in the fixed points ; 
they are said to give very constant readings for their melting points. 
Some of the results obtained are »iven in the table below : — 

Analysis, Testino;, and Pyrometry 

















I Air. 


I CO. 





















/ Pure 1 

' magnesia. \ 


Temperatu e. 
Degrees C. 


320-9 ■ 


G58-7 1 


Cadmium . . . < 


Aluminium . 

Silver .... ■ 


Copper .... 
Diopside (purt-) . . 

Nickel .... 



Palladium . . . 

Anorthite .... 



960 0±0-7 

1391 -2 ±1-5 

M452-3 + 2-0 

1489-8 + 2-0 
1549-5 + 2-0 

Micro-Pyrometer. — An instrument is described by G. K. Burgess * 

by means of which the melting point of a few hundredths of a milligram 
of metal may be determined with accuracy. The microscope and 
pyrometer form a single instrument. The metal is heated electrically on 
a platinum strip, and the eyepiece of the microscope contains a small 
glow lamp, the current through which is adjusted until the filament is 
equal in brightness to the strip. A red monochromatic light filter is 
used. With such metals as gold or nickel an accuracy of 1-2° may be 

Temperature Measurement.. — Thermocouples of various metals, 
the radiation pyrometer depending for its readings on a small thermo- 
couple, and resistance thermometers are discussed by C. Burton Thwing,-f- 
and their uses and limitations indicated. 

Thermocouples. — The first to be used was that of Le Chatelier, and con- 
sisted of a wire of platinum and one of platinum containining 10 per cent, 
iridium. Rhodium has largely replaced iridium in these couples, giving 
decreased sensitiveness but greater constancy in continuous use particu- 
larly at high temperatures. The platinum thermocouples may be used up 
to temperatures in the neighbourhood of 1600° C. for short intervals. 
Prolonged exposure to such high temperatures, however, causes a fall 
in electromotive force due to changes in the composition of the wires 
brought about by volatilization of the constituent metals. 

For temperatures up to 1000° C, thermocouples of base metals are in 
many respects superior to those of platinum. They are in general much 

* Physikalische Zeitschrift, 1913, vol. xiv. p. 158. 

t Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, 1913, vol. xi. pp. 36-38. 

244 Abstracts of Papers 

more sensitive due to the higher electromotive force generated at the 
hot junction. This enables more resistance to be used in the galvano- 
meter circuit, and thus minimizes the error caused by changes in 
resistance of the couple due to variations of temperature or depth of 
immersion. In consequence of their cheaimess thicker wires may be 
used which again tends to counteract the above error. For couples 
required to be used up to 1100° C. a nickel-chromium (10 per cent, 
chromium) alloy as positive element in conjunction with an alloy of 
nickel containing small percentages of various other elements is most 
suitable. Such a couple has an electromotive force about 3^ times 
that of platinum at 1100° C. 

Up to 900° C. the copper or iron-constantan (nickel 41, copper 59 per 
cent.) couple gives a high and very constant electromotive force, and has 
the additional advantage of a small coefficient of resistance. 

Limitations to the use of thermocouples as such, in works practice, are 
due to their slowness of action, the small amount of energy generated 
which necessitates delicate measuring instruments, " cold junction " 
errors, &c. 

Radiation Pyrometer. — In these instruments of which the Fery is a 
good type, the energy radiated from a portion of the surface of the 
body whose temperature is to be measured is focussed by a concave 
mirror on to the junction of a sensitive thermocouple. These instruments 
are capable of a considerable degree of accuracy, and are available 
for temperatures too high for thermocouples, for situations hot easily 
accessible such as interiors of large furnaces, for material in motion such 
as masses of steel passing through rolls, &c. A simplified form of one 
of these instruments attains its correct reading in five seconds. 

Resistance Pyrometer. — This instrument, which depends for its indica- 
tions on the electrical resistance of a coil of platinum or other metal wire, 
has been used for all ranges of temperature from that of liquetied gases 
to temperatures as high as 1100° C. At high temperatures the problem 
of protecting the coil from mechanical damage and contamination be- 
comes a serious one. A platinum coil must be protected with a porcelain 
tube and an additional covering of nickel, and is an expensive instrument. 

For the lowest temperatures up to 200° C. resistance coils of pure 
nickel are used, and the instrument is capable of accuracy comparable 
with that of the best thermometers. 

Selection of type of Pyrometer. — One of the first considerations is the 
required range of temperature. For temperatures Avith a maximum 
range above 1500° C. the radiation type is the only one of the three 
available. The lower limit of these instruments is about 500° 0. 

With an upper limit of 1500° C. choice may be had between the 
radiation pyrometer and the platinum thermocouple, and up to 1200° 0. 
we may include the nickel-chromium couple. 

With a maximum temperature of 1000° C. the iron-constantan ther- 
mocouple would come first in consideration with the platinum resistance 
type also available, whilst for temperatures below 200° C. the iron- 
constantan couple or nickel resistance-pyrometer would be suitable. 

Analysis, Testing, and Pyrometry 245 

Other factors to be considered in choosing an instrument are the size 
of the body whose temperature is to be measured, the rate of fluctuation 
of temperature which may be encountered, etc. 

Tungsten -Molybdeimm Thermocouple. — The thermal electro- 
motive force of this couple has been investigated by E. F. Northrup, * 
over a temperature range of 0° C.-1000° C. 

Wire of 20 B. & S. gauge was obtained from the General Electric Co. 
Temperatures were measured with a platinum-rhodium thermocouple 
and electromotive force with a Leeds-Northrup potentiometer. The 
equation — 

E = 4-Gl/-0-00436/2 

microvolts is correct over the range determined, with an error of less 
than \ per cent. 

The electromotive force is a maximum at 530° C, and is zero at 1060° 
C. (melting point of gold= 1062° C), the current in this range flowing 
from tungsten to molybdenum through the hot junction. 

Assuming the above equation to hold up to 2200° C, the electromotive 
force at this temperature would be 10,960 microvolts. 

The author does not despair of finding a protective case for the couple 
at such temperatures. For laboratory work oxidation may be prevented 
by using a neutral gas atmosphere. 

* Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, 1913, vol. xi. p. 45. 

( 246 ) 


Briquetting Metal Turnings and Borings. — A description is 

given of briquetting plants made by the Hochdruckbrikettierung Ges. 
m.b.H., Berlin (J. W. Jackman & Co., Caxtou House, Westminster).* 
These machines are designed to overcome the difficulties encountered in 
melting down borings and turnings of brass, gun-metal, and bronze (and 
also iron and steel) for foundry purposes. The melting of such turnings 
entails very considerable losses by oxidation, but when in the form of 
briquettes such losses are much reduced, and the time of melting is 
greatly decreased. 

The machine for making the briquettes consists of a rotating table 
carrying the moulds into whicli the metal scrap is automatically fed. It 
is then pressed on both sides by two vertical plungers, top and bottom, 
working under very great hydraulic pressure. The finished briquette is 
pushed out of the mould, an empty mould meanwhile taking its place 
between the plungers. 

It is claimed that the plant works automatically, three men being 
sufficient to rua it. The capacity varies from 1 to 3 tons of briquettes 
per hour. 

The briquettes are cylindrical in shape, and are strong enough to stand 
very rough handling. 

The turnings and borings may require to be cleaned, and if very long 
they must be broken up a little in a disintegrator before entering the 

Another briquetting plant for metal borings, made by Samuel Denison 
and Sous of Leeds, is described.! The machines are fed automatically, and 
it is claimed that the cost of briquetting may be as low as Is. 8cL per 
ton. Instances of reduction of melting losses by briquetting are given 
in the case of brass borings (melting loss 3 to 4'5 per cent.) and of 
aluminium (loss of 15'3 per cent.). 

A number of results obtained by melting down unbriquetted brass and 
bronze turnings and chips are given by II. A. Wood. J The method 
adopted consists in introducing the turnings gradually into a hot covered 
crucible placed in the melting furnace. The turnings are only introduced 
into the crucible in small amounts, so that they are melted almost im- 
mediately, thus reducing loss of metal as much as possible. The actual 
examples given show melting losses of from 2^ to 7^ per cent. 

* Engi7ieering, 1913, vol. xcv. p. 139. 

t Ibid., 1912, vol. xciv. p. 737. 

+ Metal Industry, 1912, vol. iv. p. 408. 

Furnaces and Foundry Methods 247 

Influence of Casting Temperature. — H. W. Gillet * gives the 

results of a series of tensile tests on manganese bronze of following 

composition : — 

Per Cent. 

Copper SG'OO 

Zinc 41-00 

Iron 1-50 

Tin 0-90 

Aluminium ....... 0'45 

Manganese ....... 0"15 

The test-bars were cast at various temperatures from large melts, and 
were submitted to mechanical tests both with and without previous 
machining. The dimensions of the bars were \ inch diameter and 2 inches 
long over the breaking section. Some of the results are given below : — 



Degrees F. 



per Cent. 

Test-bars cast to size . . . 

Test-bars machined to size . 


/ 2,125 
j 2,000 
\ 1,900 
I 1,825 
( 2,125 
) 2,000 
■) 1,900 
\ 1,825 





These results do not agree with the view generally held that pouring 
temperature should be as low as possible, but the author believes that at 
the lower pouring temperatures the metal became unsound on account of 
bad feeding. 

1950° to 2000° F. is suggested as the best average casting tempera- 
ture for the alloy under consideration. 

Lead Filter for Zinc Furnaces. — The Shortman process of extract- 
ing high grade spelter from galvanizers' residues is described, f It consists 
in heating the residues, containing about 3 per cent, of zinc, in ordinary 
retort furnaces, in the mouth of which is placed a small fireclay sleeve 
packed with anthracite or coke. In this sleeve the lead is condensed, 
and only pure zinc finds its way into the condenser. The filter can be 
used for two tappings, after which it must be recharged with colse. The 
spelter thus obtained is from 99'9 to 99'95 per cent pure zinc. 

Pyrometers for Foundry Use. — The use of thermocouples and 

optical pyrometers in foundries is described by R. Schwann,! with 
particulars of the methods of use. 

* Metal Industry, 1912, vol. iv. p. 452. 

t Itid., 1912, vol. iv. p. 355. 

X Giesserei-Zeitung, 1913, vol. x. pp. 133, 169. 

248 A bs tracts of Papers 

Test-Bars for Non-ferrous Alloys. — An investigation of the 

suitability of a number of different castings for obtaining tensile test- 
pieces of alloys has been made by J. L. Jones.* Twelve different 
patterns of bar were experimented with, one of which was a chill casting 
in an iron mould. From the eleven sand-casting patterns bars were 
prepared both with and without risers, and the castings machined to size 
and broken. Tests were made on two alloys, a manganese bronze and a 
red brass, but no information is given regarding the casting temperature. 
The effect of quenching in lowering the ductility of manganese bronze is 
discussed with relation to the microstructure. The author concludes that, 
for big work, hollow-drilled test-bars | inch diameter by 4| inches long 
are the best type of test-piece. For smaller castings the test-bars may 
be cast either attached to the work itself or separately in suitable chill 
or sand moulds, the best patterns of which are indicated in the paper. 
If sand castings of the test-bars are made heavy risers should always be 
used to ensure sound metal. 

* Metal industry, l'J12, vol. iv. p. 490. 

( 249 ) 


Aluminium in India. — A new industry in S. India is the manu- 
facture of aluminium articles.* Imports of this metal into the Madras 
Presidency for year ending March 1912 amounted to $204,039. 

Production of Manganese. — The total of the world's production 
of manganese •{■ during 1911 was 1,485,746 tons; nearly three-quarters 
of this were obtained from India and the Caucasus. 

Canadian Mineral Production for 1912. — In a preliminary re- 
port of the Canadian Department of Mines X the total mineral production 
for 1912 is estimated at $133,127,489, of which $61,177,980, or nearly 
46 per cent., is credited to metals. The production of copper, gold, 
lead, nickel, and silver for 1911 and 1912 is as follows: — 

' 1911. 


Copper (lb.) .... 55,648,011 
Gold (ozs.) .... 473,159 
Lead (lb.) .... 33,784,969 
Nickel (lb.) .... .34,098,744 
Silver (ozs.) .... 32,559,044 


Colorado Mineral Production for 1911. — According to Charles 

W. Henderson, § of the United States Geological Survey, the value of the 
total output of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc, was $32,418,218 as 
compared with $33,673,879 for 1910. 

Electro-Metallurgy in 1912. — According to R. Pitaval II there has 
been a great increase in the consumption of aluminium during 1912. A 
great French trust has been formed, V Aluminium Frangais, the pro- 
duction of which now amounts to about 15,000 tons, and many more 
factories are to be erected. The sales of ferro-silicon through the inter- 
national bureau have exceeded 30,000 tons, and the use of ferro-titanium 

* Metal Industry, 1912, vol. iv. p. 495. 

t Ibid., p. 497. 

X Engineering and Mining Journal, 1913, vol. xcv. p. 560. 

§ Mines and Minerals, 19l2, vol. xxxiii. p. 286. 

II Journal du Four Electrique, 1913, vol. xxii. p. 1. 

250 Abstracts of Papers 

is on the increase. Several firms are experimenting with electric fur- 
naces for zinc smelting, including the Vielle Montague. The manufac- 
ture of ferro-nickel in the electric furnace has undergone a check in 
New Caledonia, but is making progress in Norway. On the Congo the 
electric furnace is superseding the older process for the treatment of 
copper ores. 

German Zinc Industry. — The zinc industry of Germany is de- 
scribed * as being more satisfactory during 1912 than in the previous 

The average price obtained by the Zinc Syndicate during 1912 was 
about oCl 6s. Id. per ton, and the total production of zinc in Upper 
Silesia for this year was about 105,000 metric tons. 

Gold Production in the United States. — The value of the gold 

produced in the United States for 1912 f is estimated at $91,685,168, 
as compared with $96,890,000 for 1911. The output of the five prin- 
cipal gold producing states is estimated as follows : — 


California 19,988,486 

Colorado 18,791,710 

Alaska 17,398,946 

Nevada 13,331,680 

South Dakota 7,795,680 

Metal Trades of Germany in 1912. — The German metal in- 
dustries have been very prosperous during 1912. J 

The consumption of copper during the year showed an increase of 
25,000 metric tons over that of 1911. 

Consumption of lead was 229,000 metric tons — a decrease Qf 700 
metric tons over that of 1911 

The production of tin was 12,000 metric tons and consumption 21,000 
metric tons- 
Mineral Production of New South Wales.— Ths New South 
Wales Department of Mines § gives the total value of the mineral output 
of the State during 1911 as .£9,758,006, an increase of more than 
£1,000,000 on that of 1910. 

The output for both years of some of the products is given below : — 

* Board of Trade Journal, 1913, vol. Ix.w. p. 94. 
t Minei and Minerals, 1913, vol. xx>:iii. No. 7, p. 365. 
:J: Board of Trade Journal, 1913, vol. p. 151. 
§ Ibid., 1912, vol. Ixxix. p. 360. 





Copper (ingot matte and ore), (tons) . 

Gold (ozs. , fine) 

Lead (pig, &c.) (tons) 

Silver lead (ore concentrates, &.z.) (tons! 

Silver (ingot and matte) (OZS. ) 

Tin (ingot and ore) (tons) . 

Wolfram (tons) ..... 

Zinc (spelter and concentrates), (tons) 

















Mineral Production of Servia. — It i.s stated* that the total 

mineral output of Servia during 1911 amounted to 15,400,000 dinars 
as compared with 12,800,000 dinars in 1910. Some items are given 
below : — 


Copper ere . 

Ccal ..... 


7,023 metric tons 

235,058 ,, 

422 kilogrammes 

8,000,000 dinars 

3,775,776 ,, 

1,500,000 ,, 

25 dinars = £l. Metric ton=l kilogramme. 

Minerals and Metals in Austria-Hungary. — The total value of 

products mined in Austria in 1911 is given f as 320,107,395 kronen 
and that of smelted material as 155,669,109 kronen, both showing a 
substantial increase over the figures for the previous year. The pro- 
duction of some of the chief minerals is given below : — 



Gold ore .... 
Silver ore .... 
! Zinc ore .... 
Graphite .... 
Lignite .... 

(Double Centners.) 

(Double Centners.) 

Krone = 10(/. Double centner = 220*5 lbs. 

The amounts of lead and of zinc smelted during 1911 were respectively 
180,970 double centners and 157,663 double centners. 

* Board of Trade Journal, 1912, vol. Ix.xix. p. 411. 
t Ibid. , p. 460. 


Abstracts of Papers 

Platinum and Allied Metals in the United States.— Tlie 

total quantity of retiued platinuni * produced in refineries in the 
United States was 29,140 ozs. fine, of which only about 940 ozs., value 
$40,890, was derived from domestic sources of various kinds. The entire 
output (628 ozs.) of crude platinuni in the United States was recovered 
from placed mines in California aiid Oregon, the greater part coming 
from California. In addition some was recovered from gold and silver 
bullion obtained from certain mines. 

Notes are also given of an ore containing platinum with copper, gold, 
and some palladium from the New Rambler Mine, Wyoming. 

Production of Metals in the United States, t — 

Copper (lb. ) . 







Gold (dollars) .... 




Lead (short tons) 




Nickel! (lb.) .... 




Quicksilver (flasks) . 




Silver (ozs.) .... 




Zinc (short tons) 




1 Imported and refined in U.S.A. 

2 First ten months only of 1912. 

The production of tungsten is estimated at 1290 tons, 60 per cent, con- 
centrate. The vanadium output is equivalent to 300 tons of metallic 
vanadium. Quicksilver shows the largest production in six years, being 
25,147 flasks of 74 pounds each. 

Russian Copper in 1912. — It is stated J that the total production 
of copper in Russia during 1912 was 2,048,2.33 pouds, contrasted with 
1,571,879 pouds in 1911. (1000 pouds = 16 tons (approx.).) The Ural 
district is specially notable for increased production. 

Transvaal Gold Production. — The yield for the month of October 
1912 was 768,681 fine ounces gold, § being about 60,000 ounces more 
than during the same period of 1911. The yield for the month of 
November 1912 was 757,337 fine ounces gold. 

Zinc Production at Broken Hill. — The production of zinc con- 
centrate in the Broken Hill district for 1912 is estimated by Theodore 
J. Hoover II to be 440,000 tons, a decrease of 60,000 tons as compared 

* Mines and Minerals, 1913, vol. xxxiii. No. 7, p. 389. 
t Engineering and Mining Journal, 1913, vol. xcv. p. 49. 
X Board of Trade Journal, 1913, vol. Ixxx. p. 517. 

§ Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, 1913, vol. xi. , pp. 94, 167. 
II Mining Magazine, 1913, vol. viii. pp. 47-48. 

Statistics 253 

with 1911. A curve is given showing the production of zinc concentrate 
for this district since 1900, together with a forecast of probable future 
production. It is pointed out that the great increase in production, 
which began in 1906, as a result of the introduction of the flotation 
process, had no effect on the price of the metal. 

( 254 ) 


Allmand, a. J. Tlie Principles of Applied Electro-chemistry. London : 
Edward Arnold. (Price 18.5.) 

Amaduzzi, L. GH Elettroni nei Metalli. 8vo. pp. 147. Bologne, 1912: 
Nicola Zanichelli. 

Barclay, W. R., and C. H. Harmsworth. Electro-plating. Lecture on 
Electro-plating and Engineering in the University of Sheffield. 
pp. 399, illustrated. London : Edward Arnold. (Price 7s. 6(/ net.) 

Biedermann, R. Chemiker Kalendar 1913. Ein Hilfsbuch fiir Chemiken, 
Physiker, Mineralogen, Industrielle, Pharmazeuten, Hiittenmiinner. 
In two Parts. 16mo. pp. 402 and 661. Berlin, 1913: Julius 
Springer. (Price 4s. 6d.) 

Berriman, a. F. Xotes on the Materials of Motor Car Construction.* London : 
St. Martin's Publishing Co. (Price 5s.) 

Burgess, G. K., and H. Le Chatelier. The Measurement of High Tempera- 
tures. Third edition, rewritten and enlarged. London : Chapman 
and Hall. (Price 17s.) 

Chauvenet, R. Chemical Arithmetic and Calculation of Furnace Charges. 
8vo. New York : Lippincott. (Price 18s.) 

Fischer, F. Praktikum der Elektrochemie. pp. 140, with 40 illustrations. 
Berlin, 1912 : Julius Springer. (Price 5s.) 

Fleury, p. The Preparatmi and Uses of JFhite Zinc Paints. Translated from 

the French by Donald Grant. pp. xvi. + 262. New York: Van 

Nostrand. (Price 10s. 6d.) 
GoocH, F. A. Methods in Chemical Analysis. London 1912: Chapman and 

Hall, Ltd. 

[Contains detailed accounts of the many methods of chemical analj-sis which 

have been either originated or developed in the Kent Chemical Laboratory of 

Yale University.] 

GowER, Alfred Ronald. A Text-Book of Experimental Metallurgy and 
Assaying. London : Chapman & Hall, Limited. (Price 3s. Qd. net.) 

Granjox, R., and P. Rosemeerg. Manuel Pratique de Soudure Autoghie. 
8vo. pp. 360, with 257 illustrations. Paris : Office central de 
I'acetylene. (Price 4s. 2d.) 

[Deals v?ith the autogenous welding of copper, brasses and bronzes, alu- 
minium, and alloys.] 

* In Institute of Metals Library. 

Bibliography 255 

Greenwalt, W. E. I7i.e Hydrovietalhirgy of Copper. New York : McGraw- 
Hill Book Company. 1912. (Price 21s.) 

Gulliver, G. H. Metallic Alloys : Tlieir Sfnidnre aud Constitution. London: 
Charles Griffin & Co., Ltd. (Price 10s. 6d.) 

Haenig, a. Emery and the Emery Industry : a Technical Study of Modern 
Abrasives and the Development of the Modern Grinding Machine Industry. 
Translated from the German by C. Salter. pp. 113, with 45 
illustrations. New York, 1912 : Van Nostrand. (Price 12s. 6(L) 

Harvard, F. T. Refractories and Furnaces, pp. 360, illustrated. New 
York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. (Price 17s. net.) 

HiORXS, A. H. Mixed Metals or Metallic Alloys. Third edition, completely 
revised and enlarged. London : Macmillan & Co. (Price 6s.) 

HoBART, J. F. Soft Soldering : Hard Soldering and Brazing, pp. xiii. + 190, 
with 62 illustrations. New York : Van Nostrand. (Price 4s. 2d.) 

[A practical treatise on tools, material and operations : for the use of metal- 
workers, plumbers, tinners, mechanics, and manufacturers.] 

HuTTON, W. Joint Wiping and Lead Work. Svo.pp. vi. + 57, with illustrations. 
New York : D. Williams & Co. (Price 2s.) 

[A series of practical bints on the preparation of lead pipe and connections, 
and the wiping of joints in various positions.] 

Lewes, Vivian B., and J. S. S. Brame. Service CJiemistry, being a Short 
Mamial of Chemistry and Metallurgy, and their Application in the Naval 
and Military Services. London : Edward Arnold. (Price 15s. net.) 

Maryox, H. Metahcork and Enamelling. A Practical Treatise on Gold and 
Silversmith's Work and their Allied Crafts. 8vo. pp. 342. London, 
1912 : Chapman & Hall. (Price 7s. Qd.) 

Metal Statistics 1913. Sixth Edition. New York : American Metal Market 
Company. (Price 2s.) 

[The statistics relate to iron, steel, copper, tin, lead, spelter, aluminium, 
antimony, and silver : a special feature being the tables of prices and the 
corresponding English weights and currencies.] 

MiNET, Adolphe. The Productioji of Aluminium, and its Industrial Use. 
5j inches x 7 inches, 266 pages. 57 illustrations. London : Chapman 
and Hall. (Price $2-50.) 

Morgan, J. J. A' otes on Foundry Practice. London, 1912. Charles Griffin 
& Co., Ltd. (Price 2s. Gd. net.) 

25 6 Bibliography 

Price, W, 15., and E. K. Mead. The Technical Analysis of Brass, and the 
Nov-Fa-rous Alloys. 5 x Ih inches, 267 pages. 17 illustmtions. New- 
York : John Wiley & Sons. (Price |2 net.) 

[The book describes the analytical determination of 10 metals occuring in 
common alloys, and the analysis of 1(5 of the commonest alloys. The .separa- 
tion and determination of Sn, I'b, Al, Fe, Mn, and P in brass is given. Bronzes, 
nickel alloys, babbitt metals, solders, and light aluminium alloys are treated 
separately, and finally the analysis of commercial zinc and copper.] 

Prost, E. Cours de Metallunjic des 3{etaux Andres que le Fer. With 483 
illustrations. Paris and Liege : Ch. Beranger. (Price 30 fr.) 

ScHAEPFER, J. A., and B. S. White. Chemical Analysis of Lead and its Com- 
jwunds. 8vo. pp. 63. New York : Picher Lead Co. 

[Deals with the following : The analj'sis of lead ores ; of sublimed white lead ; 
of sublimed blue lead ; of red lead and orange mineral ; of flake red lead ; of 
litharge ; of basic carbonate of lead ; of pig lead ; the determination of the 
apparent density of pigments; electrolytic deposition of lead; the iodometric 
determination of antimony and arsenic in lead-antimony alloys.] 

Springer, J. F. Oxy-acetylene Torch Practice. Svo. pp. 140, with illustrations. 
New York City : Richardson Press. (Price 12s. 6d.) 

[Deals with ordinary welding ; preheating for oxy-acetylene welding ; welding 
copper and aluminium ; sheet metal welding ; welding tanks, retorts, &c. , welding 
as a calking process ; boiler work ; machine welding ; metal cutting with the 
oxy-acetylene flame ; oxy-acetylene cutting-machines, &c.] 

Table des Matieres des Cinq Premieres Annees de la Revue de Me'tallurgie. 
Part I. — Name Index. Part II. — Subject Index, pp. 300. Paris, 
1913 : Dunod & Pinat. (Price 7s. 6(/.) 

Wetdig, M. Metallurgische und technologische Studien ilher das Ausgliihen von 
Metallen und Legierungen. Large quarto, pp. 121, with 48 illustra- 
tions. Berlin : L. Simion. (Price 6s.) 

[One half of the book consists of a review of the results of other investigators 
on the influence of annealing upon the structure and mechanical properties of 
metals and alloys; the second half relates to copper, nickel, copper-nickel, 
brass, aluminium, bronze, tin-bronze, tin-zinc bronze, German silver, and alu- 
minium, each of which was tested hard and annealed, and the effects on colour, 
lustre, structure, hardness, tensile strength, ductility, and electrical conduc- 
tivity carefully determined.] 

JJlio's Who in Science (Infernational)* 1913. Edited by H. H. Stephenson. 
Svo. pp. 572. London, 1913: J. & A. Churchill. (Price 8s.) 

When, H. The Organometcdlic Compounds of Zinc and Magnesinm. Svo. pp. 91, 
with a bibliography of 6 pages. London, 1913 : Gurney & Jackson. 
(Price Is. Qd.) 

* In Institute of Metals Library. 





Memorandum of Association 259 

1. Name of the Association .......... 259 

2. Registered Office of the Association ........ 259 

3. Objects of the Association .......... 259 

4. Income and Property of the Association ....... 262 

5. Condition on which License is granted to the Association . . . 263 

6. Liability of Members 263 

7. Contribution of Members in the event of the Winding-up of the Associa- 

tion 2G3 

8. Disposal of property remaining after Winding-up or Dissolution of the 

Association 263 

9. Accounts 264 

Articles of Association 265 

\. Constitution 265 

n. Election of Members . 2G6 

in. Council and Mode of Election 268 

IV. Duties of Officers ' . .270 

V. General Meetings 271 

VI. Subscriptions 273 

VII. Audit 274 

VIII. Journal 275 

IX. Communications ........... 275 

X. Property of the Association ......... 275 

XI. Consulting Officers 275 

XII. Indemnity 276 

List of Members 277 

Topographical Index to Members 310 

( 259 ) 

llie ComiKtnies [Consolidation) Act, 1908 

fIDcmoranbutn of Hssociation 



1. The name of the Company is The Institute of Metals. 

2. The Registered Office of the Association will be situate 
in England. 

3. The objects for which the Association is established 
are : — 

(a) To take over the whole or any of the property and 
assets, which can be legally vested in the Asso- 
ciation, and the liabilities and obligations of the 
unincorporated Society known as the Institute 
of Metals, and, with a view thereto, to enter 
into and carry into effect, with or without 
modifications, the agreement which has already 
been engrossed and is expressed to be made 
between Gilbert Shaw Scott of the one part, 
and the Association of the other part, a copy 
whereof has, for the purpose of identification, 
been signed by three of the subscribers hereto. 

{h) To promote the science and practice of non-ferrous 
metallurgy in all its branches, and to assist the 
progress of inventions likely to be useful to 
the members of the Association and to the 
community at large. 

260 Memorandum of Association 

(c) To afford a means of communication between mem- 

bers of the non-ferrous metal trades upon 
matters bearing upon their respective manu- 
factures other than questions connected with 
wages, management of works, and trade 

(d) To facilitate the exchange of ideas between mem- 

bers of the Association and between members 
of the Association and the community at large 
by holding meetings and by the publication of 
literature, and in particular by the publication 
of a Journal dealing wholly or in part with 
the objects of the Association. 

(e) To establish Branches of the Association either in 

the United Kingdom or abroad to be aflSliated 
to the Association upon such terms and con- 
ditions as may be deemed advisable, but so 
that all such Branches shall prohibit the dis- 
tribution of their income and property by way 
of dividend or otherwise amongst their members 
to an extent at least as great as is imposed on 
the Association by virtue of Clause 4 hereof. 

(/) To acquire by purchase, taking on lease or other- 
wise, lands and buildings and all other property 
real and personal which the Association, for the 
purposes thereof, may from time to time think 
proper to acquire and which may lawfully be 
held by them, and to re-sell, under-lease, or 
sub-let, surrender, turn to account, or dispose 
of such property or any part thereof, and to 
erect upon any such land any building for the 
purposes of the Association, and to alter or add 
to any building erected upon such land. 

(g) To invest and deal with the moneys of the Associa- 
tion not immediately required in such manner 
as may from time to time be determined. 

Memorandum of Association 261 

(/i) To borrow or raise or secure the payment of money 
in such manner as the Association shall think 
fit, and in particular by Mortgage or Charge 
upon any of the property of the Association 
(both present and future), and to redeem and 
pay off any such securities. 

{%) To undertake and execute any trusts, the under- 
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ih) To establish and support, or aid in the estabhshment 
and support of associations, institutions, funds, 
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or the dependents or connections of such per- 
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(0 To establish, form, and maintain a library and col- 
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drawings, and other articles of interest in con- 
nection with the objects of the Association, or 
any of them. 

(m) To give prizes or medals as rewards for research, 
for inventions of a specified character, or for 
improvements in the production or manufacture 
of non-ferrous metals and their alloys, and to 
expend money in researches and experiments, 
and in such other ways as may extend the 
knowledge of non-ferrous metals and their alloys. 

ill) To do all things incidental or conducive to the 
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Provided that the Association shall not support with its 
funds or endeavour to impose on or procure to be observed 
by its members any regulations which, if an object of the 
Association, would make it a Trade Union. 

262 Memorandum of Association 

Provided also that in case the Association shall take or 
hold any property subject to the jurisdiction of the Charity 
Commissioners or Board of Education for England and Wales, 
the Association shall not sell, mortgage, charge, or lease the 
same without such authority, approval or consent as may be 
required by law, and as regards any such property the Council 
or Trustees of the Association shall be chargeable for such 
property as may come into their hands, and shall be 
answerable and accountable for their own acts, receipts, 
neglects, and defaults, and for the due administration of such 
property in the same manner and to the same extent as they 
would as such Council or as Trustees of the property of the 
Association have been if no incorporation had been effected, 
and the incorporation of the Association shall not diminish 
or impair any control or authority exercisable by the Chancery 
Division, the Charity Commissioners, or the Board of Education 
over such Council or Trustees, but they shall, as regards any 
such property, be subject jointly and separately to such 
control and authority as if the Association were not incor- 
porated. In case the Association shall take or hold any 
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shall only deal with the same in such manner as allowed 
by law having regard to such trusts. 

4. The income and property of the Association whenceso- 
ever derived shall be applied solely towards the promotion of 
the objects of the Association as set forth in this Memorandum 
of Association, and no portion thereof shall be paid or trans- 
ferred directly or indirectly by way of dividend, bonus, or 
otherwise howsoever by way of profit, to the members of the 
Association. Provided that nothing herein contained shall 
prevent the payment in good faith of remuneration to any 
officers or servants of the Association, or to any member of 
the Association, in return for any services actually rendered 
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or governing body of the Association shall be appointed to 
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Association paid by fees, and that no remuneration or other 
benefit in money or money's worth shall be given to any 

Memoraiidimi of Association 263 

member of sucli Council or governing body except repay- 
ment of out of pocket expenses and interest at a rate not 
exceeding 5 per cent, per annum on money lent, or reasonable 
aad proper rent for premises demised to the Association. 
Provided that this provision shall not apply to any payment 
to any railway, gas, electric lighting, water, cable, or telephone 
company of which a member of the Council or governing body 
may be a member, or any other company in which such 
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capital, and such member shall not be bound to account 
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5. The fourth paragraph of this Memorandum is a con- 
dition on which a license is granted by the Board of Trade to 
the Association in pursuance of Section 20 of the Companies 
(Consolidation) Act, 1908. 

6. The liability of the members is limited. 

7. Every member of the Association undertakes to con- 
tribute to the assets of the Association in the event of the 
same being wound up during the time that he is a member, 
or within one year afterwards, for payment of the debts and 
liabilities of the Association contracted before the time at 
which he ceases to be a member, and of the costs, charges, 
and expenses of winding up the same, and for the adjust- 
ment of the rights of the contributories amongst themselves, 
such amount as may be required not exceeding one pound. 

8. If upon the winding-up or dissolution of the Association 
there remains, after satisfaction of all its debts and liabilities, 
any property whatsoever, the same shall not be paid to or 
distributed among the members of the Association, but shall 
be given or transferred to some other Institution or Institu- 
tions not formed or carrying on business for profit having 
objects similar to the objects of the Association, to be 
determined by the members of the Association at or before 
the time of dissolution, or in default thereof by such 
Judge of the High Court of Justice as may have or acquire 
jurisdiction in the matter, and if and so far as effect cannot 

264 Memorandtmi of Association 

be given to the aforesaid provision, then to some charitable 

9. True accounts shall be kept of the sums of money 
received and expended by the Association, and the matter 
in respect of which such receipt and expenditure takes place, 
and of the property, credits, and liabilities of the Association, 
and, subject to any reasonable restrictions as to the time 
and manner of inspecting the same that may be imposed 
in accordance with the regulations of the Association for 
the time being, shall be open to the inspection of tho 
members. Once at least in every year the accounts of the 
Association shall be examined and the correctness of the 
balance-sheet ascertained by one or more properly qualified 
auditor or auditors. 

WE, the several persons whose names and addresses are 
subscribed, are desirous of being formed into an Association 
in pursuance of this Memorandum of Association. 

Names, Addresses, and Descriptions of Subscribers 

Gerard Albert Muntz, French Walls, Birmingham, Baronet. 

Thomas Turner, The University of Birmingham, Professor of Metal- 

Alfred Kirby Huntington, The University of London, Professor of 

William H. Johnson, 24 Lever Street, Manchester, Iron Merchant 
and Manufacturer. 

James Tayler Milton, Lloyd's Register, E.G., Chief Engineer Surveyor. 

Robert Kaye Gray, Abbey Wood, Kent, Civil Engineer. 

Emmanuel Ristori, 54 Parliament Street, London, S.W., Civil 

Cecil Henry Wilson, Pitsmoor Road, Sheffield, Gold and Silver 

William Henry White, 8 Victoria Street, Westminster, Naval 

Henry John Oram, Admiralty, London, S.W., Engineer Vice- Admiral. 

Dated this 27th Day of July 1910. 

Witness to the above signatures — 

Arthur E. Burton, Solicitor, 

Hastings House, Norfolk Street, 
Strand, W.C. 

( 265 ) 
The Companies (Consolidation) Act, 1908 

Erticles of Bssociattou 




1. For the purposes of registration the number of members 
of the Association is to be taken to be 1000, but the Council 
may from time to time register an increase of members. 

2. The subscribers to the Memorandum of Association and 
such other members as shall be admitted in accordance with 
these Articles, and none others, shall be members of the 
Association and shall be entered on the register of members 

3. Every person who was a member of the unincorporated 
Society known as the Institute of Metals on the day pre- 
ceding the date of the incorporation of this Association, and 
who has not already become a member of this Association 
by virtue of having subscribed the Memorandum of Associa- 
tion thereof, shall be entitled to be admitted to membership 
of the Association upon writing his name in a book which 
has been provided for that purpose, or upon notifying in 
writing to the Association at its Registered Office his desire 
to become a member, and immediately upon the making 
of such entry or the receipt of such notice, shall be deemed 
to have been admitted and to have become a member of 
the Association and shall be placed upon the register of 
members accordingly, and thereupon any sums due and 
owing by such persons to the unincorporated Society shall 
immediately become due and payable by him to the 

266 Articles of Association 

4. Members of the Association shall be either Honorary 
Members, Fellows, Ordinary Members, or Student Members, 
and sliall be respectively entitled to use the following abbre- 
viated distinctive titles : Hon. Members, Hon. M.Inst.Met. ; 
Fellows, F.Inst. Met. ; Ordinary Members, M.Inst.Met. ; and 
Students, S.Inst. Met. 

5. Honorary Members. — It shall be within the province of 
the Council to elect not more than twelve honorary members, 
who shall be persons of distinction interested in or connected 
Avith the objects of the Association. Honorary Members shall 
not be eligible for election on the Council nor entitled to vote 
at meetings of the Association, and the provisions of Article 7 
and Clause 7 of the Memorandum of Association shall not apply 
to such members. 

Fellows shall be chosen by the Council, shall be limited in 
number to twelve, and shall be members of the Institute 
who have, in the opinion of the Council, rendered eminent 
service to the Association. 

Ordinary Members shall be more than twenty-three 
years of age, and shall be persons occupying responsible 
positions. They shall be either (a) persons engaged in 
the manufacture, working, or use of non-ferrous metals and 
alloys ; or (b) persons of scientific, technical, or literary 
attainments connected with or interested in the metal trades 
or with the application of non-ferrous metals and alloys. 

Student Members shall be more than seventeen years of 
age, and shall not remain Student Members of the Association 
after they are twenty-five years of age, and shall be either 
(a) Students of Metallurgy ; or (b) pupils or assistants of 
persons qualified for ordinary membership whether such 
persons are actually members of the Association or not. 
Student Members shall not be eligible for election on the 
Council nor entitled to vote at the meetings of the Association. 


6. Save as hereinbefore provided, applications for member- 
ship shall be in writing in the form following marked " A," 


Articles of Association 267 

and such application must be signed by the applicant and 
not less than three members of the Association. 

To the Secretary. 

I, the undersigned, , being of 

the required age and desirous of becoming a Member of the 

Institute of Metals, agree that I will be governed by the regulations of 
the Association as they are now formed, or as they may be hereafter 
altered, and that I will advance the interests of the Association as far as 
may be in my power ; and we, the undersigned, from our personal know- 
ledge, do hereby recommend him for election. 

Name in full 


Business or Profession 



Dated this day of , 19 . 

of three 

7. Such applications for membership as Ordinary Members 
or Student Members as are approved by the Council shall 
be inserted in voting lists. These voting lists will constitute 
the ballot papers, and will specify the name, occupation, 
address, and proposers of each candidate. They shall be 
forwarded to the members for return to the Secretary at a 
fixed date, and four-fifths of the votes recorded shall be 
necessary for the election of any person. 

Every such election shall be subject to the payment by the 
applicant of his entrance fee and first annual subscription, and 
he shall not become a member of the Association nor be 
entered on the Register of Members until such sums are 
actually received from him. In the event of his failing to 
pay such sums within the time specified in the notification to 

268 Articles of Association 

him of his election, as provided in the next clause hereof, his 
election shall be void, 

8. Upon election under the preceding Article the Secretary 
shall forward to the applicant so elected notice thereof in 
writing in the form following marked " B." 


Sir, — I beg to inform you that on the you 

were elected a Member of the Institute of Metals, subject to 

the payment by you of an entrance fee of .£ , and of your 

first annual subscription of & . These must be paid to 

me on or before the day of 19 j otherwise your 

election will become void. 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 


9. In the case of non-election, no mention thereof shall be 
made in the minutes. 


10. The affairs of the Association shall be managed and 
conducted by a Council, which shall consist of a President, 
Past-Presidents, six Vice-Presidents, fifteen Members of 
Council, an Hon. Secretary or Hon. Secretaries, and an Hon. 
Treasurer. All members who have filled the office of 
President shall be, so long as they remain members of the 
Association, ex officio additional members of the Council under 
the title of Past-Presidents. The first members of the Council 
shall be the following : — President, Sir Gerard Muntz, Bart. ; 
Vice-Presidents, Prof. H. C. H. Carpenter, Prof. W. Gowland, 
Prof. A. K. Huntington, Engineer Vice-Admiral H. J. Oram, 
Sir Henry A. Wiggin, Bart. Ordinary Members of Council, 
T. A. Bayliss, G. A. Boeddicker, Clive Cookson, J. Corfield, 
R. Kaye Gray, Summers Hunter, Dr. R. S. Hutton, E. Mills, 
J. T. Milton, G. H. Nisbett, E. Ristori, A. E. Seaton, Cecil H. 
Wilson, Prof. T. Turner (Hon. Treasurer), W. H. Johnson 
(Hon. Secretary). 

Articles of Association 269 

11. Clauses 87, 89, 91, 92, 93, and 94 of the Table A in 
tlie First Schedule of the Companies (Consolidation) Act, 
1908, shall apply to and form part of the Regulations of 
the Association, with the substitution of " Members of the 
Council " for " Directors " wherever in such clauses occurring. 

12. The quorum for the transaction of business by the 
Council may be fixed by the Council, but shall not be less 
than five. 

13. The first business of the Association shall be to acquire 
the property and assets, and to undertake the liabilities and 
obligations of the unincorporated Society known as the 
Institute of Metals, and for the purpose of so doing the 
Council shall forthwith take into consideration, and, if 
approved, adopt on behalf of the Association, the Agreement 
referred to in Clause 3 (a) of the Memorandum of Association. 

14. The President shall be elected annually, and shall be 
eligible for re-election at the end of the first year, but shall 
not be eligible for re-election again until after an interval of 
at least two years. 

15. Two Vice-Presidents and five Members of the Council, 
in rotation, shall retire annually, but shall be eligible for 
re-election. The members of the Council to retire in every 
year shall be those who have been longest in office since their 
last election, but as between persons who became members of 
the Council on the same day, those to retire shall (unless 
they otherwise agree among themselves) be determined by lot. 
In addition, those Vice-Presidents and Members of Council 
shall retire who have not attended any meeting of the Council 
or Association during the previous year, unless such non- 
attendance has been caused by special circumstances which 
shall have been duly notified to, and accepted by, the Council 
as sufficient explanation of absence. 

16. At the Ordinary General Meeting preceding the Annual 
Meeting, the Council shall present a list of members nomi- 
nated by them for election on the Council. Any ten mem- 
bers may also, at such Meeting, nominate a candidate other 

270 Articles of Association 

than one of those nominated by the Council. A list of candi- 
dates so nominated shall be forwarded to each member of the 
Association, and must be returned by him to be received by 
the Secretary not later than seven days preceding the Annual 

17. A member may erase any name or names from the list 
so forwarded, but the number of names on the list, after such 
erasure, must not exceed the number to be elected to the 
respective offices as before enumerated. The lists which do 
not accord with these directions shall be rejected by the 
Scrutineers. The votes recorded for any member as Presi- 
dent, shall, if he be not elected as such, count for him as 
Vice-President, and, if not elected as Vice-President, shall 
count for him as ordinary member of the Council. And the 
votes recorded for any member as Vice-President shall, if he 
be not elected as such, count for him as ordinary member 
of the Council. 

18. The Council shall have power to appoint a member 
to fill up any vacancy that may occur in the Council during 
their year of office, but any person so appointed shall hold 
office only until the next following Ordinary General Meeting, 
and shall then be eligible for re-election. 


19. The President shall be Chairman at all Meetings at 
which he shall be present, and in his absence one of the 
Vice-Presidents, to be elected, in case there shall be more 
than one present, by the Meeting. In the absence of a 
Vice-President, the members shall elect a Chairman for 
that Meeting. 

20. An account shall be opened in the name of the 
Association with a Bank approved by the Council, into which 
all moneys belonging to or received by the Association shall 
be paid. All cheques on such account shall be signed by 
a member of the Council and countersigned by the Honorary 

Articles of Association 271 

Treasurer. No account shall be paid before it has been 
certified as correct by the Council, 

21. The Hon. Secretary or Secretaries shall be elected or 
appointed by the Council. He or they shall attend all Meetings, 
shall take minutes of the proceedings, shall be responsible 
for the safe custody of all papers, books, and other moveable 
property of the Association, and shall perform such other 
duties as may be prescribed by the Council from time to time. 
In particular, he or they shall be responsible for editing the 
Journal of the Institute of Metals. 

The Council shall have power to appoint a paid Secretary 
or Secretaries, and to delegate to him or them all or any of 
the duties of the Hon. Secretary or Secretaries. 


22. The First General Meeting shall be held at such time, 
not being more than three months after the incorporation 
of the Association, and at such place as the Association 
may determine. Subsequent there shall be at least two 
General Meetings in each calendar year, one of which shall 
be held in London during the first three months of the 
calendar year, and the other at such time after the said 
Meeting to be held in London and in such locality as the 
Council may direct. The Meeting in London shall be the 
Annual General Meeting. 

The quorum for a General Meeting shall be 10 members 
personally present. 

23. The Council may convene an Extraordinary General 
Meeting for any special purpose whenever they consider it to 
be necessary. The Council shall convene an Extraordinary 
General Meeting for a special purpose, upon a requisition to 
that effect, signed by not less than twenty members. The 
business of such a Meeting shall be confined to the special 
subjects named in the notice convening the same. No mem- 
ber whose subscription is in arrear shall be entitled to debate 
or to vote at any General Meeting, 

272 Articles of Association 

In case of equality of voting at any Meeting the Chairman 
shall have an additional or casting vote. 

24. Seven days' notice at the least (exclusive of the day on 
v/hich the notice is served or deemed to be served, but in- 
clusive of the day for which notice is given) specifying the 
place, the day, and the hour of Meeting, and, in case of special 
business, the general nature of that business, shall be given in 
manner hereinafter mentioned, or in such other manner, if 
any, as may be prescribed by the members of the Association 
in General Meeting, to such persons as are, under the regula- 
tions of the Association, entitled to receive such notices from 
the Association, but the non-receipt of the notice by any 
member shall not invalidate the meeting. 

25. A notice may be given by the Association to any mem- 
ber, either personally or by sending it by post to him to his 
registered address, or (if he has no registered address in the 
United Kingdom) to the address, if any, within the United 
Kingdom supplied by him to the Association for the giving of 
notices to him. 

Where a notice is sent by post, service of the notice shall be 
deemed to be effected by properly addressing, prepaying, and 
posting a letter containing the notice, and a certificate of the 
Secretary or other Officer of the Association that such notice 
was so posted shall be sufficient proof of service. A notice so 
posted shall be deemed to have been served the day following 
that upon which it was posted. 

26. If a member has no registered address in the United 
Kingdom, and has not supplied to the Association an address 
within the United Kingdom for the giving of notices to him, 
a notice addressed to him and advertised in a newspaper 
circulating in the neighbourhood of the registered office of 
the Association shall be deemed to be duly given to him on 
the day on which the advertisement appears. 

27. Notice of every General Meeting shall be given in 
some manner hereinbefore authorised to every member of the .J 
Association, except those members who (having no registered « 

Articles of Association 273 

address within the United Kingdom) have not supplied to 
the Association an address within the United Kingdom for 
the giving of notices to them. No other persons shall be 
entitled to receive notices of General Meetings, but the Asso- 
ciation may, but shall not be bound to give notice of General 
Meetings to members not entitled thereto in such manner as 
in the opinion of the Council may be practicable and con- 


28. The subscription of each ordinary member shall be two 
guineas per annum, and of each student member one guinea 
per annum. Ordinary members shall pay an entrance fee of 
two guineas each, and students an entrance fee of one guinea 
each. Provided that no entrance fee shall be required from 
any person who was a member of the unincorporated Society 
known as the Institute of Metals on the day preceding the 
Incorporation of this Association, and who had paid an en- 
trance fee to the said Society. No entrance fee or sub- 
scription shall be payable in the case of Honorary members. 

29. Subscriptions shall be payable in advance on July 1st 
in each year, save in the case of Ordinary Members and 
Student Members elected under Clauses 6 and 7 hereof, 
whose entrance fee and annual subscription shall become 
payable in accordance with the notification to them of their 
election. Every subscription shall cover the period down to 
the 30 th of June next following, and no longer, and for this 
purpose any subscription paid to the unincorporated Society 
for the period of July 1st, 1909, to June 30th, 1910, by any 
person who becomes a member of this Association shall go and 
be in satisfaction of any payment due in respect of membership 
of this Association up to the 30th of June 1910. 

30. Subject to the provisions of Clause 7 hereof, any 
member whose subscription shall be six months in arrear, 
shall forfeit temporarily all the privileges of the Association. 
Due notice in the Form following marked " C " shall be 
given to such member, and if such subscription remains 


274 Articles of Association 

unpaid upon the date specified for payment in this notice, 
the Council may remove such member from the Register 
of Members of the Association, and thereupon any member 
whose name is so removed shall cease to be a member 
thereof, but shall nevertheless remain liable to the Association 
for such arrears. 


Sir, — I am directed to inform you that your subscription to the 

Institute of Metals, due , and amounting to <£ , 

is in arrear, and that if the same be not paid to me on or before the 

day of , 19 , your name will be removed 

from the Register of Members of the Association. 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 


31. The Council may, in their discretion, and upon such 
terms as they think fit (including the payment of all arrears), 
accede to any application for reinstatement by a person whose 
name has been removed from the Register under the last 
preceding Clause hereof, and the name of any person so 
reinstated shall be placed upon the Register of Members 

The Council, in their discretion, may remove from the 
Register the name of any member who shall, in the opinion 
of the Council, be undesirable or unfit to remain a member 
after first giving him a reasonable opportunity of being 
heard, and thereupon he shall cease to be a member of the 

Section VII.— AUDIT 

32. The provisions of the Companies (Consolidation) Act, 
1908, as to Audit and Auditors shall apply to and be observed 
by the Association, the first General Meeting being treated as 
the Statutory Meeting, the Council being treated as the 
Directors, and the members being treated as the Shareholders 
mentioned in that Act. 

Articles of Association 275 


33. The Journal of the Association may inckide one or 
more of the following : — 

(«) Communications made by members, students, or 

(5) Abstracts of papers appearing elsewhere, 
(c) Original papers appearing elsewhere. 
id) Advertisements approved by the Council. 

Every member shall be entitled to receive one copy of each 
issue of the Journal, delivered, post free, to his registered 


34. All communications shall be submitted to the Council, 
and those approved may be brought before the General 
Meetings. This approval by the Council shall not be taken 
as expressing an opinion on the statements made or the 
arguments used in such communications. 


35. All communications so made shall be the property of 
the Association, and shall be published only in the Journal 
of the Association, or in such other manner as the Council 
may decide. 

36. All books, drawings, communications, models, and the 
like shall be accessible to members of the Association, and the 
Council shall have power to deposit the same in such place or 
places as they may consider convenient for the members. 


37. The Council shall have power to appoint such con- 
sulting officers as may be thought desirable from time to 
time, and, subject to the provisions of Clause 4 of the 
Memorandum of Association, may vote them suitable re- 

276 Articles of Association 


38. Every member of Council, Secretary, or other officer 
or servant of the Association, shall be indemnified by the 
Association against, and it shall be the duty of the Council 
out of the funds of the Association to pay all costs, losses, 
and expenses which any such officer or servant may incur 
or become liable to by reason of any contract entered into 
or act or thing done by him as such officer or servant 
or in any way in the discharge of his duties, including 
travelling expenses. 

Names, Addresses, and Descriptions of Subscribers 

Gerard Albert Muntz, French Walls, Birmingham, Baronet. 

Thomas Turner, The University of Birmingham, Professor of Metal- 

Alfred Kirby Huntington, The University of London, Professor of 

William H. Johnson, 24 Lever Street, Manchester, Iron Merchant 
and Manufacturer. 

James Tayler Milton, Lloyd's Register, ii:c., Chief Engineer Surveyor. 

Robert Kaye Gray, Abbey Wood, Kent, Civil Engineer. 

Emmanuel Ristori, 54 Parliament Street, London, S.W., Civil 

Cecil Henry Wilson, Pitsmoor Road, Sheffield, Gold and Silver 

William Henry White, 8 Victoria Street, Westminster, Naval 

Henry John Oram, Admiralty, London, S.W., Engineer Vice-Admiral. 

Dated this 27th day of July 1910. 

Witness to the above signatures — 

Arthur E. Burton, Solicitor, 

Hastings House, Norfolk Street, 
Strand, W.C. 


Members of Council are indicated by italics. 
Original Me/nbcrs arc those who were elected 1 908-9. 
t Denotes Contributor of Paper, 











Glazebrook, Richard Tetley, C.B., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., 
Director, The National Physical Laboratory, Ted- 
dington, Middlesex. 
Le Chatblier, Professor Henry, 

75 Rue Notre Dame des Champs, Paris, France. 
Noble, Captain Sir Andrew, Bart,, K.C.B., D.L., D.C.L., 
Sc.D., F.R.S., 

14 Pall Mall, S.W. 


Abbott, Robert Rowell, B.Sc. 

Peerless Motor Car Co., Cleveland, 0., U.S.A. 
Adams, George, 

Strathblane, Forest Glade, Leytonstone, Essex. 
Adamson, Joseph, 

Oaklands, Hyde, Cheshire. 
Ainsworth, George, 

The Hall, Consett, Durham. 
Allan, Andrew, Jun., 

A. Allan & Son, 486 Greenwich Street, New 
York, U.S.A. 
Allan, James McNeal, 

R. W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., Ltd., St, Peter's 
Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Allely, William Smith, 

3 Regent Street, Birmingham, 
Allen, John Hill, 

54 Westfield Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 


The Institute of Metals 









Allen, Thomas James Wigley, 

German Silver Works, Spring Hill, Birmingham. 
Allen, William Henry, 

Queen's Engineering Works, Bedford. 
Anderson, Frederic Alfred, B.Sc, 

Bank Chambers, 24 Grainger Street West, New- 
Andrew, John Harold, M.Sc, 

Victoria University, Manchester. 
Andri, Alfred, 

General Manager, Fabrique Rationale d'Armes de 
Guerre, Herstal-pres-Liege, Belgium. 
Appleton, Joseph, 

Appleton ife Howard, 12 Salisbury Street, St. Helens. 
Appleyard, Rollo, 

79 St. Mary's Mansions, Paddington, W. 
Archbutt, Leonard, 

4 MadeJey Street, Derby. 
Ash, Engineer-Commander Harold Edward Haydon, 

London and Glasgow Engineering Company, 172 
Lancefield Street, Glasgow. 
Ash, Percy Claude Matchwick, 

10 Broad Street, Golden Square, W. 
Ashoff, Wilhelm, 

Basse and Selve, Altena, Westphalia, Germany. 
Aston, Henry Hollis, 

Tennal House, Harborne, Birmingham. 




Bailey, George Herbert, D.Sc, Ph.D., 

Edenmor, Kinlochleven^ Argyll, N.B. 
Bain, James, 

The Cunard Engine Works, Huskisson Docks, 
Bainbridge, John William, 

2 Fen Court, Fenchurch Street, E.G. 
Baker, Thomas, D.Sc, M.Met., 

Westville, Doncaster Road, Rotherham. 
Bamford, Charles Clifford, 

Winfields Rolling Mills, Cambridge Street, Bir- 
Bannister, Charles Olden, Assoc.R.S.M., 

60 West Side, Clapham Common, S.W. 
Barclay, Alexander Clark, 

Minas Sotiel Coronada, Prov. de Huelva, Spain. 

List of Members 



















1 1 Barclay, William Robb, 

50 Upper Albert Road, Meersbiook, Sheffield. 
Barker, John Henry, 

Birmingham Metal and Munitions Company, Ltd., 
Adderley Park Mills, Birmingham. 
Barnard, Alfred Henry, 

H. B. Barnard & Sons, 148i Fenchurch St., E.G. 
Barnard, George, 

Callendar's Cable and Construction Company, Ltd., 
Cambridge Street, Birmingham. 
Barr, Professor Archibald, D.Sc, 

Westert07i, Milngavie, N.B. 
Barwell, Charles H., 

Barwells Ltd., Pickford Street, Birmingham. 
Bassett, William H., 

American Brass Co., Waterbury, Conn., U.S.A. 
Bates, Major Darwin, 

The Orchard, Huyton, Liverpool. 
Baty, Ernest Jocelyn, B.Sc, 

4 Highfield Road, Luton, Bedfordshire. 
Bawden, Frederick, 

Garston Copper Works, Liverpool. 
Baylay, Willoughby Lake, 

Foremark, Dorridge, Warwickshire. 
Bayliss, Thomas Abraham, 

King's Norton Metal Co., Ltd., King's Norton, Bir- 
Bayliss, Thomas Richard, 

Belmont, Northfield, Birmingham, 
Bean, G., 

Allen Everitt & Sons, Ltd., Kingston Metal 
Works, Smethwick, Birmingham. 
Beare, Professor T. Hudson, B.A., B.Sc, 

Engineering Laboratories, The University, 
Becker, Pitt, 

18/19 Fenchurch Street, E.C. 
Bedford, Charles Yvone Riland, 

H. H. Vivian & Co., Ltd., Icknield Port Road, 
Bedson, Joseph Phillips, 

137 Lapwing Lane, Didsbury, Manchester. 
Beer, Ludwig, 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co., Frankfurt - am - Main, 
t Beilby, George Thomas, LL.D., F.R.S., 

11 University Gardens, Glasgow. 


The Institute of Metals 


1912 Belaiew, Captain Nicholas T., 

Chemical Laboi-atory, Michael Artillery Academy, 
St. Petersburg, Russia. 
1908-9 Bell, Sir Hugh, Bart., D.L., D.C.L., LL.D., 

Rounton Grange, Northallerton. 
1908-9 Bell, Thomas, 

J. Brown & Co., Ltd., Clydebank, Dumbartonshire. 

1911 t Benedicks, Professor Carl Asel Frebrik, Ph.D., 

Tegnerlunden 3'^', Stockholm Va, Sweden. 
1908-9 t Bengough, Guy Dunstan, M.A., D.Sc, 

The University, Liverpool. 
1908-9 Bensel, Arlington, 

1141 Broad Street, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.A. 
1908-9 Benton, Arthur, 

Benton Brothers, Rodley Foundry, Sheffield. 
1908-9 Bevis, Henry, 

Pirelli, Limited, 144 Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 
1910 Bevis, Restal Ratsey, 

Hamptoune, Yyner Road, Birkenhead, 
1908-9 Bibby, John Hartley, 

John Bibby k. Company (Garston), Limited, Garston 
Copper Works, Liverpool. 
1908-9 Biles, Professor Sir John Harvard, Kt., LL.D., D.Sc, 

10 University Gardens, Glasgow. 
1908-9 BiLL-GozzARD, George, 

Stephenson Chambers, 39a New Street, Birmingham. 
1908-9 BiLLiNGTON, Charles, 

" Heimath," Longport, Staffordshire. 
1908-9 Birch, Harry, 

" Inglewood," Chester Road, Streetly, Birmingham. 
1908-9 Blaikley, Arthur, 

10 Provost Road, South Hampstead, N.W. 
1908-9 Bloomer, Frederick John, 

Penpont, Clydach, S.O., Glamorganshire. 
1908-9 Blount, Bertram, 

76/78 York Street, Westminster, S.W. 
1908-9 BoEDDiCKER, GusTAV Adolf {Vice-Presiclent), 

Henry Wiggin i|* Comjmny, Limited, Wiggin Street 
Works, Birmingham. 

1912 Bolton, Edward John, 

Lightoaks, Oakamoor, Stoke-on-Trent. 
1908-9 Bolton, Thomas, 

T. Bolton & Sons, Limited., 57 Bishopsgate, E.C. 
1912 BooTE, Edgar Middleton, 

2 Lithos Road, Hampstead, N.W. 
1908-9 Booth, Cuthbert Rayner, 

) Jas. Booth & Co., Ltd., Sheepcote St., Birmingham. 

List of Meinbers 



1913 BoRCHERS, Professor Wilhelm, Dr.Ing., Dr. Ph., 

Ludwigsallee 15, Aachen, Germany. 

1911 BowRAN, Robert, 

Robert Bowran k, Company, Limited, 4 St. Kicholas' 
Buildings, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1911 BoYLSTOx, Herbert Melville, B.Sc, M.A., 
Sauveur & Boylston, Abbot Building, Harvard 

Square, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 
1908-9 Braby, Cyrus, 

F. Braby & Co., Ltd., 110 Cannon Street, E.C. 

1912 Bradley, Benjamin, 
Bradley Ore Treatment Company (1910), Limited, 

Dunston Metal Works, Dunston-on-Tyne. 
1908-9 Bray, David, 

Glenwood, Hardwick Road, Streetly, Birmingham. 
1908-9 Brecknell, Henry Edwin Frank, 

330 Fishponds Road, Eastville, Bristol. 
1912 Bregowsky, Ivan M., 

Crane Company, 1214 Canal Street, Chicago, 111., 
1908-9 Bridges, Frederick William, 

Hardicareman and Ironmongers^ Chronicle, 124 
Hoi born, E.C. 
1908-9 Broadfoot, James, 

Lymhurst, South Brae Drive, Glasgow. 
1908-9 Broadfoot, William Ritchie, 

John Bi'oadfoot & Sons, Ltd., Inchholm Works, 
James Street, Whiteinch, Glasgow. 
1908-9 Brockbank, John George, 

1 Cannon Street, Birmingham. 
1910 Brook, George Bernard, 

Cravenhurst, Fulwood, Sheffield. 
1908-9 Brooks, John Frederick, 

Engineering Department, Municipal Technical 
School, Leicester. 
1908-9 Brown, Charles A. J. 

"Glenroy," Gillott Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

1910 Brown, James, 
Scotts' Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, 

Limited, Greenock. 
1908-9 Brown, Robert John, 

W. Turner & Company, 75-79 Eyre Street, 
1908-9 Brown, William, 

London Works, Renfrew. 

1911 Brown, William Meikle, 
46 Bede Burn Road, Jarrow-on-Tyne. 


The Institute of Metals 


1911 Browne, Sir Benjamin Chapman, Kt., 

Westacies, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
1908-9 Brownsdon, Henry Winder, M.Sc, Ph.D., 

109 Oxford Road, Moseley, Birmingham. 
1908-9 Buchanan, Charles, 

Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 
71 Fenchurch Street, E.C. 
1908-9 BucKWELL, George William, 

Board of Trade Surveyors' Office, 73 Robertson 
Street, Glasgow. 

1911 BuELL, William Heaney, Ph.B., 
Winchester Repeating Arms Company, New Haven, 

Conn., U.S.A. 
1908-9 BuLLEiD, Professor Charles Henry, M.A., 

University College, Nottingham. 

1912 Burner, Alfred, 
A. G. Mumford, Limited, Culver Street Engineering 

Works, Colchester. 
1908-9 Buttenshaw, George Eskholme, 

" Lynbrook," Wilbraham Road, Ohorlton-cum- 
Hardy, Lancashire. 


79 Endlesham Road, Balham, S.W. 

1908-9 Caird, Patrick Tennant, 

Belleaire, Greenock, Renfrewshire. 

1908-9 Caird, Robert, LL.D., 

56 Esplanade, Greenock, Renfrewshire. 

1910 Campion, Professor Alfred, 
The Royal Technical College, Glasgow. 

1908-9 Canning, Thomas Richard, 

W. Canning & Co., 133 Great Hampton Street, 

1911 Capp, John A., 
General Electric Company, Schenectady, N.Y., 


1912 Cardozo, Henri Alexandre, 
54 Rue de Prony, Paris, France. 

1908-9 Careaga, Cipriano R., 

Plaza Circular 4, Bilbao, Spain. 
1910 Carels, Garston Louis, 

53 Dock, Ghent, Belgium. 
1910 Carlyle, Professor William Arthur, B.A.Sc, Ma.E., 

Grange Cottage, The Grange, Wimbledon, Surrey. 
1908-9 Carnt, Edwin Charles, 

Westwood, Wootton Bridge, Isle of Wight. 

List of Members 



1908-9 t Carpenter, Professor Henry Cort Harold, M.A. 
{Oxon.), Ph.D. {Leijj-Jff), (Vice-President), 
The University, Manchester. 
1908-9 Carr, James John William, 

Stoney Dale, Smethwick, Birmingham. 
1908-9 Carter, Arthur, 

Brookfield Yilla, Stalybridge. 
1908-9 Ohalas, Emile Clayey, 

Chalas & Sons, Finsbury Pavement House, Fins- 
bury Pavement, E.C. 
1908-9 Chambers, David Macdonald, 

D. M. Chambers & Company, 2 Piazza Belgiojoso, 
Milano, Italy. 

1909 Charleton, Arthur George, Assoc.R.S.M., 
5 Avonmore Road, West Kensington, W. 

1911 Oharpy, Georges, 

Directeiu' des TJsines St. Jacques, Montlujon, 

1910 Chatterton, Alfred, B.Sc, 
Director of Industries, Post Box ^o. 112, Madras, 

1908-9 Clamer, Guilliam H., B.S., 

The Ajax Metal Company, Frankford Avenue, 
Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
1908-9 Clark, George, 

Richardsons, Westgarth & Company, Limited, 
1908-9 Clark, Henry, 

George Clark, Limited, Southwick Engine Works, 
1908-9 Clark, John, 

British India Steam Navigation Company, Limited, 
9 Throgmorton Avenue, E.C. 
1908-9 Clayton, George Christopher, Ph.D., 

Croughton, near Chester. 
1908-9 Gleghorn, Alexander, 

14 Hatfield Drive, Kelvinside, Glasgoio. 
1908-9 ! Cleland, William, B.Sc, 

Sheffield Testing Works, Blonk Street, Sheffield. 
1908-9 Collie, Charles Alexander, 

Earle, Bourne & Company, Limited, Lejonca, 
Bilbao, Spain. 
1909 , Connolly, James, 

Zuurfontein Foundry, Zuurfontein, Transvaal, 
South Africa. 


58 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 


The Institute of Metals 













QooKSON, Clive, 

CoolisoH (^ Company, Limited, Milhurn House, 
Newcastle-on-T ijne. 
CoRPiELD, John, 

Dillwyn & Company, Limited, Swansea. 
CoRFiELD, Reginald William Godfrey, Assoc. R.S.M., 

5 Richmond Villas, Swansea. 
Corse, William Malcolm, B.Sc, 

Secretary, American Institute of Metals, c/o Lumen 
Bearing Company, Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.A. 
CoURTMAN, Ernest Owen, Assoc.R.S.M., 

Denford House, Atkins Road, Olapham Park, S.W. 
OowAN, George Dunford, 

Bridge House, Bridge Road, Millwall, E. 
Cowper-Ooles, Sherard Osborn, 

The Cottage, French Street, Sunbury-on-Thames. 
Crawford, William Mitchell, 

41 Kelvinside Gardens N., Glasgow. 
Crighton, Robert, 

Harland & Wolff, Limited, Bootle, Liverpool. 
Crofts, Frederick J., 

Bloomfield House, Tipton. 
Crosland, James Foyell Lovelock, 

67 King Street, Manchester, 
Crowther, James Guest, 

5 Sharrow Mount, Psalter Lane, Sheffield. 
Cullen, William Hart, 

Castner - Kellner Alkali Company, Limited, 
Wallsend, Northumberland. 

1911 Dale, Robert Davidson, 
121 Colmore Row, Birmingham. 

1910 Dance, Edward Leonard, 

20 Lovaine Place, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
1908-9 Danks, Aaron Turner, 

John Danks & Son, Proprietory, Limited, 391 
Bourke Street, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

1909 Davies, Peter, Jun., 
Crown Copper Works, Garston, Liverpool. 

1908-9 Davison, Captain Herbert, 

379 Upper Richmond Road, S.W. 

1912 Dawlings, Richard Maurice Neave, 
85 Teignmouth Road, Brondesbury, N.W. 

1910 Dawson, William Francis, 
The General Electric Company, West Lynn, Mass., 


List of Members 


Deer, George, 

Rio Tinto Company, Port Talbot, South Wales. 
Dendy, Edward Evershed, 

Elliott's Metal Company, Limited, Selly Oak, 
Denny, James, 

Engine Works, Dumbarton. 
Desch, Cecil Henry, D.Sc. (Lond.), Ph.D. (Wurz.), 

Metallurgical Chemistry Laboratory, The Univer- 
sity, Glasgow. 
Desgraz, Adolphe, 

Prinzenstrasse 1a, Hanover, Germany. 
Dewrange, John, 

165 Great Dover Street, S.E. 
Dingwall, Frederick William, 

40 Chapel Street, Liverpool. 
DoBBS, Ernest Walter, 

110 Holly Road, Handsworth, Birmingham. 
Drury, Harry James Hutchison, 

4 Priorton Terrace, Swansea. 
Duff, Philip John, 

Apartment 4c, 548 West 164th Street, New York 
City, U.S.A. 
DuGARD, George Heaton, 

Dugard Brothers, Vulcan Mills, Birmingham. 
DuGARD, Herbert Arthur, 

Dugard Brothers, Shadwell Street Mills, 
Duncan, Hugh Malcolm, B.Sc, 

5 King Edward's Road, Heaton, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Dunn, John Thomas, D.Sc, 

Public Analyst's Laboratory, 10 Dean Street, 
DuNSMUiR, George Augustus, 

Dunsmuir & Jackson, Limited, Govan Engine 
Works, Govan, Glasgow. 
Dyson, William Henry, 

The Amalgams Company, Limited, Attercliffe Road, 

Earle, John William, 

Heath Street South, Birmingham. 
EccLES, Ernest Edward, 

The British Aluminium Company, Ltd., Foyers, N.B. 
Echevarri, Juan Thomas Wood, 

43 Merton Hall Road, Wimbledon, S.W. 


The Institute of Metals 
















Eden, Charles Hamilton, 

Glynderwen, Blackpill, S.O., Glamorganshire. 
Edmiston, John Alexander Clark, 

53 West Road, Irvine, Ayrshire. 
t Edwards, Charles Alfred, M.Sc, 

Dorman, Long & Company, Britannia Works, 
] Middlesbrough. 

Edwards, John James, 

Royal Laboratory, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. 
Ellis, Henry Disney, 

30 Blackheath Park, S.E. 
Ely, Talfoukd, 

India-rubber, Gutta-percha, and Telegraph Works 
Company, Limited, Silvertown, E. 
Enthoven, Henry John, 

153 Leadenhall Street, E.C. 
EssLEMONT, Alfred Sherwood, 

County of Durham Electrical Power Distribution 
Company, Royal Exchange Buildings, New- 
Evans, Samuel, M.Sc, 

Bradley Williams Ore Treatment Company (1910), 
Limited, Dunston Metal Works, Dunston-on- 
Evered, Stanley, 

Evered & Company, Limited, Surrey Works, 
Smetliwick, Birmingham. 

Farley, Douglas Henry, 

Union Lane, Sheffield. 
Fay, Henry, A.M., Ph.D., 

Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
Feron, Albert, 

49 Rue du Chatelain, Brussels, Belgium. 
Ferry, Charles, 

Bridgeport BrassCompany,Bridgeport,Conn., U.S. A. 
Fisher, Henry Jutson, 

A. T. Becks k, Company, 54 Clement Street, 
Foersterling, Hans, 

The Roessler and Hasslacher Chemical Company, 
Perth Amboy, N.J., U.S.A. 
FoRSBERG, Erik August, 

Aktiebolaget Separator, Fleminggatan 8, Stock- 
holm, Sweden. 
Forsstedt, James, 

Aktiebolaget Svenska Metallverken, VesterSs, 

List of Members 


Francis, Arthur Aubrey, 

38 Lime Street, E.G. 
Francis, Reginald, 

The English Crown Spelter Company, Limited, 
9 Queen Street Place, E.C. 
Fraser, Kenneth, 

The Yorkshire Copper Works, Limited, Pontefract 
Road, Leeds. 
Frey, J. Heinrich, 

Zurich, Switzerland. 

Gardner, Henry, 

H. R. Merton k Company, Limited, Billiter 
Buildings, E.C. 
Gardner, James Alexander, Ayrshire, 

21 Cuthbert Place, Kilmarnock. 
Garfield, Alexander Stanley, B.Sc, 

10 Rue de Londres, Paris, France. 
Garland, Herbert, 

P.O. Box 417, Cairo, Egypt. 
Garnham, Frederick Malcolm, 

23 Durley Road, Stamford Hill, N. 
Garnham, James Coote, 

132 Upper Thames Street, E.C. 
Garrett-Smith, Noel, 

Edison & Swan United Electric Light Company, 
Limited, Ponder's End, Middlesex. 
Gaywood, Charles Frederick, 

Sydney Cottage, Durham Road, Sparkhill, 
Gem, Evelyn Percy, 

George Johnson & Company, Montgomery Street, 
Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 
GiBB, Maurice Sylvester, 

Central Marine Engine Works, West Hartlepool. 
GiBBiNS, William Waterhouse, M.A., 

Selly Oak, Birmingham. 
Gibbons, William Gregory, 

{^Address viissin(j.) 
Gilchrist, James, 

Stobcross Engine Works, Glasgow. 
GiLLEiT, Horace W., A.B., Ph.D., 

Morse Hall, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. 
GiRDWooD, Robert Walker, 

Wm. Gallimore & Sons, Arundel Works, Sheffield. 


The Institute of Metals 


1908-9 GiRTiN, Thomas, M.A., 

H. L. Raphael's Refinery, 48 Thomas Street, 
Limehouse, E. 
1908-9 GoLDSCHMiDT, Hans, Ph.D., 

Th. (ioldschmidt Chemical and Tin Smelting Works, 
Essen- Ruhr, (iermany. 
1908-9 Goodwin, Engineer-Rear- Admiral George Goodwin, R.N., 


" Meadowside," 91 Thurleigh Road, Wandsworth 
Common, S.W. 
1912 Gordon, Joseph Gordon, 

15 Queen Anne's Mansions, S.W. 
1908-9 GowER, Francis William, 

The Birmingham Aluminium Casting (190.S) 
Company, Limited, Cambridge Street, 
1908-9 t GowLAND, Professor William, F.E.S., Assoc.R.S.M. 
( Past-President), 

13 R^issell Road, Kensington, W. 
1908-9 Gracie, Alexander, 

Fairfield Works, Govan, Glasgow. 
1912 Graham, Alfred Henry Irvine, 

Fuller's Cottage, Ditton Rd., Surbiton. 
1 908-9 Gra V, RoBk k t Ka vb, 

India-ruhber, Gutta-2')erclia, and Telegraph Works 
Company, Limited, 106 Cannon Street, B.C. 
1910 Grazebrook, Engineer-Lieutenant Robert, R.N., 

The Admiralty, Whitehall, Westminster, S.W. 
1908-9 t Greenwood, Herbert William, 

" Buenos Aires," Los Barreros, Cartagena, Spain. 
1908-9 Greenwood, Thomas, 

Rosegarth, Ilkley, Yorkshire. 
1910 Greenwood, Vladimir Edward, 

i^Address missing.) 
1908-9 Greer, Henry Holme Airey, 

James C. Greer & Son, 62 Buchanan Street, 
1910 Gregory, Sewell Harding, 

120 Coleherne Court, S.W. 
1908-9 Grice, Edwin, 

5 Beach Mansions, Southsea, Hampshire. 
1908-9 Griffiths, Harold, 

The New Delaville Spelter Company, Limited, 
Spring Hill, Birmingham. 
1909 Grimston, Francis Sylvester, 

Hawksdale, Naini Tal, Upper India. 


List of Members 


Groves, Clarence Richard, M.Sc, 

Gamble Institute, St. Helens, Lancashire. 
GuERTLER, William Minot, Ph.D., 

Kunz-Buntschuh-Str. 7b, Berlin-Grunewald, 
Guess, Professor George A., 

Oakville, Ontario, Canada. 
GuiLLEMiN, Georges, 

16 Rue du Sommerard, Paris (5*^), France. 
GuiLLET, Professor Leon, 

8 Avenue des Ternes, Paris, France. 
Gulliver, Gilbert Henry, B.Sc, 

The University, Edinburgh. 
GwYER, Alfred George Cooper, B.Sc. (Lond.), Ph.D. 

The British Aluminium Company, Limited, Milton, 

Haddock, Walter Thorpe, 

The Heeley Silver-Rolling and Wire Mills, Ltd., 
Hadfield, Sir Robert Abbott, Kt., D.Sc, F.R.S,, D.Met., 

22 Carlton House Terrace, S.W. 
Haggie, Robert Hood, 

Tyne Holme, Wealdstone, Middlesex. 
Hall, Henry Platt, 

Piatt Brothers and Company, Limited, Oldham. 
Hall-Brown, Ebenezer, 

Richardsons, Westgarth & Co., Ltd., Middlesbrough. 
Hallett, Joseph, 

70 Fenchurch Street, E.G. 
Hamilton, Gerard Montague, 

Calle Chicarreros 10, Sevilla, Spain. 
Hankinson, Alfred, 

Richard Johnson, Clapham & Morris, Limited, P.O. 
Box 1102, Sydney, Australia. 
Hanna, Robert Walker, 

4 Birch Terrace, Dickenson Eoad, Eusholme, 
Hanna, William George, 

4 Birch Terrace, Dickenson Road, Rusholme, 
Harbord, Frank William, Assoc.R.S.M., 

16 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 
Harlow, Bernard Schaffer, 

Robert Harlow & Son, Heaton Norris, Stockport. 



The Institute of Metals 


1908-9 Harris, Henry William, 

2 Fairlawn Mansions, New Cross Gate, S.E. 
1911 Harris, Thomas IIobert, 

2 Calverley Villas, Dawley Road, Harlington, 

1911 Harrison, John Samuel, 

Llanberis, Chester Road, near Erdington, 
1908-9 Hartley, Richard Fredi:rick, B.Sc, 

Royal Laboratory, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. 
1911 t Haughton, John Leslie, M.Sc. 

51 Clarence Road, Teddington, Middlesex. 
1908-9 Heap, John Henry, 

The British Mining and Metal Company, Limited, 
123-127 Cannon Street, E.C. 
1908-9 Heap, Ray Douglas Theodore, 

3 Vanbrugh Park Road West, Blackheath, S.E. 
1908-9 Heathcote, Henry Leonard, B.Sc, 

Rudge-Whitworth, Limited, Coventry. 
1908-9 Heberlein, Ferdinand, 

Bockenheimer Anlage 45, Frankfurt am Main, 
1908-9 Heckford, Arthur Egerton, 

Birmingham Metal Works, Fredei'ick Street, 

1910 Heinrich, Eugen, 
P. H. Muntz & Company, Limited, Alexandra 

Works, West Bromwich. 

1911 Hendry, Colonel Patrick William, 
Chairman, Hendry Brothers, Limited, 32 Robertson 

Street, Glasgow. 
1908-9 Herdsman, William Henry, 

22 Newlands Park, Sydenham, S.E. 

1912 Heusler, Friedrich, Ph.D., 
Isabellen-Hiitte, Dillenburg (Hessen-Nassau), 

1911 Hewitt, Professor John Theodore, M.A., D.Sc, Ph.D., 


Clifford House, Bedfont, Middlesex. 
1908-9 Heycock, Charles Thomas, M.A., F.R.S., 

3 St. Peter's Terrace, Cambridge. 
1908-9 Highton, Douglas Clifford, M.A., 

Highton & Son, Limited, Brassfounders and 
Engineers, 20 Graham Street, City Road, N. 
1911 Hill, Ernest Henry, 

13 East Grove Road, Sheffield. 

List of Members 















1908 9 





Hills, Charles Harold, B.Sc, 

Heatherdown, Hindhead, Haslemere, Surrey. 
Hirst, Tom Greenough, 

49 Union Street, Leigh, Lancashire. 
HoBSON, Arthur E., 

International Silver Company, Meriden, Conn., 
HoDGKiNSON, Professor William Richard E., M.A., 

Ph.D., 89 Shooter's Hill Road, Bhickheath, S.E. 
HoFMAN, Professor Heinrich Oscar, Ph.D., 

Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
Hogg, Thomas Williams, 

John Spencer & Sons, Ltd., Newburn Steel Works, 
near Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Holloway, George Thomas, Assoc. R.S.M., 

9-13 Emmett Street, Limehouse, E. 
Holmes, Joseph, 

Welsh Tinplate and Metal Stamping Company, 
Limited, Brondeg, Llanelly, South Wales. 
Holt, Harold, 

E. Kempster & Sons, Borough Brass Works, Bury, 
Holt, Thomas William, 

103 Wakefield Road, Staly bridge, Manchester. 
Hood, James MacLay, 

Rowallan, Maryland Drive, Glasgow, S.W. 
Hooton, Arthur J. S., 

S. H. Johnson k, Company, Limited, Engineering 
Works, Carpenter's Road, Stratford, E. 
Hopkins, Suwarrow Moore, 

Birmingham Battery and Metal Company, Ltd., 
Selly Oak, Birmingham. 
Hopkinson, Frank Addy, 

Chairman, J. Hopkinson & Company, Limited, 
Britannia Woi'ks, Hviddersfield. 
Howe, Professor Henry Marion, M.A., B.Sc, LL.D., 

Broad Brook Road, Bedford Hills, N.Y., U.S.A. 
HoYT, Professor Samuel Leslie, 

School of Mines, University of Minneapolis, 
Minneapolis, Minn., U.S.A. 
Hudson, Oswald Freeman, M.Sc, 

The University, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
Hughes, George, 

Lancashire and Yorkshire Raihvay Works, Horwich, 
Hughes, George Frederick, 

Box 23, Pietersburg, Transvaal, South Africa. 


The Institute of Metals 







PIuGHES, Joseph, 

Albion Metal Works, Woodcock Street, Birmingham. 
Hughes, Theophilus Vaughan, Assoc.R.S.M., 

130 Edmund Street, Birmingham. 
Hull, Daniel Raymond, 

American Brass Company, Kenosha, Wisconsin, 
Humphreys, Thomas Clement, 

76 Gibbins Road, Selly Oak, Birmingham. 
Humphries, Henry James, 

Atlas Metal and Alloys Company, 52 Queen Victoria 
Street, E.C. 
Hunter, George Burton, D.Sc, 

HuNTF.K, Sc/jfAf/^RS ( Vice- President), 

1 Manor Terrace, Tynemouth. 
Huntington, Professor Alfred Kir by, Assoc.R.S.M. 

Metallurgical Laboratories, King's College, London. 
Hurburgh, Leonard Henry, 

W. F. Dennis & Co., 49 Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 
HuRREN, Frederick Harold, 

6 Earlsdon Lane, Coventry. 
HussEY, Arthur Vivian, 

Dolgarrog Works, Tal-y-cafn, North Wales. 
HuTTON, Robert Salmon, D.Sc, 

William. Hutton ^ Sons, Limited, Sheffield. 
Hyman, Walter, 

I. & J. Hyman, Thornhill Bridge Wharf, London,K. 

1910 Inglis, George Alexander, B.Sc, 

64 Warroch Street, Glasgow. 

1910 Jack, Henry Joseph, 

60 London Wall, E.C. 
1908-9 Jackson, Richard, 

Burn Croft, Rosemary Hill, Little Aston, Sutton 
Coldfield, Birmingham. 
1910 Jackson, Sydney Albert, 

" Orotava," Parsonage Road, Heaton Moor, Man- 
1908-9 Jacob, Arthur, 

The British Aluminium Company, Limited, 109 
Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 
1908-9 Jacob, Henry, 

Henry Jacob & Company, 9 Water Lane, E.C. 

List of Members 




Jacobs, Harry, 

Exchange Buildings, New Sti-eet, Birmingham, 
Jago, William Henry, Admiralty Overseer, 

59 Vancouver Road, Forest Hill, S.E. 
James, Garnet Williams, M.A. (Oxon.), 

Metallurgical Laboratory, King's College, W.C. 
Jarry, E. v., 

R. Buckland & Son, 10/11 Hop Gardens, St. Martin's 
Lane, W.C. 
Jennison, Herbert Charnock, 

P.O. Box 348, Ansonia, Conn., U.S.A. 
Johnson, Arthur Laurence, M.A., 

Woodleigh, Altrincliam. 
Johnson, Bernard Angas, 

c/o National Provincial Bank, Finchley Road, 
Hampstead, N.W. 
Johnson, Ernest, M.A., 

Richard Johnson & Nephew, Limited, Bradford 
Iron Works, Manchester. 
Johnson, Frederick, M.Sc, 

Metallurgical Department, Municipal Technical 
School, Suffolk Street, Birmingham. 
Johnson, Harold Marsland, 

Bradford Iron Works, Manchester. 
Johnson, William Henry, B.Sc. {Vice-President), 

Richard Johnson, Claphani tj* Morris, Litiuted, 
24 Lever Street, Manchester. 
Johnson, William Morton, M.A., 

Richard Johnson, Clapham & Morris, Limited, 
24 Lever Street, Manchester. 
JuDE, Alexander Archie, 

Belliss and Morcom, Limited, Birmingham. 

Kamps, Hans, 

Directeur de la Fabrique Nafcionale de Tubes sans 
Soudre, Merxem-lez-Anvers, Belgium. 
Kaye, Harry, 

H. B. Barnard & Sons, 148 A Fenchurch Street, E.G. 
Keeling, A. D., 

Warstone Metal Works, Hall Street, Birmingham. 
Keiffenheim, Erwin Charles, 

The Metallurgical Company, A. Keiffenheim and 
Sons, Milburn House, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Keiffenheim, Hugo William, 

The Metallurgical Company, A. Keiffenheim and 
Sons, Milburn House, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 


The Institute of Metals 

1908-9 I Kemp, John Frank, 

1 A. Kemp k Son, Tenby Street North, Birmingham. 

1908-9 Kendrew, Thomas, 

Broughton Copper Company, Limited, Manchester. 

1910 KiDSTON, William Hamilton, 

81 Great Clyde Street, Glasgow. 
1908-9 [viNG, Ernest Gerald, Editor, The Metal Industry, ' 

33 Bedford Street, Strand, W.C. 
1908-9 Kirkaldy, John, 

101 Leadenhall Street, E.C. 
1913 Kirkaldy, William George, 

99 South wark Street, S.E. 
1908-9 KiRKPATRiCK, Vincent, 

Closeburn, Hartopp Road, Four Oaks, Sutton 
Coldfield, Birmingham. 
1908-9 t Klein, Carl Adolphe, 

4 Brim.sdown Avenue, Enfield Highway, Middlesex. 

1908-9 Lacy, William Yaveir, 

Oak Mount, Westbourne Road, Edgbaston, 
1908-9 Laing, Andrew, 

15 Osborne Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1912 Lambert, Arthur Reginald, 
Mitsui & Company, Limited, 33 Lime Street, E.C. 

1913 Lambert, Wesley, A. K. C, 
55 Plumstead Common Road, S.E. 

1908-9 Lancaster, Harry Charles, 

Locke, Lancaster and W. W. and R. Johnson and 
Sons, Limited, 94 Gracechurch Street, E.C. 
1908-9 Landsberg, Heinrich, 

Heddernheimer Kupferwerk und Siiddeutsche 
Kabelwerke, Aktiengesellschaft, Frankfurt-am - 
Main, Germany. 
1908-9 Lang, Charles Russell, 

G. & J. Weir, Limited, Holm Foundry, Cathcart, 
1908-9 Langdon, Palmer H., Editor, The Metal Industry, 

I 99 John Street, New York City, U.S.A. 

1908 9 ; Langenbach, Oscar, 

17 Bolton Gardens, S.W. 
1908-9 Lantsberry, Frederick C. A. H., M.Sc, 

63 Walford Road, Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 
1908-9 t Law, Edward Fulton, Assoc.R.S.M., 

1 16 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 

1911 Lazarus, William, 

I 193 Regent Street, W. 


List of Members 

















Ledoux, Albert R., 

Ledoux & Company, 99 John Street, New York 
City, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Lees, Charles, 

Loanda, Wickwar, Gloucester. 
Leigh, Cecil, 

Birmingham Metal and Munitions Company, 
Limited, Birmingham. 
Leslie, Robert, 

P. & O. Steam Navigation Company, 122 
Leadenhall Street, E.C, 
Lessner, Charles Bluthner, 

The San Finx Tin Mines, Limited, Carril, Spain. 
Lester, Walter, 

The Phosphor Bronze Company, Limited, 87 
Sumner Street, S.E. 
Letcher, William Whitburn, 

84 Queen Elizal)eth's Walk, Lordship Park, N. 
Levi, Clive Joseph, B.Sc, 

143 Newhall Street, Birmingham. 
Little, Arthur Dehon, 

Arthur D. Little, Inc., 93 Broad Street, Boston, 
Mass., U.S.A. 
LiVERSiDGE,Engineei"-Commander Edward William, R.N. , 

H.M. Dockyard, Gibraltar. 
LoNGMUiR, Percy, B.Met., 

Ravenscrag, Wortley, near Sheffield. 
Lord, Fitzherbert Albert Bugby, 

49 Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 
Louis, Professor Henry, M.A., D.Sc, Assoc.R.S.M., 

4 Osborne Terrace, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Low, Archibald Nicol, 

Partick Brass Foundry Company, Merkland Works, 
Partick, Glasgow. 

McConwell, Arthur, 

60 Drury Buildings, Water Street, Liverpool. 
Macfee, Robert, 

15 Alexandra Grove, Chorlton-on-Medlock, 
Macintosh, James Rae, B.Sc, 

Siemens Brothers Dynamo Works, Limited, 
Central House, Birmingham. 
McKechnie, Alexander, 

McKechnie Brothers, Rotton Park Street, 
McKechn'ie, James, 

Vickers, Limited, Barrow-in-Furness. 


The Institute of Metals 


1908-9 Mackenzie, William, 

McKeclinie Brothei^s, 90 Pilgrim Street, Newcastle- 
1908-9 McLaurin, Engineer-Commander John, R.N., 

The Laurels, Branksome Wood Road, Fleet, 
1908-9 t McWiLLiAM, Professor Andrew, Assoc.R.S.M., D.Met., 

Kalimati, B. N. Railway, India. 
1912 Malby, Seth Grant, 

Aluminium Company of America, 99 John Street, 
New York City, U.S.A. 
1911 Mallisont, George, 

50 Fenchurch Street, E.C. 

1911 Manthorpe, Robert Salton, 

Poste Restante, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 
1908-9 Mapplebeck, Edward, 

Liverpool Street, Birmingham. 
1908-9 Mapplebeck, Edward Percy Wilkes, 

J. Wilkes, Sons k, Mapplebeck, Limited, Livei'pool 
Street, Birmingham. 

1912 Marshall, Engineer-Commander Frederick William, 


The Admiralty, Whitehall, Westminster, S.W. 
1908-9 Mason, Frank, 

Wayland House, 70 Wayland Road, Sheffield. 
1910 Maw, William Henry, LL.D., 

18 Addison Road, Kensington, W. 
1908-9 May, William Walker, 

Woodbourne, Minard Avenue, Partickhill, Glasgow. 

1913 Mayo, Charles Robert, 

155 Dashwood House, New Broad Street, E.C. 
1908-9 Menzies, John, 

Merton Abbey, S.W^. 
1908-9 Mercer, James Bury, 

Hollycroft, Deepthwaite, Milnthorpe, Westmorland. 
1908-9 Merrett, William Henry, Assoc.R.S.M., 

Hatherley, Grosvenor Road, Wallington, Surrey. 
1908-9 Meyjes, Anthony Cornelius, Editor, Tlie Ironmonger, 

42 Cannon Street, E.C. 

1910 Meyrick, Lewis Jenkin, 

137 City Road, Birmingham. 

1911 Michie, Arthur C, D.Sc, 
The Wallsend Laboratories, Neptune Road, 

1908-9 Miller, John, 

52 Hillside Terrace, Springburn, Glasgow. 

List of Members 



















MiLLiNGTON, Ernest, 

Manox' Road, BoiTOwash, Derby. 
Mills, Edward, 

Williams, Foster k Company, and Pascoe, 
Grenfell & Sons, Limited, Morfa Copper 
Works, Swansea. 
Mills, Harry, 

Grice, Grice & Son, Limited, Nile Street, 
Mills, John Hodgson, 

Atlas Aluminium Works, Grove Street, Birmingham. 
Mills, William, 

"Danesbury," Alderbrook Road, Solihull, 
Milton, James Tayler, 

Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 
71 Fenchurch Street, E.C. 
MiTTON, Thomas E., 

Hunt & Mitton, Crown Brass Works, Oozells Street 
North, Birmingham. 
MoRCOM, Edgar Llewellyn, M.A., 

Trencrom, Woodbourne Road, Edgbaston, 
MoREHEAD, Charles, 

72 Highbury, West Jesmond, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
MoRisoN, William, 

172 Lancefield Street, Glasgow. 
Morrison, Willi Aur Murray, 

The British Aluminium Comjyany, Limited, 109 
Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 
Mount, Edward, 

Oaklands, Aughton, near Ormskirk, Lancashire. 
MijNKER, Emil, 

Merkator Str. 186, Duisburg, Germany. 
MuNTZ, Sir Gerard Albert, Bart. (Past-President), 

Muntz's Metal Co^npany, Limited, French Walls, 
near Birmiiigham. 
Murray, Myles Thornton, M.Sc, 

South African School of Mines, Johannesburg, 
Transvaal, South Africa. 
Murray, William, Jun., 

John Mills & Sons, Walker-Gate Brass Works, 

Narracott, Ronald William, D.Sc, 

The British Mining and Metal Company, Limited, 
123-125 and 127 Cannon Street, E.C. 


The Institute of Metals 

1912 Nead, John Huntek, B.S., 

\ c/o H. H. Franklin Manufacturing Company, 

i Syracuse, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1908-9 ' Nesbit, David Mein, 

Northumbria, Knighton Drive, Leicester. 
1908-9 Niggemann, Berndaud Joseph, 

26 Chapel Street, Liverpool. 
1908-9 Nisbett, George Hind, 

British Insulated and Helsby Cables, Limited, 
Prescot, Lancashire. 
1908-9 Norman, John Thomas, 

The City Centi-al Laboratory 23 Leadenhall Street, 

1910 Oakden, Professor William Edward, 

2 Gledhow Terrace, South Kensington, S.^Y. 

1908-9 Ogg, Major George Sim, R.A., 

Ishapore, Bengal, India. 

1912 Olsson, Martin Campbell, 

6 St. Helen's Place, E.C. 

1910 Onyon, Engineer-Captain William, M.V.O., R.N., 
W. Beardmore & Co., Dalmuir, N.B. 

1908-9 Oram, Engineer Vice- Admiral Sij- Henry John, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. ( Vice-President), 

The Admiralty, Whiteliall, Westminster, S. W. 
1908-9 Orde, Edwin Lancelot, 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Company, 
Limited, Wallsend Shipyard, Newcastle-on- 
1908-9 Owen, Halsall, 

Burfield, Appleton, near Warrington. 

1912 Palmer, Arthur Cecil Hunter, 

Queensland Government Offices, 410 Strand, W.C. 
1908-9 Parker, William Bayley, 

1 Murray Road, Rugby. 
1908-9 Parsons, The Hon. Sii- Charles Algernon, K.C.B., 

LL.D., D.Sc, M.A., D.Eng., F.R.S. 

Holeyn Hall, Wylam-on-Tyne. 

1911 Parsons, The Hon. Geoffry Lawrence, M.A., 
C. A. Parsons & Company, Heaton Works, 

Newcastl e-on-Tyne. 
1908-9 Patchett, Colonel James, 

The Shropshire Iron Company, Limited, Hadley, 
near Wellington, Shropshire. 
1910 Paterson, David, 

Vickers Street, Miles Platting, Manchester. 

L ist of Members 299 

1908-9 I 1 Paterson, John, 

1 ' Park k, Paterson, Limited, 22 Backcauseway Street, 

Parkhead, Glasgow. 
1908-9 I ' Paterson, Sydney, 

28 Portarlington Road, Bournemouth. 
1908-9 Paterson, William, 

Park & Paterson, Limited, 22 Backcauseway Street, 
Parkhead, Glasgow. 
1908-9 Paul, Matthew, 

Levenford Works, Dumbarton. 
1908-9 Pearce, Gilbert Bennett, 

i "The Beeches," Hayle, Cornwall. 

1908-9 Pearce, Richard, Ph.D., 

6 Beach Lawn, Waterloo, Liverpool. 
1908-9 Peard, George Wordsworth, 

Heys House, Rainhill, Lancashire. 
1908-9 ; Pearson, George Charles, 

129 Victoria Road, Old Charlton. 
1908-9 Petavel, Professor Joseph Ernest, D.Sc, F.R.S., 

The University. Manchester. 
1908-9 jt: Philip, Arnold, B.Sc, Asi^, 
, : , I Admiralty Cliemisfs Departmenf, H.M. Dockyard, 

1908-9 Phillips, Henry Haecourt, 

Lynwood, Turton, Lancashire, 

1912 Player, William, 

54 Calthorpe Road, Edgbaston, Bu'mingham. 

1913 Pollard, William Branch, B.A., 

I Beit-el-Barrache, Bulak Dakrur, Egypt. 

1908-9 PoppLETON, George Graham, C.A., C.C. (Honorary 

Auditor), 26 Corporation Street, Birmingham. 

1908-9 PoTTiE, George, 

42 ^lansfield Road, Ilford, Essex. 

1908-9 Pratten, William John, 

Mornington, Derryvolgie Avenue, Belfast, Ireland. 

1911 Preece, Arthur Henry, 

Preece, Cardew & Snell, 8 Queen Anne's Gate, 
Westminster, S.W. 
1908 9 Preston, Panizzi, 

Milton Hall, Steventon, Berkshire. 

1912 Price, William B., Ph.B., 

Scovill Manufacturing Company, Waterbury, Conn., 
1908-9 t Primrose, Harry Stewart, 

, 7 Newlands Cx-escent, Cathcart, Glasgow. 


The Institute of Metals 

1908-9 t Primrose, John Stewart Glen, 

The Royal Technical College, Glasgow. 

1908-9 Quirk, George Henry, 

33 Bishopsgate, E C 
1908-9 Quirk, John Steele, 

Quirk, Barton & Burns, St. Helens, Lancashire. 

1908-9 Radley, William Albert, 

5 Lyddon Terrace, Leeds. 
1911 Rao, Seshagiri Raghavendra, B.A. B.Sc, 

Superintendent of Industries, Camp Kunigal, 
Mysore Province, India. 

1911 Raven, Vincent Litchfield, 
North- Eastern Railway, Darlington. 

1908-9 Redding, Frederick Chapman, 

Gun and Shell Factory, Cossipore, E.B.S. Railway, 
near Calcutta, India. 
1910 Redwood, Sir Boverton, Bart., D.Sc, 

Wadham Lodge, Wadham Gardens, Hampstead, 
1908-9 Reed, Joseph William, 

Mayfield, Jarrow-on-Tyne. 
1908-9 Reid, Andrew Thomson, 

Hyde Park Locomotive Works, Glasgow. 
1908-9 Reid, Edwin Safford, 

National Conduit and Cable Company, Limited, 
Oxford Court, Cannon Street, E.C. 

1912 Rejto, Professor A., 

Miiegyetem, Budapest, Hungary. 
1908-9 t Rhead, Ezra Lobb, M.Sc.Tech., 

Municipal School of Technology, Manchester. 
1908-9 Richards, Engineer-Commander John Arthur, R.N., 

47 Ridgemount Gardens, W.C. 

1913 Rider, Joseph Jackson, 

" Roxton," Chester Road, Erdington, Birmingham. 
1908-9 Ridge, H. M., 

H. M. Ridge & Company, 62 London Wall, E.C. 
1908-9 Rigby, Robert, 

New John Street Metal Works, Birmingham. 
1908-9 t Robertson, Walter Henry Antonio, 

Robertson k Company, Limited, Engineers, 
Lynton Works, Bedford. 
1911 Robinson, Joseph Henry, 

Globe Road, E. 

List of Members 


Elected I 

1908-9 RoBSON, Oswald Henry, 

[ 273 New Cross Road, S.E. 

1908-9 I RoDGERS, John, 

I Joseph Rodgers & Sons, Limited, 6 Norfolk Street, 

1908-9 Rogers, Henry, 

"Gartly," 75 Blenheim Road, Moseley, Birmingham. 

1910 I Ronald, Henry, 
9 Northumberland Road, Leamington. 


Metallwerk, Manfred Weiss, Ctepel, near Budapest, 
1912 t Rose, Thomas Kirke, D.Sc, Assoc.R.S.M., 

Royal Mint, E. 
1908-9 t ll'^SENHAiN, Walter, B.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., 

I The National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, 

I Middlesex. 

1908-9 Rosenthal, James Hermann, 

Babcock & Wilcox, Ltd., Oriel House, Farringdon 
Street, E.G. 
1908-9 Rowland, Arthur Ernest, 

9 Meadow Street, Sheffield. 
1908-9 Rowley, Ernest Whitworth, 

Chemical Laboratory, North-Eastern Railway, 
1908-9 Ruck, Edwin, 

19 Bryn Road, Swansea. 
1908-9 Ruck-Keene, Harry Arthur, 

I Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 

I 71 Fenchurch Street, E.C. 

1908-9 I Rush, Engineer-Commander Henry Charles, R.N., 

; Bow, McLachlan & Company, Paisley, Renfrewshire. 

1908-9 j Russell, Charles Arthur, 

C. Holdin & Company, Limited, 17 Exchange 
I Buildings, Birmingham. 

1911 j Russell, Stuart Arthur, 

I India-rubber, Gutta-percha, and Telegraph Works 

Company, Limited, Silvertown, E. 
1908-9 ; Ruthenburg, Marcus, 

1 Kingsway, W.C. 
1908-9 Rutherford, William Paterson, 

1 The Tharsis Sulphur and Copper Company, 136 

I West George Street, Glasgow. 

1908-9 Ryder, Tom, 

j Thomas Ryder & Son, Turner Bridge Works, Tonge, 



The Institute of Metals 












Saklatwalla, B. D., B.Sc, Dr.Ing., 

American Vanadium Co., Bridgeville, Pa., U.S.A. 
Sales, Hakhy, 

15 Musgiove Road, New Cross, S.E. 
Saposhnikow, Professor Alkxis, 

Zabalkansky pr. 9, St. Petersburg, Russia. 
Sauveuk, Professor Albkrt, 

20 Elmwood Avenue, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 
ScHLEiCHEu, Aladar Paul, Ph.D., 

Merleg-utcza, 11 I., Budapest, V., Hungary. 
ScHLUND, Leon, B.Sc, 

32 Clerkenwell Road, E.G. 
Scott, Augustine Alban Hamilton, 

13 Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
Scott, Charles, 

Scott & Hodgson, Ltd., Guide Bridge Iron Works, 
near Manchester. 
Sea TON, Albert Edivaev, 

32 Victoria Street, S.W. 
Seligman, Richard, Ph. Nat. D., 

Point Pleasant, Putney Bridge Road, Wandsworth, 
Seligmann, Hardy, 

38 Lime Street, E.G. 
Sharples, James, 

846 Ashton Old Road, Higher Openshaw, 
Sheppard, Robin Mylrea, 

French Walls, Birmingham. 

1908-9 t Siemens, Alexander, 

I Siemens Brothers & Company, Limited, Caxton 

House, Westminster, S.W. 
1908-9 i Silvester, Harry, B.Sc, 

36 Paradise Street, Birmingham. 
1908-9 I SiMKiNS, Alfred George, 

j 1 Walkers, Parker &, Company, Limited, 63 Belvedere 

Road, Lambeth, S.E. 
1908-9 Sinclair, Alexander, 

6 Richmond Villas, Swansea. 
1912 SiTWELL, Captain Norman Sisson Hurt, R.A., 

Cox & Company, Charing Cross, S.W. 
1910 Sjogren, Andreas Samuel, 

Svenska Metallverken, Gothenburg, Sweden. 
1912 Sjogren, Justus Fredrik, 

S. A. Edwards & Company, Limited, 30 Easy Row, 

List of Members 


Elected , I 
Member. ! i 

1908-9 , t j Smith, Ernest Alfred, Assoc. R.S.M., 

! Assay Office, Leopold Street, Sheffield. 

1908-9 j Smith, Frederic, 

: Anaconda Woiks, Balford, Manchester. 

1908-9 I Smith, Hugh Dunford, 

7 and 9 The Side, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
1908-9 Smith, Herbert Melville, 

Hill Top, Abbey Wood, Kent. 
1908-9 Smith, Herbert Procter, 

I Hawarden Bridge Steel Works, Shotton, Chester. 

1908-9 Smith, Philip Warton, 

5 Philpot Lane, E.G. 
1910 Smith, Sydney William, B.Sc., Assoc. R.S.M., 

Royal Mint, E. 
1912 Smith, Sir William Edward, C.B., 

10 Hillhury Road, BalTiam, S.W. 

1910 Sperry, Erwin S., 

j Editor, The Brass World, 260 John Street, 

Bridgeport, Conn., U.S.A. 
1908-9 Spittle, Arthur, 

30 Regent Street, Smethwick, Birmingham. 

1909 Stanley, Professor George Hardy, Assoc. R.S.M., 
South African School of Mines, P.O. Box 1176, 

Johannesburg, Soutli Africa. 
1908-9 Stanley, William Neems, 

12 Spencer Road, Gottenham Park, Wimbledon, 
1908-9 Stansfield, Professor Alfred, D.Sc, Assoc.R.S.M., 

! Chemistry Building, McGill University, Montreal, 

1908-9 Stead, John Edward, D.Sc, D.Met., F.R.S., 

, 11 Queen's Terrace, Middlesbrough. 

1911 j Stenhouse, Thomas, B.Sc, Assoc.R.S.M., 
Admiralty Chemist's Department, H.M. Dockyard, 

1908-9 I Stephen, Alexander Edward, 

Linthouse, Govan, Glasgow. 
1908-9 Steven, Carl, 

Carlswerk, Miilheim-amRhein, Germany. 
1908-9 Steven, James, 

Steven k Struthers, Eastvale Place, Kelvinhaugh, 

1910 I Stevens, Victor G., 
75 Livingstone Road, King's Heath, Birmingham. 

1910 > Stevenson, Robert, 

72/80 Brown Street, Glasgow. 


The Institute of Metals 




] 908-9 






Stockhausen, Friedrich, Ph.D., 

Weissfiauen Strasse 7/9, Frankfurt-am-Main, 
Stoney, George Gerald, F.R.S., 

" Oakley," Heaton Road North, Newcastle-on- 
Storey, William Edward, 

Lowood, Torrington Park, North Finchley, N, 
Strange, Henry, 

8 Boldmere Road, Erdington, Birmingham. 
Stutz, R., 

Thermit, Limited, 27 Martin's Lane, Cannon 
Street, E.G. 
SuLMAN, Henry Livingstone, 

44 London Wall, E.G. 
Sumner, Leonakd, M.Sc, 

The Brmujhton Copper Works, Manchester. 
Sutherland, John, 

The Bauxite Refining Company, Hebburn-on-Tyne. 
Swift, James Beaumont, 

77 Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 
Symonds, Harry Lambert, 

" Sunnyside," Woodland Avenue, Hornehurch, 

1908-9 Tawara, Professor Kunuchi, 

5 Kamifujimayecho, Komagome, Hongo, Tokyo, 
1908-9 j Taylor, Charles, 

I Lathe and Tool Works, Bartholomew Street, 

' j Birmingham. 

1911 Taylor, Charles Wardrope, 

North-Eastern Foundry and Engineering Works, 
! South Shields. 

1908-9 j Taylor, J. S., 

The Corinthians, Acock's Green, Birmingham. 
1911 ' Taylor, William Ivan, 

Kynock, Limited, Umbogintwini, Durban, S. Africa. 
1910 L'earoe, James, 

The Queensland Government Ofl&ces, 409 Strand, 
1908-9 ^ I Teed, Engineer-Commander Henry Richard, R.N., 

j 54 Riverdale Road, Sheffield. 

1908-9 Tertzw^eil, Leon, 

I I Clouterie des Flandres, Gentbrugge, Belgium. 

List of Members 


Elected i i 

1911 ! Thomas, Frank Moreton, 

] Stores Superintendent, Port of London Authority, 

i 106 Fenclmrch Street, E.G. 

1908-9 Thomas, Hubert Spence, 

Hillside, Penylan, Cardiff, South Wales. 

1912 Thompson, John Fairfield, B.Sc, Ph.D., 

The International Nickel Company, Orford Works, 
Bayonne, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

1910 Thompson, Robert, 

155 Fenchurch Street, E.G. 
1908-9 Thorne, Emmanuel Isaac, 

13 Cantwell Road, Plumstead, Kent. 
1908-9 TiDSALL, Eugene, 

49 Willow Road, Bournville, Birmingham. 
1912 TiEMANN, Hugh Philip, B.S., A.M., 

I Carnegie Building, Pittsburg, Pa., U.S.A. 

1908-9 TiTLEY, Arthur, 

Titley & Wall, Curzon Chambers, Paradise Street, 
1908-9 ToMLiNSON, Frederick, 

Broughton Copper Company, Limited, Manchester. 
1912 f Tucker, Alexander Edwin, 

55 Station Street, Birmingham. 

1911 Tucker, Percy Alexander, 

P.O. Box 143, Germiston, Transvaal, South Africa. 
1908-9 TuRNBULL, Nicholas King, 

3 York Street, Manchester. 
1911 Turner, Alfred, 

70 Cavendish Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
1908-9 i t Turner, Professor Thomas, M.Sc. {Vice-President and 
Honorary Treasurer), 

The University, Edghaston, Birmingham. 

1911 Vance, Robert, 

Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 
Caixa 636, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, South 
1908-9 Vaughan, William Isaiah, 

Cogan House, Sully Road, near Penarth, 
1908-9 Vesey Brown, Charles Sidney, 

\ Milburn House, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1908-9 , Vivian, Hugh, 

1 Vivian & Sons, Hafod Copper Works, Swansea. 

1908-9 i Vivian, The Hon. Odo Richard, M.V.O., 

I I Vivian & Sons, Hafod Copper Works, Swansea. 



The Institute of Metals 





























Wainwright, Thomas George, 

Fern Lea, Stocks Lane, Stalybiidge, Manchester. 
Wales, Thomas Coulthard, 

T. W. Ward, Limited, Albion Works, Sheffield. 
Walker, Herbert Carr, 

Tyrie, Greenhead Road, West Park, Headingley, 
Walker, James William, 

Churnet View, Oakamoor, Stoke-on-Trent. 
Walmsley, Robert Mullineux, D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 

Principal, Northampton Polytechnic Institute, E.G. 
Watson, Frederick Mackman, 

Cranworth House, Rotherham. 
Watson, George Coghlan, 

St. George's Wharf, Rotherhithe, S.E. 
Watson, William Edward, 

Atlas Metal and Alloys Company, 52 Queen Victoria 
Street, E.G. 
Webb, Arthur James, M.A., B.Sc, 

Johnson, Matthey & Company, Limited, 78 Hatton 
Garden, E.G. 
Webster, William Reuben, 

Bridgeport Brass Co., Bridgeport, Conn., U.S.A. 
Weeks, Henry Bridges, 

Vickers, Limited., Barrow-in-Furness. 
Weir, William, 

Holm Foundry, Gathcart, Glasgow. 
Weiss, Eugen, 

Andrassy-ut 116, Budapest, Hungary. 
West, John H., 

8 Downe Terrace, Richmond. 
Westwood, Arthur, 

Assay Office, Birmingham. 
Wharton, Frederick Malcolm, 

The New Explosives Company, Limited, Stow- 
market, Suffolk. 
Wheeler, Richard Vernon, D.Sc, 

Home Office Experimental Station, Eskmeals, 
Whipple, Robert Stewart, 

Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company,Limited, 
White, Colonel Richard Saxton, V.D., 

Shirley, Jesmond, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Whitney, Willis R., Ph.D., 

Research Laboratory, General Electric Co., 
Schenectady, N.Y., U.S.A. 

List of Members 















1 908-9 









Whitworth, Leslie, 

2 Palace Gardens, Enfield, N. 


25 Withington Road, Whalley Range, Manchester. 
WiGGiN, Alfred Harold, B.A., 

Bordesley Hall, Alvechurch, Woi^cestershire. 
WiGGiN, Charles Richard Henry, B.A., 

The Foi-ehill House, near King's Norton, 
WiGGiN, Sir Henry Arthur, Bart., 

Walton Hall, Eccleshall, Staffordshire. 
WiLKiNS, Harry, 

Martin, Hall & Co., Ltd., Shrewsbury Works, 
Williams, Harold Wilfred, 

Grand Hotel, Birmingham. 
WiLLOTT, Frederic John, 

The Priestman Collieries, Ltd., Milburn House, 
Wilson, Anthony, 

Braithwaite, Keswick. 
Wilson, Cecil Henry, 

Sheffield Smelting Company, Limited, Sheffield . 
Wilson, James Howard, 

Dorridge House, Dorridge, Warwickshire. 
Wilson, John Howard, 

15 Thornsett Road, Sharrow, Sheffield. 
Wilson, Osborne Ernest, 

Meadow Bank, Kingston Road, Didsbury, 
WiSNOM, Engineer-Commander William McKee, R.N., 

Denny & Co., Engine Works, Dumbarton, N.B. 
Wood, Richard Sibbbring-, 

Coventry Ordnance Works, Limited, Coventry. 
Wood, William Henry, 

John Brown & Company, Limited, Clydebank, 
Woodhouse, Henry, 

Radley House, 80 High Street, Cheshunt, Herts. 
Woore, Harold Linton Lea, 

" West Bank," Epping, Essex. 
Wright, Charles William, 

2 Evelyn Street, Deptford, S.E. 
Wright, Reginald, 

Nasmyth, Wilson & Co., Bridgewater Foundry, 
Patricroft, near Manchester. 


The Institute of Metals 





Yarrow, Alfred Fernandez, 

Oampsie Dene, Blanefield, Stirlingshire. 
Young, Horace John, 

North - Eastern Marine Engineering Company, 
Limited, Northumberland Engine Works, 

Zapf, George, 

Felton & Guilleaume Carlswerk, A. G., Miilheim 
am Rhein, Germany. 






Almond, George, 

48 Webb Street, Horwich, Lancashire. 
Blundell, Frederick Hearn, 

199 Wardour Street, W. 
Bowes, Alfred Montague, 

39 Albany Road, Old Kent Road, S.E. 
Brain, Henry Richard, 

"St. Aubyn," Ommaney Road, New Cross, S.E. 
Bruhl, Paul Theodor, M.Sc, 

Prestea Block " A " Mining Company, Limited, 
via Sekondi, Gold Coast Colony, West Africa. 
Cartland, John, M.Sc , 

Solihull, Warwickshire. 
CoE, Harry Ivor, M.Sc, 

The University, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
Crosier, Edward Theodore, 

Church View, Milton, Staffordshire. 
Crossley, Percy Broadbent, 

The Park, Ishapore, E.B.S. Railway, Nawabgunj, 
near Calcutta, India. 
Dawson, Stanley Ernest, 

25 Longshut Lane West, Stockport. 
Gibson, Heseltine, 

9 Barnsley Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
Goldberg, Harry, 

Aluminium Castings Company, Detroit, Mich., 
Heath, William Stanley, 

Heather Rocks, Stockton Brook, Stoke-on-Trent. 
Hubbard, Norman Frederick Septi.mus, B.Sc, 

23 Plymouth Avenue, Manchester. 

List of Members 309 

Elected { I 
Member. | 

1910 Hunter, Summers, Jun., 

1 Manor Terrace, Tynemouth, Northumberland. 

1911 Jenkins, Ivor Owen, 

"Gvvynfa," Penywern, Neath, South Wales 

1912 Johnson, Albert William, 

31 Angus Street, New Cross, S.E. 

1910 Paterson, William, Jun., 

Braemar, Parkhead, Glasgow. 

1911 Powell, Harry, 

Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., Ltd , St, Peter's Works, 
1908-9 Sharp, Robert S., 

" St. Lucia," Nithsdale Road, Dumbreck, Glasgow. 

1910 t Tabor, Howard James, 

17 Sebert Road, Forest Gate, E. 

1911 Thompson, Norman Vivian, 

Northumberland Engine Works, Wallaend-on-Tyne. 
1910 West, Tom, M.Sc. 

101 Spring Bank Street, Stalybridge, Manchester. 

1912 Whiteley, William, 

The Metallurgical Department, University, 
I Manchester. 

( 310 ) 







Abbey ■Wood- 
Smith, H. M. 


Johnson, A. L. 

Alvechurch — 

Wiggin, A. H. 


McKechnie, J. 
Weeks, H. B. 


Hewitt, Prof. J. T. 

Allen, W. H. 
Robertson, W. H. A. 


Bevis, R. R. 

Allen, T J. W. 
AUely, W. S. 
Bamford, C. C. 
Barker, J. H. 


Birmingham (co^it.)— 

Barnard, G. 
Bar well, C. H. 
Bedford, C. Y. R. 
Bill-Gozzard, G. 
Boeddicker, G. A. 
Booth, C. R. 
Brockbank, J. G. 
Canning, T. R. 
Dale, R. D. 
Dugard, G. H. 
Dugard, H. A. 
Earle. J. W. 
Fisher, H. J. 
Gower, F. W. 
Griffiths, H. 
Heckford, A. E. 
Hughes, J. 
Hughes, T. V. 
Jacobs, H. 
Johnson, F. 
Jude, A. A. 
Keeling, A. D. 
Kemp, J. F. 
Leigh, C. 
Levi, C. J. 
Macintosh, J. R. 
McKechnie, A. 
Mapplebeck, E 
Mapplebeck, E. P. W. 

Birmingham (cont.)- 

Meyrick, L. J. 
Mills, H. 
Mills, J. H. 
Mitton, T. E. 
Muntz, Sir G. A. 
Poppleton, G. G. 
Rigby, R. 
Russell, C. A. 
Sheppard, R. M 
Silvester, H. 
Sjogren, J. F. 
Taylor, C. 
Taylor, J. S. 
Titley, A. 
Tucker, A. E. 
Westwood, A. 
Williams, H. W. 


Ryder, T. 

Bournemouth — 

Paterson, S. 

Bourn ville — 

Tidsall, E. 

Topographical Index to Members 


Bristol — 
Breckuell, H. E. F. 


Holt, H. 


Heycock, C. T. 
Whipple, R. 

Cheshunt — 
Woodhouse, H. 


Buttenshaw, G. E. 

lock — 

Macfee, R. 

Colcliester — 
Burner, A. 

Ainsworth, G. 


Heathcote, H. L. 
Hurren, F. H. 
Wood, R. Sibberins 

Clayton, G. C. 

Raven, V. L. 
Rowley, E. W. 


Archbutt, L. 
Millington, E. 


Bedson, J. P. 
Wilson, O. E. 

Dorridge — 

Bavlay, W. L. 
Wi'lson, J. H. 


Bradley, B. 
Evans, S. 

Wiggin, Sir H. A. 


Allen, J. H. 
Brown, C A. J. 
Coe, H. I. 
Gibson, H. 
Hudson, 0. F. 
Lacy, W. Y. 
Morcom, E. L. 
Player, W. 
Turner, A. 
Turner, Prof. T. 

Enfield Highway- 
Klein, C. A. 


Woore, H. L. L. 


Harrison, J. S. 
Rider, J. J. 
Strange, H. 

Wheeler, R. V. 

McLaurin, Eng.-Com. 

Garston — 

Davies, P., Jun. 

Dobbs, E. W. 

Harborne — 

Aston, H. H. 

Harris, T. R. 

Hartlepool — 
Clark, G. 

Hills, C. H. 

Hayle — 
Pearce, G. B. 

Heaton Moor — 
Jackson, S. A. 


Sutherland, J. 

Horwich — 

Almond, G. 
Hughes, G. 


Hopkinson, F. A. 


Bates, Major D. 


Adamson, J. 


Pottie, G. 


Greenwood, T. 


Brown, W. M. 
Reed, J. W. 

Jesmond — 

White, Col. R. S. 

Keswick — 
Wilson, A. 

King's Heath— 
Stevens, V. G. 

King's Norton — 

Bayliss, T. A. 
Wiggin, C. R. H. 

Leamington — 

Ronald, H. 


Eraser, K. 
Radley, W. A. 
Walker, H. C. 

Leicester — 

Brooks, J. F. 
Nesbit, D. M. 



Hinsl, T. G. 

Adams, G. 

Liverpool — 

Bain, J. 
Bawden, F. 
Bengough, G. D. 
Bibby, J. H. 
Crighton, R. 
Dingwall, F. W. 
McConwell, A. 
Niggemann, B. J. 
Fearce, R. 


Appleyard, R. 
Ash, F. C. M. 
Bainbridge, J. W. 
Bannister, C. 0. 
Barnard, A. H. 
Becker, F. 
Bevis, H. 
Blaikley, A. 
Blount, B. 
Blundell, F. H. 
Bolton, T. 
Boote, E. M. 
Bowes, A. M, 
Braby, C. 
Brain, H. R. 
Bridges, F. W. 
Buchanan, C. 
Butterfield, J. C. 
Chalas, E. 
Charleton, A. G. 
Clark, J. 

Constantine, E. G. 
Courtman, E. 0. 
Cowan, G. D. 
Davison, Capt. H. 
Dawlings, R. M. N. 
Dewrance, J. 
Echevarri, J. T. \V. 
Ellis, H. D. 
Ely, T. 

Enthoven, H. J- 
Francis, A. A. 
Francis, R. 
Gardner, H. 
Garnham, F. M. 
Garnham, J. C 
Girtin, T. 
Goodwin, Eng.-Rear 

Admiral G. G. 
Gordon, J. G. 

The Institute of Metals 

London (couf.)— 
Gowland, Frof. W. 
Gray, R. Kaye. 
Grazebrook, Eng.- 

Lieut. R. 
Gregory, S. H. 
Hadfield, Sir R. A. 
Hallett, J. 
Harbord, F. W. 
Harris, H. W. 
Heap, J. H. 
Heap, R. D. T. 
Herdsman, W. H. 
Highton, D. C. 
Hodgkinson, Prof. 

W. R. E. 
Holloway, G. T. 
Hooton, A. J. S. 
Humphries, H. J. 
Huntington, Prof. A. K. 
Hurburgh, L. H. 
Hyman, W. 
Jack, H. J. 
Jacob, A. 
Jacob, H. 
Jago, W. H. 
James, G. W. 
Jarry, E. V. 
Johnson, A. W. 
Johnson, B. A. 
Kaye, H. 
King, E. G. 
Kirkaldy, J. 
Kirkaldy, W. G. 
Lambert, A. R. 
Lambert, W. 
Lancaster, H. C. 
Langenbacli, O. 
Law, E. F. 
Lazarus, W. 
Leslie, R 
Lester, W. 
Letcher, W. W. 
Lord, F. A. B. 
Mallisont, G. 
Marshall, Eng.-Com. F. 

Maw, W. H. 
Mayo, C. R. 
Menzies, J. 
Meyjes, A. C 
Milton, J. T. 
Morrison, W. M. 
Narracott, R. W. 
Noble, Capt. Sir A. 
Norman, J. T. 
Oakden, Prof. W. E. 
Olsson, M. C. 
Oram, Admiral Sir H. J 
Palmer, A. C. H. 

London (ron<.)— 

PreccG, A. H. 
Quirk, G. H. 
Redwood, Sir B. 
Reid, E. S. 
Richards, Eng.-Com. 

J. A. 
Ridge, H. M. 
Robinson, J. H. 
Robson, O. H. 
Rose, T. K. 
Rosenthal, J. H. 
Ruck-Keene, H. A. 
Russell, S. A. 
Ruthenburg, M. 
Sales, H. 
Schlund, L. 
Scott, A. A. H. 
Seaton, A. E. 
Seligman, R. 
Seligmann, H. 
Siemens, A. 
Simkins, A. G. 
Sitwell, Capt. N. S. H. 
Smith, P. W. 
Smith, S. W. 
Smith, Sir W. E. 
Stanley, W. N. 

Storey, W. E. 

Stutz", R. 

Sulman, H. L. 

Swift, J. B. 

Tabor, H. J. 

Tearoe, J. 

Thomas, F. M. 

Thompson, R. 

Walmsley, R. M. 

Watson, G. C. 

Watson, W. E. 

Webb, A. J. 

Whitworth, L. 

Wright, C. W. 


Billington, C. 


Baty, E. J. 

Andrew, J. H. 
Carpenter, Prof. H.C. H . 
Crosland, J. F. L. 
Hubbard, N. F. S. 
Johnson, E. 
Johnson, H. M. 
Johnson, W. H. 
Johnson, W. M. 


Topographical Index to Members 


Manchester (cont)— 

Kendrew, T. 
Paterson, D. 
Petavel, Prof. J. E. 
Rhead, E. L. 
Scott, C. 
Sumner, L. 
Tomlinson, F. 
Turnbull, N. K. 
West, T. 
Whitely, W, 
Widdowson, J. H. 
Wright, E. 


Barclay, W. R. 

Edwards, C. A. 
Hall- Brown, E. 
Stead, J. E. 


Mercer, J. B. 

Crosier, E. T. 
Gwyer, A. G. C. 


Brownsdon, H, W. 
Rogers, H. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne - 

Allan, J. M. 
Anderson, F. A. 
Bowran, R. 
Browne, Sir B. C. 
Cookson, C. 
Dance, E. L. 
Duncan, H. M. 
Dunn, J. T. 
Esslemont, A. S. 
Hogg, T. W, 
Keiffenheim, E. C. 
Keiflfenheim, H. W. 
Laing, A. 
Louis, Prof. H, 
Mackenzie, W. 
Morehead, C. 
Murray, W., Jun. 
Orde, E. L. 

Parsons, The Hon. G. L 
Powell, H. 
Smith, H. D. 
Stoney, G. G. 
Vesey Brown, C. S. 
WiUott, F. J. 

I Northallerton— 

: Bell, Sir H. 


Bayliss, T. R. 

Nottingham — 
Bulleid, Prof. C. H. 

Old Charlton— 
Pearson, G. C. 

Oldham — 

Hall, H. p. 

Openshaw, Higher- 
Sharpies, J. 


Mount, E. 

Thorne, E. I. 

Ponder's End— 

i Garrett-Smith, N. 

Philip, A. 
Stenhouse, T. 

Nisbett, G. H. 

Rainhill — 
Peard, G. W. 

Richmond (Surrey)— 
West, J. H. 


Symonds, H. L, 

Rotherham — 

Baker, T. 
Watson, F. M. 

Parker, W. B. 

Rusholme — 
Hanna, R. W. 
Hanna, W. G. 

St. Helens— 

Appleton, J. 
Groves, C. R. 
Quirk, J. S. 


Smith, F. 

Selly Oak— 
Dendy, E. E. 
Gibbins, W. W. 
Hopkins, S. M. 
Humphreys, T. C. 

Sharrow — 
Wilson, J. H. 

Benton, A, 
Brook, G. B, 
Brown, R. J. 
Cleland, W. 
Crowther, J. G. 
Dyson, W. H. 
Farley, D. H. 
Girdwood, R. W. 
Haddock, W. T. 
Hill, E. H. 
Hutton, R. S. 
Mason, F. 
Rodgers, J. 
Rowland, A. E. 
Smith, E. A. 
Teed, Eng.-Com. H. R. 
Wales. T. C. 
Wilkins, H. 
Wilson, C. H. 

Bean, G. 
Carr, J. J. W. 
Evered, S. 
Spittle, A. 


Cartland, J. 
Mills, W. 


Grice, E. 

South Shields- 
Taylor, C. W. 


The Institute of Metals 

Sparkbrook — 

Gem, E. P. 
Lantsbury, F. C. A. H. 

Gay wood, C. F. 

Stalybridge — 

Carter, A. 
Holt, T. W. 
Wainwright, T. G. 

Preston, P. 

Dawson, S. E. 
Harlow, B. S. 

Bolton, E. J. 
Heath, W. S. 
Walker, J. W. 

Stowmarket — 

Wharton, F. M. 

Streetly — 

Birch, H. 
Bray, D. 


Cowper-Coles, S. O. 

Clark, H. 


Graham, A. H. I. 

Sutton Coldfield— 

Jackson, K. 
Kirkpatrick, V. 

Teddington — 

Glazebrook, R. T. 
Haughton, J. L. 
Rosenhain, W. 


Crofts, F. J. 

Phillips, H. H. 


Hunter, S. 
Hunter, S., Juu. 

Merrett, W. H. 


Cullen, W. H. 
Hunter, G. B. 
Michie, A. C. 
Thompson, N. V. 
Young, H. J. 

Owen, H. 

Haggle, R. H. 

Wellington — 

Patchett, Col. J. 

West Bromwich— 
Heinrich, E. 

West Hartlepool— 
Gibb, M. S. 

Wickwar — 

Lees, C. 

Carlyle, Prof. W. A. 

Edwards, J. J. 
Hartley, R. F. 

Wootton Bridge 
(I. 0. W.) 
Carnt, E. C. 


Longmuir, P. 


Parsons, The Hon. Sir 
C. A. 


Belfast— Pratten, W. J. 

Blanefield — 

Yarrow, A. F. 


Lang, G. R. 
Primrose, H. S. 
Weir, W. 

Bell, T. 
Wood, W. H. 


Dalmuir — 

Onyon, Eng.-Capt. W. 

Dumbarton — 

Denny, J. 
Paul, M. 

Wisnom, Eng,-Com. 
W. M. 


Beare, Prof. T. H. 
Gulliver, G. H. 


Eccles, E. E. 


Beilby, G. T. 
Biles, Prof. Sir J. H. 
Broadfoot, J. 
Buckwell, G. W, 
Campion, Prof. A. 
Cleghorn, A. 

Topographical Index to Members 


Glasgow (co7it.)— 

Crawford, W. M. 
Desch, C. H. 
Gilchrist, J. 
Gracie, A. 
Greer, H. H, A. 
Hendry, Col. P. W. 
Hood, J. McL. 
Inglis, G. A. 
Kidston, W. H. 
Low, A. N. 
May, W. W. 
Morison, W. 
Primrose, J. S. G. 
Reid, A. T. 
Rutherford, W. P. 
Sharp, R. S. 
Steven, J. 
Stevenson, R. 


Eden, C. H. 

Holmes, J. 


Thomas, H. S. 


Bloomer, F J. 

Grovan — 

Dunsmore, G. A. 
Stephen, A. E. 

Brown, J. 

Caird, P. T. 
Caird, R 

Irvine — 

Edmiston, J. A. C. 

Gardner, J A. 

Bailey, G. H. 


Neath — 

Jenkins, I. 0. 

Vaughan, W. I. 

Port Talbot— 
Deer, G. 


Smith, H. P. 

Barr, Prof, A. 

Rush, Eng.-Com. H. C. 

Parkhead — 
Paterson, J. 
Paterson, W. 
Paterson, W., Jun. 

Renfrew — 

Brown, W. 

Miller, J. 


Broadfoot, W. R. 

Swansea — 
Corfield, J. 
Corfield, R. W. G. 
Drury, H. J. H. 
Mills, E. 
Ruck, E. 
Sinclair, A. 
Vivian, H. 
Vivian, The Hon. 0. R. 


Hussej^ A. V. 

Durban — 

Taylor, W. I. 

Germiston — 
Tucker, P. A. 




Johannesburg — 

Murray, M. T. I 

Stanley, Prof. G. H. 

Pietersburg — 

Hughes, G. F. 

Zuurfontein — 
Connolly, J. 


Gold Coast Colony— Bruhi, P. T. 


Bulak Dakrur— Pollard, w. B. 

Cairo — Garland, H. 


The Institute of Metals 



Rio de Janeiro— Vance, R. 


Oakville — Guess, Prof. G. A. | Montreal — Stansfield, Prof. A. 



Cleveland — 

New York {cont.) 

Jcnnison, H. C. 

Abbott, R. R. 

Langdon, P. H. 


Thompson, J. F. 

Detroit — 

Ledoux, A. R. 
Malby, S. G. 

Bedford Hills- 

Goldberg, H. 

Perth Amboy— 

Howe, Prof. H. M. 


Foersterling, H. 


Gillett, H. W. 


Fay, II. 

Kenosha — 

Clamer, G. H. 

Hofman, Prof. H. 0. 

Little, A. D. 

Hull, D. R. 


Bridgeport — 

Meriden — 

Tiemann, H. P. 

Ferry, C. 
Sperry, E. S. 

Hobson, A. E. 


Webster, W. R. 


Capp, J. A. 
Whitney, W. R. 


Hoyt, Prof. S. L. 

Saklatwalla, B. D. 




Bensel, A. 

Nead, J. H. 

Corse, W. M. 

New Haven — 


Cambridge — 

Buell, W. H. 

Bassett, W. H. 

Boylston, H. M. 

" Price, W. B. 

Sauveur, Prof. A. 

New York — 


Allan, A., Jun. 

West Lynn- 

Bregowsky, I, M. 

Duff, P. J. 

Dawson, W. F. 

Calcutta — 

Redding, F. C. 

Camp Kunigal 
(Mysore) — 
Rao, S. R. 



Crossley, P. B. 
Ogg, Major G. S. 

Kalimati — 

McWilliam, Prof. A. 


Tokyo -Tawara, Prof. K. 


Chatterton, A. 

Naini Tal- 

Grimston, F. S. 

Topographical Index to Members 




Sydney— Haiikinson, A. 


Brisbane— Manthorpe, R. 



Melbourne— Banks, A. T. 



Feron, A. 

Carels, G. L. 

Merxem- lez- Anvers- 
Kamps, H. 

Tertzweil, L. 


Audri, A. 



Charpy, G, 


Cardozo, H. A. 

Paris {cont.)— 

Garfield, A. S. 
Guillemin, G, 


Paris (cont.)— 

Guillet, Prof. L. 

Le Chatelier, Prof. H 


Borchers, Prof. W. 

Mtinker, E. 

Hanover — 

Desgraz, A. 

Altena — 
Ashoff, W. 

Goldschmidt, H. 

Frankfurt am Main- 

Hessen Nassau— 

Heusler, F. 

Guertler, W. M. 

Beer, L. 
Heberlein, F. 
Landsberg, H. 
Stockhausen, F. 

Mulheim am Rhein— 

Steven, C. 
Zapf, G. 


Liversidge, Eng.-Com. E. W. 


Budapest— Re j to, Prof. A. 

Schleicher, A. P. 
Weiss, E. 

Ct^pel — Rosambert, C. 


The Instihtte of Metals 


Milano — Chambers, D. M. 


St. Petersburg— Belaiew, Capt. N. T. 
Saposhnikow, Prof. A. 

Bilbao — 

Careaga, C. R. 
Collie, C. A. 



Lessner, C. B. 

Cartagena — 
Greenwood, H. W. 

Huelva — 
Barclay, A. C. 


Hamilton, G. M. 


Sjogren, A. S. 


Benedicks. Prof. C. A. F. 
Forsberg, E. A. 

Vesteras — 

Forsstedt, J. 


Zurich— Frey, J. H. 

( 319 ) 



Accounts, statement of, 14. 

Admiralty gun-metal, heat-treatment of, 158. 

Allmand, J. A., book by, 254. 

Alloy, " Argental," 219. 

Alloy, copper, new, 219. 

Alloys, 212. 

Alloys, binary, quantitative effect of rapid cooling upon the constitution of, 120. 

Alloys, chemical method for the study of, 21G. 

Alloys, cold-worked, annealing of, 220. 

Alloys, conductivity of, 222. 

Alloys, constitution of, 216. 

Alloys, etching, at high temperatures, 218. 

Alloys, fused copper, solubility of sulphur dioxide in, 231. 

Alloys for motor-bus construction, 212. 

Alloys, new, 219. 

Alloys, nickel in, detection of, 238. 

Alloys, non-ferrous, test-bars for, 248. 

Alloys, physical properties of, 220. 

Alloys, plastic deformation and annealing of, 231. 

Alloys, properties of, 207. 

Alloys, specific heat of, 232. 

Aluminium, coating, with other metals, 207- 

Aluminium, corrosion of, 79. 

Aluminium, electro-metallurgy of, 208. 

Aluminium in India, 249. 

Aluminium and copper alloys, structure of, 233. 

Aluminium and platinum, alloys of, 213. 

Aluminium and silver, alloys of, 219. 

Aluminium-vanadium alloys, 215. 

Aluminium-zinc alloys, 214. 

Amaduzzi, L., book by, 254. 

Amalgamation method of coating aluminium, 207. 

Amalgams, surface tension of, 233. 

Analysis, testing and pyrometry, 238. 

Annealing of alloys, 231. 

Annealing of cold-worked metals and alloys, 220. 

Annealing muffles, 198. 

Annual Dinner, Fourth, 187. 

Annual General Meeting, 1. 

Anodic behaviour of uranium, 231. 

Antimony, Hall effect in, 226. 

Antimony and bismuth, alloys of, with selenium, 213. 

Antimony and bismuth, crystallization of, 222. 

320 Index 

Archbutt, L. , on heat treatment of Admiralty gun-metal, 176. 

Archbutt, S. L. , on aluminium-zinc alloys, 214. 

Archbutt, S. L. , on corrosion of aluminium, 91. 

" Argental," silver-aluminium alloy, 219. 

Arsenic, separation of, from tungsten, 238. 

Arsenic and copper, alloys of, electrical conductivity of, 224. 

Articles of Association, 265. 

Ash, Percy Claude Matchwick, elected member, 19. 

Assay of impure mattes, 238. 

Assaying gold ores, variation in, 239. 

Aubel, E. van, on latent heat of evaporation of metals, 227- 

Auditor, election of, 20. 

Austria-Hungary, minerals and metals in, 251. 

Bailey, G. H., on corrosion of distilling condenser tubes, 71. 

Bailey, G. H. — Paper on ' ' The corrosion of aluminium ," 79 ; introduction , 79 ; estimation of 
the extent of corrosion, 80; method for deterniiningtherateof corrosion, 81 ; nature 
of corrosion, 82 ; limitations of the method described, 83 ; experimental results, 
83; general conclusions from foregoing results, 86 ; references, 87. Discussion: 
G. D. Bengough, 88 ; R. Seligman, 89 ; S. L. Archbutt, 91 ; A. Philip, 91 ; F. J. 
Brislee, 93; T. Turner, 94; A. G. C. Gwyer, 95; E. F. Law, 96; G. H. Bailey, 
97. Cotnmunications : E. Heyn and O. Bauer, 100 ; G. C. Jones, 101 ; W. B. 
Parker, 101; W. Rosenhain, 104; R. Seligman, 105; H.J. Young, 106; G. H. 
Bailey, 106. 
Barclay, W. R. , book by, 254. 
Baucke, H. , on shock tests of copper, 210. 
Bauer, O., on corrosion of aluminium, 100. 
Bayliss, T. A., remarks by, 23. 
Becquerel, J., on Hall effect in antimony, 226. 
Bedson, J. P., on metal filament lamps, 57. 
Beilby Research Prize, 7. 

Bekier, E. , on crystallization of bismuth and antimony, 222. 
Belaiew, Nicolai T., elected member, 19. 
Bengough, G. D., on corrosion of aluminium, 88. 
Bengough, G. D., on corrosion of distilling condenser tubes, 70. 
Bengough, G. D. , vote of thanks by, 17. 

Bergner, E. , on solubility of sulphur dioxide in fused copper alloys, 232. 
Berriman, A. F. , book by, 254. 
Bibliography, 254. 
Biedermann, R., book by, 254. 

Binary alloys, quantitative effect of rapid cooling upon the constitution of, 120. 
Birmingham Local Section, 8, 198. 
Bismuth and antimony, alloys of, with selenium, 213. 
Bismuth and antimony, crystallization of, 222. ' 
Bismuth-lead alloys, specific heat of, 232. 
Bismuth-tin alloys, specific heat of, 232. 
Black silver, 225. 

Boeddicker, G. A., on metal filament lamps, 56. 
Boeddicker, G. A., on microstructure of German silver, 113. 
Boeddicker, G. A., remarks by, 1, 22. 
Boeddicker, G. A., vote of thanks by, 24. 
Bolton, E. J., on metal filament lamps, 59. , 

Index 321 

Borchers, Wilhelm, elected member, 19. 

Boronized copper, 207. 

Bovini, F., on molecular weights of solid and liquid metals, 218. 

Branie, J. S. S., book b}', 255. 

Briquetting metal turnings and borings, 246. 

Brislee, F. J., on corrosion of aluminium, 93. 

Broken Hill, zinc production at, 252. 

Brook, G. B., on heat treatment of Admiralty gun-metal, 177. 

Brook, G. B. , on miciostructure of German silver, 115. 

Brown gold, properties of, 220. 

Burgess, G. K., book by, 254. 

Burgess, G. K., on micro-pyrometer, 343. 

Buttenshaw, G. B., on heat treatment cf Admiralty gun-metal, 177. 

Cadmium and zinc volatilization — Influence of temperature and pressure, 234. 

Canadian mineral production, 249. 

Carbides of manganese and nickel, 215. 

Cardozo, Henri Alexandre, elected member, 19. 

Carpenter, H. C. H., on alloys of silver and zinc, 214. 

Carpenter, H. C. H., on copper-zinc, silver-zinc, and silver-cadmium equlibria, 217. 

Carpenter, H. C. H., on heat treatment of Admiralty gun-n.etal. 174. 

Cast silicon, 210. 

Casting temperature, influence of, 247. 

Chauvenet, R., book by, 254. 

Chemical composition of Monel-metal, 218. 

Chemical method for the study of alloys, 216. 

Chemistry, colloidal, application of, to metallography, 221. 

Chouriguine, M., on alloys of platinum and aluminium, 213. 

Chromium resistances, granular, 235. 

Claudet, Arthur Crozier, obituary notice of, 199. 

Clifford, D. C, on Heusler alloys, 227. 

Coating aluminium with other metals, 207. 

Coatings, metallic, production of, 209. 

Cohen, E. , on strain-disease in metals, 232. 

Goldberg, Harry, elected student, 19. 

Cold-rolled plates, tests of, 220. 

Cold-worked metals and alloys, annealing of, 220. 

Cold working, 220. 

Colloidal chemistry, application of, to metallography, 221. 

Colloidal gold, 221. 

Colorado mineral production, 249. 

Common metals, 207. 

Compression, mechanical hardening by, 220. 

Conductivity of alloys, 222. 

Conductivity and the dispersoid theory, 221. 

Condenser tubes, distilling, corrosion of, 61. 

Conferences, delegates appointed to represent Institute at, 11. 

Connejo, A. on colloidal gold, 221. 

Constitution of alloys, 216. 

Constitution of binary alloys, quantitative effect of rapid cooling upon, 120. 

Cooling, rapid, quantitative effect of, upon the constitution of binary alloys, 120. 

Copper alloy, 219. 


322 Index 

Copper alloys, fused, solubility of sulphur dioxide in, 231. 

Copper-aluminium alloys, structure of, 233. 

Copper-arsenic alloys, electrical conductivity of, 224. 

Copper, boronized, 207. 

Copper, coating aluminium with, 207. 

Copper, effect of cuprous oxide on the microstructure of, 209. 

Copper, effect of impurities on, 209. 

Copper, electrolytic, structure of, 233. 

Copper, influence of oxygen on, 209. 

Copper, iron, and manganese, alloys of, 213. 

Copper, iron, nickel, and manganese, quaternary alloys of, 219. 

Copper and nickel, electric smelting of, 236. 

Copper, nickel, and manganese, alloys of, 213. 

Copper and its oxide, 207. 

Copper, production of, in Russia, 252. 

Copper, shock tests of, 210, 

Copper-zinc alloys, 216. 

Copper, zinc, and nickel, alloys of, 213. 

Copper-zinc, silver-zinc and silver-cadmium equilibria, 217. 

Corner, Engineer Rear-Admiral John Thomas, obituary notice of, 199, 

Corrosion of aluminium, 79. 

Corrosion Committee, 6. 

Corrosion of distilling condenser tubes, 61. 

Corrosion of Sherardized iron, 211. 

Council, Report of, 3. 

Cowper-Coles lead-coating process, 208. 

Credner, F. , on electrical resistance of stretched and twisted wires, 224. 

Crystallization of bismuth and antimony, 222. 

Crystals, twin, and hardness, 233. 

Cuprous oxide, effect of, on the microstructure of copper, 209. 

Cuprous oxide, mixture of copper with, 207. 

Czako, M. on aluminium-vanadium alloys, 21.5. 

Davidenkoff, W. , on notched-bar impact tests, 240. 

Day, A., on hxed points for high temperature measurements, 241. 

Deformation, plastic, and annealing of alloys, 231. 

Delegates appointed to represent Institute at Conferences, 11. 

Derihon, M., on notched-bar impact tests, 240. 

Desch, C. H., on constitution of binary alloys, 154. 

Dieckmann, J., on separation of arsenic from tungsten, 238. 

Dinner, Fourth Annual, 187. 

Dischler, E., on electrical conductivity of copper-arsenic-alloys, 224. 

Disintegration of heated platinum, 222. 

Dispersoid theory, conductivity and, 221. 

Distilling condenser tubes, corrosion of, 61. 

Dominions Royal Commission, 11. 

Donaldson, Sir H. F., speech by, 192. 

Dony-Henault, O., on granular chromium resistances, 235. 


Edwards, C. A., on structure of copper-aluminium alloys, 233. 
Electric furnace, vacuum, 235. 

htdex 323 

Electric furnaces, 235. 

Electric smelting, 236. 

Electric zinc smelting, 237- 

Electrical conductivity of copper-arsenic alloys, 224. 

Electrical and mechanical properties of copper, influence of impurities on, 209. 

Electrical resistance of a metal, changes in, on melting, 220. 

Electrical resistance of stretched and twisted wires, 224. 

Electro-deposited metals, structure of, 233. 

Electro-metallurgy, 235, 249. 

Electro-metallurgy of aluminium, 208. 

Electrolysis of complex silver salts, 225. 

Electrolytic copper, structure of, 233. 

Electrolytic deposition method of coating aluminium, 207. 

Electrolytic potential of tantalum, 224. 

Electrolytic sliver, 225. 

Etching alloys at high temperatures, 218. 

Evaporation of metals, latent heat of, 227. 

Ewing, Sir Alfred, speech by, 188. 

Extraction and purification of platinum, 211. 

Farrow, F. D. , on copper and its oxide, 207. 

Faust, O. , on structure of electrolytic coppper, 233. 

Fedotfef, P. P., on electro-metallurgy of aluminium, 208. 

Ferro-magnetism, Weiss's theory of, 227. 

Firebox stays, investigation of, by A. K. Huntington, 39. 

Fischer, F. , book by, 254. 

Fleury, P., book by, 254. 

Foam-structure of metals, 225. 

Foote, P. D. , on calibration of optical pyrometers, 241. 

Fortune, V., on detection of nickel in alloys, 238. 

Foundry methods, 246. 

Foundry, pyrometer for use in, 247. 

Fremont, C. , on notched-bar impact tests, 240. 

Friction of metals, internal, effect of temperature on, 223. 

Furnace, vacuum electric, 235. 

Furnaces, electric, 235. 

Furnaces and foundry methods, 246. 

Furnaces, zinc, lead filter for, 247. 

Fused copper alloys, solubility of sulphur dioxide in, 231, 


Gagarin, Prince A., on impact tests, 241. 

Galy-Aschd, P., on mechanical hardening of metals, 221. 

Garland, H., on microstructure of German silver, 118. 

German silver, microstructure of, 109. 

German zinc industry, 250. 

Germany, metal trades of, in 1912, 250. 

Gersten, E. , on carbides of manganese and nickel, 215. 

Gessner, A., on notched-bar impact tests, 240. 

Gibson, Heseltine, elected student, 19. 

Gillet, H. W. , on influence of casting temperature, 247. 

Gold, brown, properties of, 220. 

Gold, colloidal, 221. 

324 Index 

Gold ores, variation in assaying, 239. 

Gold production in the Transvaal, 252. 

Gold production in the United States, 250. 

Gooch, F. A., book by, 254. 

Gower, A. R., book by, 254. 

Granjon, R., book by, 254. 

Granular chromium resistances, 235. 

Gray, E. F. , on electric smelting of nickel, 237. 

Greenwalt, W. E. , book by, 255. 

Groves, Clarence Richard, elected member, 19. 

Guillet, L. , on alloys of copper, zinc, and nickel. 213. 

Gulliver, G. H., book by, 255. 

Gulliver, G. H. — Paper on "The quantitative effect of rapid cooling upon the con- 
stitution of binary alloys," 120; introduction, 120; determination of the propor- 
tions of solid and liquid in a rapidly cooled alloy, 12(5; the lead-tin alloys, 134; 
reheating of quickly cooled alloys, 151 ; summary, 152. Discussion : T. Turner, 
154 ; A. K. Huntington, 154. Communications : C. H. Desch, 154 ; W. Rosen- 
hain, 155; G. H. Gulliver, 156. 

Gun-metal, Admiralty, heat treatment of, 158. 

Gave, C. E., on effect of temperature on internal friction of metals, 223. 

Gwyer, A. G. C, on corrosion of aluminium, 95. 


H.-VEXiG, A., a book by, 255. 

Hall effect in antimony, 226. 

Hall-Brown, E., speech by, 193. 

Halla, F. , on corrosion of Sherardized iron, 211. 

Hanemann, H., on etching alloys at high temperatures, 218. 

Hanemann, H. , on undercooled solid solutions, 219. 

Hanriot, M., on cold working, 220. 

Hanriot, M., on hardening without deformation, 226. 

Hanriot, M. , on mechanical hardening of metals, 228. 

Hanriot, M., on properties of brown gold, 220. 

Hardening of metals, mechanical, 221, 228. 

Hardening without deformation, 226. 

Hardness, determination of, 228. 

Hardness, test of, as a measure of mechanical hardening, 229. 

Hardness, twin crystals and, 233. 

Harmsworth, C. H. , book by, 254. 

Harrison, P. S., on assay of impure mattes, 238. 

Harvard, F. T. , book by, 255. 

Haughton, J. L. , on heat treatment of Admiralty gun-metal, 180. 

Heat, oxidation and other phenomena shown by metals under the influence of, 228. 

Heat treatment of Admiralty gun-metal, 158. 

Heath, William Stanley, elected student, 19. 

Heating brass in hydrogen, effect of, 217. 

Henderson, C. W., on Colorado mineral production, 249. 

Heusler, F. , on magnetic properties of Heusler alloys, 22(>. 

Heusler alloys, magnetic properties of, 226. 

Hevesey, G. von, on electrolytic potential of tantalum, 224. 

Heyn, E. , on corrosion of aluminium, 100. 

High temperature measurements, fixed points for, 241. 

High temperatures, specific heats at, 232. 

Hilpert, S. , on separation of arsenic from tungsten, 238. 

Hiorns, A. H., book by, 255. 

Index 325 

Hobart, J. E., book by, 255. 

Holden, Colonel H. C. L., speech by, 196. 

Hoyt, Samuel Leslie, elected member, 19. 

Holtz, H. C, on a possible new platinum metal, 211. 

Hudson, O. F. , paper on " The microstructure of German silver," 109; effect of con- 
tinued anneaUng on the crystalline structure of German silver, 109 ; typical micro- 
structures, 110; effect of heat treatment on the properties of German silver. 111 ; 
rolling qualities. 111; hardness. 111. Discussion : G. A. Boeddicker, 113 ; T. K. 
Rose, 114; G. B. Brook, 115; E. F. Law, 115; T. Turner, 116 ; E. L. Rhead, 
116 ; A. K. Huntington, 116 ; O. F. Hudson, 117. Communications ; H. Garland, 
118; F. Johnson, 119; O. F. Hudson. 119. 

Hughes, G., on metal filament lamps, 57- 

Huntington, .A.. K., on constitution of binary alloys, 154. 

Huntington, A. K. , on corrosion of distilling condenser tubes, 77. 

Huntington, A. K. , on heat treatment of Admiralty gun-metal, 176. 

Huntington, A. K. , on metal filament lamps, 54, 60. 

Huntington, A. K. , on microstructure of German silver, 116. 

Huntington, .\. K., Presidential Address, 25 ; consideration of the lines upon which the 
Institute could be most advantageously developed, 25; purposes and progress of 
similar institutions, 25 ; Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 25 ; Iron and Steel 
Institute, 26 ; Faraday Society, 27 ; Society of Chemical Industry, 29 ; metal- 
lography, 30; Corrosion Committee, 31; library and museum, 31 ; membership, 
32 ; analysis of countries from which membership is drawn, 32 ; local sections, 35 ; 
analysis of Journals sold in various countries, 35 ; percentage of classes repre- 
sented in the membership, 36 ; number and percentage of papers contributed by 
the three classes of members since the beginning of the Institute, 36 ; the relations 
between the three classes of members, 37 ; investigation on firebox stays, 39. 

Huntington, A. K. , reference to death of Sir William White by, 187. 

Huntington, .'\. K., remarks by, 24. 

Huntington, A. K., speech by, 190. 

Huntington, A. K., votes of thanks by, 21, 22, 24. 

Hutton, W., book by, 255. 

Hydrogen, heating brass in, effect of, 217. 

Hysteresis of magnetic substances, 227. 


Iljinsky, W., on electro-metallurgy of aluminium, 2U8. 

Impact tests, notched-bar, 240. 

India, aluminium in, 249. 

Iron, Cowper-Coles process of covering, with lead, 208. 

Iron, manganese, and copper, alloys of, 213. 

Iron, nickel, and manganese, alloys of, 213. 

Iron, nickel, manganese, and copper, quaternary alloys of, 219. 

Iron, Sherardized, corrosion of, 211. 

Jexniso.n', Herbert Charnock, elected member, 19. 
Johnson, F. , on heat treatment of .'\dmiralty gun-metal, 181. 
Johnson, P., on microstructure of German silver, 119. 
Johnson, W. H. , on metal filament lamps, 56. 
Johnson, W. H., vote of thanks by, 15. 
Jones, G. C, on corrosion of aluminium, 101. 
Jones, J. L., on test-bars for non-ferrous alloys, 248. 

326 Inaex 

Keller, H. F. , on extraction and purification of platinum, 211. 

Kirkaldy, William George, elected member, 19. 

Knowlton, A. A., on magnetic properties of Heusler alloys, 227. 

Kohlschiitter, V., on electrolysis of complex silver salts, 225. 

Kohlschiitter, V., on electrolytic silver, 225. 

Kohlschiitter, V., on forms of silver precipitated by metals, 225. 

L. . 

Lambert, Wesley, elected member, 19. 

Lamps, metal filament, 42. 

Lass, W. P., on variation in assaying gold ores, 239. 

Latent heat of evaporation of metals, 227. 

Laur, F., on spongy metals, 219. 

Law, E. F., on corrosion of aluminium, 96. 

Law, E. F., on heat treatment of Admiralty gun-metal, 175. 

Law, E. F., on microstructure of German silver, 115. 

Le Chatelier, H., book by, 254. 

Lead and bismuth alloys, specific heat of, 232. 

Lead-coating process, Cowper-Coles, 208. 

Lead filter for zinc furnaces, 247. 

Lead, spongy, method of obtaining, 219. 

Lewes, V. B., book by, 255. 

Lewis, E. A., on effect of heating brass in hydrogen, 217. 

Library, 10. 

Liquid and solid metals, molecular weights of, 218. 

List of Members, 277. 

Lohr, J. M. , on copper-zinc alloys, 216. 

Louvrier, F., on electric zinc smelting, 237. 

Lyon, Dorsey Alfred, elected member, 19. 


Magnetic properties of Heusler alloys, 226. 

Magnetic substances, hysteresis of, 227. 

Manganese bronze, tensile tests on, 247. 

Manganese, copper, iron, and nickel, quaternary alloys of, 219. 

Manganese, iron, and copper, alloys of, 213. 

Manganese and nickel, carbides of, 215. 

Manganese, nickel, and copper, alloys of, 213. 

Manganese, nickel, and iron, alloys of, 213. 

Manganese, world's production of, 249. 

Manz, H., on metallic vanadium, 212. 

Marshall, Frederick William, elected member, 19. 

Maryon, H., book by, 255. 

Matout, L. , on Hall effect in antimony, 226. 

Mattes, impure, assay for, 238. 

Matthey, George, obituary notice of, 199. 

Mayo, Charles Robert, elected member, 19. 

Mead, R. K., book by, 256. 

Mechanical hardening of metals, 221, 228. 

Mechanical properties of copper, influence of impurities on, 209. 

Mechanical properties of Monel metal, 218 

Index 327 

Meeting, Annual General, 1. 

Meloche, C. C, on volumetric estimation of zinc, 23'J. 

Melting-points of metals, 230. 

Members, election of, 18. 

Members, list of, 277. 

Memorandum and Articles of Association, 257. 

Metal, changes in, electrical resistance of, on melting, 220. 

Metal filament lamps, 42. 

Metal trades of Germany in 1912, 250. 

Metal turnings and borings, briquetting, 240. 

Metallic coatings, production of, 209. 

Metallography, application of colloidal chemistry to, 221. 

Metals and alloys, cold-worked, annealing of, 220. 

Metals and alloys, properties of, 207, 220. 

Metals, common, 207- 

Metals, electro-deposited, structure of, 233. 

Metals, foam-structure of, 225. 

Metals, internal friction of, effect of temperature on, 223. 

Metals, latent heat of evaporation of, 227. 

Metals, mechanical hardening of, 221, 228. 

Metals, melting points of, 230. 

Metals and minerals in Austria-Hungary, 251. 

Metals, oxidation and other phenomena shown by, under the influence of heat, 228. 

Metals, production of, in the United States, 252. 

Metals, rare, 211. 

Metals, silver precipitated by, 225.' 

Metals, solid and liquid, molecular weights of, 218. 

Metals, spongy, 219. 

Metals, strain-disease in, 232. 

Micro-pyrometer, 243. 

Microscope, long-focus, 228. 

Microstructure of copper, effect of cuprous oxide on, 209. 

Microstructure of German silver, 109. 

Mineral production of Canada, 249. 

Mineral production of Colorado, 249. 

Mineral production of New South Wales, 250. 

Mineral production of Servia, 251. 

Minerals and metals in Austria-Hungary, 251. 

Minet, Adolphe, book by, 255. 

Molecular weights of solid and liquid metals, 218. 

Monel metal, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of, 218. 

Morgan, J. J. , book by, 255. 

Motor-bus construction, alloys for, 212. 

Muffles, annealing, 198. 

Muntz, Sir Gerard, on corrosion of distilling condenser tubes, 71. 

Muntz, Sir Gerard, remarks by, 2. 

Muntz, Sir Gerard, speech by, 190. 

Muntz, Sir Gerard, vote of thanks by, 22. 

Musceleanu, C, on latent heat of evaporation of metals, 227. 

Museum, 9. 


Nair, T. K., on zinc and cadmium volatilization, 234. 
National Physical Laboratory, testing apparatus at, 241. 
New South Wales, mineral production of, 250. 

328 Index 

Nickel in alloys, detection of, 238. 

Nickel and copper, electric smelting of, 236. 

Nickel, copper, and zinc, alloys of, 213. 

Nickel, electric smelting of, 237. 

Nickel, iron, and manganese, alloys of, 213. 

Nickel and manganese, carbides of, 215. 

Nickel, manganese, and copper, alloys of, 213. 

Nickel, manganese, copper, and iron, quaternary alloys of, 219. 

Nomenclature Committee, constitution of, 7. 

Non-ferrous alloys, test-bars for, 248. 

Northrup, E. F., on changes in electrical resistance of a metal on melting, 220. 

Northrup, E. F. , on tungsten-molybdenum thermocouple, 245. 

Notched-bar impact tests, 240. 


ObITL ARY, 199. 

Officers, election of, 16. 

Optical pyrometers, calibration of, 241. 

Oscillatory torsion tests on wires, 223. 

O.xidation and other phenomena shown by metals under the influence of heat, 228. 

Oxygen, influence of, on copper, 2Q9. 

Padoa, M., on molecular weights of solid and liquid metals, 218. 

Parker, W, B. , on corrosion of aluminium, 101. 

Parravano, N., on alloys of bismuth and antimony with selenium, 213. 

Parravano, N., on alloys of iron, manganese, and copper, 213. 

Parravano, N., on alloys of nickel, manganese, and copper, 213. 

Parravano, N., on quaternary alloys of iron, nickel, manganese, and copper, 219. 

Parsons, Sir Charles A., speech by, 197. 

Passivity of uranium, 231. 

Pfander, W., on forms of silver precipitated by metals, 225. 

Philip, .\., on corrosion of aluminium, 91. 

Philip, A., on heat treatment of Admiralty gim-metal, 175. 

Philip, A., on metal filament lamps, 50. 

Philip, Arnold, paper on " Contributions to the history of corrosion. Part II. — The 
corrosion of distilling condenser tubes," 61 ; description of distilling apparatus, 61 ; 
case of supposed priming in distilling evaporator, 62 ; suggestion as to the cause 
of corrosion, 63; experiments undertaken, 64; results of tests upon samples of 
water from two distilling plants, 66 ; conclusion, 67. Discussion : G. U. Bengough , 
70; Sir Gerard Muntz, 71; G. H. Bailey, 71; A. Philip, 73; A. K. Huntington, 
77. Covununications : H. J. Young, 77; A. Philip, 78. 

Physical properties of metals and alloys, 220. 

Physical properties of Monel metal, 2i8. 

Pirani, M. von, on specific heats at high temperatures, 232. 

Pitaval, R., on electro-metallurgy in 1912, 249. ■ 

Plastic deformation and annealing of alloys, 231. 

Plates, cold-rolled, tests of, 220. 

Platinum and allied metals, production of, in the United States, 252. 

Platinum and aluminium, alloys of, 213. 

Platinum, extraction and purification of, 211. 

Platinum, heated, disintegration of, 222. 

Platinum metal, new, 211. 

P'atinuni, thin films of, 233. 

Index 329 

Player, William, elected member, 19. 

Pollard, William Branch, elected member, 20. 

Portevin, A., on chemical method for the study of alloys, 210. 

Portevin, A., on plastic deformation and annealing of alloys, 231. 

Prandtl, W., on metallic vanadium, 212. 

President, see Huntington, A. K. 

Pressure, influence of temperature and, on volatilization of zinc and cadmium, 234. 

Price, W. B., book by, 256. 

Primrose, J. S. G., paper on " Practical heat treatment of Admiralty gun-metal," see 
Primrose, H. S. 

Primrose, H. S. , and J. S. G. Primrose, /a/^r on " Practical heat treatment of Admir- 
alty gun-metal," 158; introduction, 158; method of procedure, 159; quenching, 
160; annealing, 163 ; thermal analysis, 169 ; practical applications, 170 ; hardness, 
171; corrosion, 172 ; summary, 173. Discussion: H. C. H. Carpenter, 174; E. 
F. Law, 175; A. Philip, 175; L. Archbutt, 176; A. K. Huntington, 176. Com- 
munications: G. B. Brook, 177; G. Buttenshaw, 177; J. L. Haughton, 180; F. 
Johnson, 181; W. Rosenhain, 182 ; H. J. Young, 183; H. S. and J. S. G. Prim- 
rose, 183. 

Prost, E., book by, 256. 

Purification of platinum, 211. 

Puschin, N., on electrical conductivity of copper-arsenic alloys, 224. 

Pyrometers for foundry use, 247. 

Pyrometers, optical, calibration of, 241. 

Pyrometry, 241. 


Qu.'^TERNARY alloys of iron, nickel, manganese, and copper, 219. 
Quincke, G., on foam-structure of metals, 225. 


Radiation pyrometer, 244. 

Raeder, on electric smelting of nickel, 237. 

Raoult, F. , on properties of brown gold, 220. 

Rare metals, 211. 

Regelsberger, F. , on coating aluminium with other metals, 207. 

Rejto, A., elected member, 20. 

Report of Council, 3. 

Resistance pyrometer, 244. 

Resistances, granular chromium, 235. 

Rhead, E. L. , on metal filament lamps, 56, 60. 

Rhead, E. L., on microstructure of German silver, IK!. 

Rhead, E. L. , remarks by, 18. 

Richter, O., on specific heat of alloys, 232. 

Rider, Joseph Jackson, elected member, 20. 

Roberts, J. H. T. , on disintegration of heated platinum, 222. 

Robin, F., on long-focus microscope and the phenomena occurring on heating polished 

surfaces of metals, 228. 
Robinson, J., on thin films of platinum, 233. 
Roll of the Institute, 3. 
Rosambert, Charles, elected member, 20. 
Rose, T. K., on microstructure of German silver, 114, 
Rosemberg, P., book by, 254. 
Rosenhain, W. , on aluminium-zinc alloys, 214. 

330 Index 

Rosenhain, W. , on constitution of binary alloys, 155. 

Rosenhain, W., on corrosion of aluminium, 104. 

Rosenhain, W. , on heat treatment of Admiralty gun-metal, 182. 

Rosenhain, W. , on Heusler alloys, 227. 

Rosenhain, W. , on notched-bar impact tests, 240. 

Ross, A. D. , on Heusler alloys, 227. 

Ruff, O. , on carbides of manganese and nickel, 215. 

Russia, production of copper in, 252. 

s. . 

Saposhnikow, Alexis, elected member, 20. 

Sauveur, Albert, elected member, 20. 

Sborgi, U., on passivity of uranium, 231. 

Schacht, H., on electrolytic silver, 225. 

Schaeffer, J. A., book by, 25(;. 

Schleicher, A. P., on conductivity of alloys, 222. 

Schmidt, E. , on surface tension of amalgams, 233. 

Schoop, M. A., on production of metallic coatings, 209. 

Schulz, E. H., on structure of electro-deposited metals, 233. 

Schwann, R., on pyrometers for foundry use, 247. 

Selenium, alloys of bismuth and antimony with, 213. 

Seligman, R., on corrosion of aluminium, 89, 105. 

Senher, V., on volumetric estimation of zinc, 239. 

Servia, mineral production of, 251. 

Sherardized iron, corrosion of, 211. 

Shock tests of copper, 210. 

Siemens, Alexander, /fl/er on "Metal filament lamps, 42; glow lamps, 42; carbon 
filament lamps, 42 ; first metal filament lamp, 42 ; Nernst lamp, 43 ; introduction 
of the tantalum lamp, 43; tungsten filament lamp, 46; production of ductile 
tungsten, 47. Discussion: A. Siemens, 50; A. K. Huntington, 54; A. Phihp, 
56 ; W. H. Johnson, 56 ; G. A. Boeddicker, 56 ; E. L. Rhead, 56 ; J. P. Bedson, 
57; G.Hughes, 57; F. W. Willcox, 57; E. J. Bolton, 59; A. Siemens, 59. 
Communications : A. K. Huntington, 60; E. L. Rhead, 60; A. Siemens, 60. 

Sieverts, A., on solubility of sulphur dioxide in fused copper alloys, 231. 

Silicon in the cast state, 210. 

Silver and aluminium, alloy of, 219. 

Silver-cadmium, copper-zinc, and silver-zinc equilibria, 217- 

Silver, coating aluminium with, 207- 

Silver, electrolytic, 225. 

Silver precipitated by metals, forms of, 225. 

Silver salts, complex, electrolysis of, 225. 

Silver and zinc, alloys of, 214. 

Silver-zinc, copper-zinc, and silver-cadmium equilibria, 217. 

Sitwell, Norman Sisson Hurt, elected member, 20. 

Sjogren, Justus Frederik, elected member, 20. 

Slade, R. E. , on copper and its oxide, 207. 

Slade, R. E. , on electrolytic potential of tantalum, 225. 

Slade, R. E., on vacuum electric furnace, 235. 

Smelting, electric, 236. 

Solid and liquid metals, molecular weights of, 218. 

Solid solutions, undercooled, 219. 

Solids, specific heats of, at high temperatures, 232. 

Solubility of sulphur dioxide in fused copper alloys, 231. 

Sosman, R., on fixed points for high temperature measurements, 241. 

Specific heat of alloys, 232. 

Index 331 

Specific heats at high temperatures, 232. 

Spongy metals, 219. 

Spray process for metallic coatings, 209. 

Springer, J. F. , book by, 25G. 

Stanton, T. E. , on testing apparatus at the National Physical Laboratory, 241. 

Statistics, 249. 

Steel and iron, Cowper-Coles process of covering, with lead, 208. 

Stephan, M. , on electric smelting of copper and nickel, 236. 

Strain-disease in metal, 232. 

Structure of copper-aluminium alloys, 233. 

Structure of electrolytic copper, 233. 

Structure of electrolytic deposits, 233. 

Student members, list of, 307. 

Sulphur dioxide, solubility of, in fused copper alloys, 231. 

Surface tension of amalgams, 233. 

Suydam, V. A., on changes in electrical resistance of a metal on melting, 220. 


Take, E., on magnetic properties of Heusler alloys, 226. 

Tantalum, electrolytic potential of, 224. 

Temperature, casting, influence of, 247. 

Temperature, effect of, on internal friction of metals, 223. 

Temperature measurement, 243. 

Temperature measurements, high, fixed points for, 241. 

Temperature and pressure, influence of, on volatilization of zinc and cadmium, 234. 

Temperatures, high, etching alloys at, 218. 

Temperatures, high, specific heats at, 232. 

Tensile strength of copper-zinc alloys, 216. 

Tensile stress, mechanical hardening by means of, 230. 

Tensile tests on manganese bronze, 247. 

Test-bars for non-ferrous alloys, 248. 

Testing, 240. 

Testing apparatus at the National Physical Laboratory, 241. 

Tests of cold-rolled plates, 220. 

Tests, notched-bar impact, 240. 

Tests, oscillatory-torsion, on wires, 223. 

Tests, shock, of copper, 210. 

Tests, tensile, on manganese bronze, 247- 

Thermocouple, tungsten molybdenum, 245. 

Thermocouples, 243. 

Thwing, C. B., on temperature measurements, 243. 

Tiemann, Hugh Philip, elected member, 20. 

Tin and bismuth alloys, specific heat of, 232. 

Topographical Index to Members, 309. 

Toropoff, T. , on electrolytic silver, 225. 

Toropoff, T. , on forms of silver precipitated by metals, 225. 

Torsion tests, oscillatory, on wires, 223. 

Transvaal gold production, 252. 

Treasurer's Report, 13. 

Tubes, distilling condenser, corrosion of, (51. 

Tungsten-molybdenum thermocouple, 245. 

Tungsten, separation of arsenic from, 238. 

Turner, T. , Honorary Treasurer, report on accounts, 13. 

Turner, T. , on constitution of binary alloys, 154. 

332 Index 

Turner, T. , on effect of heating brass in hydrogen, 217. 
Turner, T. , on corrosion of aluminium, 94. 
Turner, T. , on microstructure of German silver, 116. 
Turner, T. , on zinc and cadmium volatilization, 234. 
Turner, T., reference to the death of Sir William White by, 1. 
Turner, T., remarks by, 16, 18, 21, 24. 
Turner, T. , speech by, 194. 
Twin crystals and hardness, 233. 


United States, production of gold in, 250. 

United States, production of metals in, 252. 

United States, production of platinum and allied metals in, 252. 

Uranium, passivity of, 231. 

Vacuum electric furnace, 235. 

Vallauri, G. , on hysteresis of magnetic substances, 227. 

Vanadium and aluminium, alloys of, 215. 

Vanadium, metallic, 212. 

Volatilization of zinc and cadmium — Influence of temperature and pressure, 234. 

Votes of thanks, 15, 17, 21, 24. 


Wall, C. H., on annealing muffles, 198. 

Waser, B. , on structure of electro-deposited metals, 233. 

Wehnelt, A., on latent heat of evaporation of metals, 227. 

Weidig, M., book by, 256. 

Wemtraub, E. , on boronized copper, 207. 

Weimarn, P. P. von, on conductivity and the dispersoid theory, 221. 

Weiss, Eugen V., elected member, 20. 

Wet chemical method of coating aluminium, 207. 

White, B. S., book by, 256. 

White, Sir William Henry, obituary notice of, 200. 

White, Sir William, reference to death of, 1, 187. 

Whiteley, W. , on alloys of silver and zinc, 214. 

Willco.x, F. W. , on metal filament lamps, .57. 

Wires, oscillatory torsion tests on, 223. 

Wires, stretched and twisted, electrical resistance of, 224. 

Wolff, E. B., on strain-disease in metals, 232. 

Wood, R. A., on briquetting turnings and borings, 246. 

Wren, H., book by, 256. 

Wright, W., on Hall effect in antimony, 226. 


Young, H. J., on corrosion of aluminium, 106. 

Young, H. J., on corrosion of distilling condenser tubes, 77. 

Young, H. J., on heat treatment of Admiralty gun-metal, 183. 

Index 333 

z. • 

Zinc and aluminium, alloys of, 214. 

Zinc and cadmium volatilization — Influence of temperature and pressure, 234. 

Zinc, coating aluminium with, 207. 

Zinc and copper, alloys of, 216. 

Zinc, copper, and nickel, alloys of, 213. 

Zinc furnaces, lead filter for, 247. 

Zinc industry, German, 250. 

Zinc production at Broken Hill, 252. 

Zinc and silver, alloys of, 214. 

Zinc-smelting, electric, 237. 

Zinc, volumetric estimation of, 239. 

Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson &= Co. 
Edinburgh 6^ London 

Form A. 

{Membership Application.) 


Founded 1908. 

Incorporated 1910. 

To the Secretary, 

I, the undersigned , being 

of the required age and desirous of becoming a Member of 

the Institute of Metals, agree that I will be governed by the regulations 
of the Association as they are now formed, or as they may be hereafter 
altered, and that I will advance the interests of the Association as far as 
may be in my power; and we, the undersigned, from our personal know- 
ledge, do hereby recommend him for election. 

Name in full 


Business or Profession. 


Dated this. 

.day of , 191 . 

of three 

The Council, having considered the above recom- j 
mendation, present Mr to be Balloted for To be filled up 

^ by the 

as a Member of the Institute of Metals. 

Caxton House, 

We.stminster, S.W., 


Dated this day of. 191 

[For Qualifications of Members, see Section 1, other side. 
(// would be a conve?iience if the Candidate's Card were sent with this form.) 




Rule 4. — Members of the Association shall be either Honorary Members, Fellows, Ordinary 
Members, or Student Members. 

Rule 5. — Ordinary Alembers shall be more than twenty-three years of age, and shall be 
persons occupying responsible positions. They shall be : — 

either (a) persons engaged in the manufacture, working, or use of non-ferrous metals 
and alloys ; 

or (b) persons of scientific, technical, or literary attainments connected with or interested 
in the metal trades or with the application of non-ferrous metals and alloys. 

Student Members shall be more than seventeen years of age, and shall not remain Student 
Members of the Association after they are twenty-five years of age, and shall be : — 
either (a) Students of Metallurgy ; 

or (iJ) pupils or assistants of persons qualified for ordinary membership whether such 
persons are actually members of the Association or not. 

Student Members shall not be eligible for election on the Council nor entitled to vote at the 
Meetings of the Association. 


Rule 6. — Applications for membership shall be in writing in the form marked "A," and such 
application must be signed by the applicant and not less than three members of the Association. 

Rule 7. — Such applications for membership as Ordinary Members or Student Members as are 
approved by the Council shall be inserted in voting lists. These voting lists will constitute the 
ballot papers, and will specify the name, occupation, address, and proposers of each candidate. 
They shall be forwarded to the members for return to the Secretary at a fi.xed date, and four- 
fifths of the votes recorded shall be necessary for the election of any person. 

Every such election shall be subject to the payment by the applicant of his entrance fee and 
first annual subscription, and he shall not become a member of the Association nor be entered 
on the Register of Members until such sums are actually received from him. In the event of his 
failing to pay such sums within the time specified in the notification to him of his election, his 
election shall be void. 

Rule 8. — Upon election under the preceding Article the Secretary shall forward to the appli- 
cant so elected notice thereof in writing in the form marked " B." 

Rule 9. — In the case of non-election, no mention thereof shall be made in the minutes. 


Rule 28. — The subscription of each Ordinary Member shall be two guineas per annum, and 
of each Student Member one guinea per annum. Ordinary Members shall pay an entrance fee 
of two guineas each, and Students an entrance fee of one guinea each. 

Rule 29. — Subscriptions shall be payable in advance on July 1st in each year, save in the case 
of Ordinary Members and Student Members elected under Clauses 6 and 7 hereof, whose entrance 
fee and annual subscription shall become payable in accordance with the notification to them of 
their election. Every subscription shall cover the period down to the 30th of June next following, 
and no longer. 

Rule 30. — Subject to the provisions of Clause 7 hereof, any member whose subscription shall 
be six months in arrear, shall forfeit temporarily all the privileges of the Association. Due notice 
on the form following marked " C" shall be given to such member, and if such subscription 
remains unpaid upon the date specified for payment in this notice, the Council may remove such 
member from the Register of Members of the Association, and thereupon any member whose 
name is so removed shall cease to be a member thereof, but shall nevertheless remain liable to 
the Association for such arrears. 

w o//^ 

TS Institute of Metals 

200 Journal